Complex "Cube" was a must to ensure the defeat of air targets that fly at altitudes ranging from 100 m to 5 thousand. m at speeds of 420 to 600 m / s at distances of up to 20,000 m With all this opportunity to hit a target with one missile should be more than 0.7.
Head developer of the complex — DB-15 GKAT (Municipal Committee of aircraft equipment). Until today, the bureau a branch of the main developer of airborne radars — NII-17 GKAT, located in Zhukovsky near Flight Test Institute. Soon OKB-15 was transferred to the SERC. Its name was changed a couple of times and, eventually, transformed into NIIP MRTP (Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Ministry electronic industry).
The main designer of the complex has been appointed head of the OKB-15 VV Tikhomirov, in the past — the creator of the first Russian airborne radar "Gneiss-2" and some other stations. In addition OKB-15 created a self-propelled reconnaissance and targeting (under control of head designer of installation — Rastova AA) and semi-active radar homing missiles (under control — Vekhova YN, since 1960 — IG Hagopian ).
Self-propelled launcher was developed under the control of head designer Yaskina AI SKB-203 in the Sverdlovsk Economic Council, previously engaged in the development of the technical units of missile parts manufacturing equipment. Then SKB was converted into GosKB compressor engineering MAP (now NPP "Start").
Creation crawler chassis for combat means SAM engaged in design office Mytischinskogo machine factory Metropolitan Regional Economic Council. Later received the name of OKB-40 of the Ministry of Transport Engineering. Now — Design Bureau, part of the production association "Metrovagonmash." Chief designer gear ASTROV NA, before the Second World War developed a light tank, and later designed, priemuschestvenno, self-propelled artillery and armored personnel carriers.
The development of anti-aircraft guided missiles for air defense system "Cube" design bureau commissioned the plant number 134 GKAT, which initially specialized in the development of aviation bomb and small arms. By the time of the assignment design team has already managed to gain experience during the development of missiles K-7 air-to-air. Then the organization was transformed into GosMKB "Vympel" MAP. Development of missile complex "Cube" began running Toropova II
It was planned that the work output of the complex will provide anti-aircraft missile system "Cube" in the II quarter of 1961 to the joint tests. For various reasons, work was delayed and ended a five-year delay, behind, so Makarov, two years of work on the SAMs "Circle", "starters" effectively immediately. Evidence of irony creation story SAM "Cube" was the removal of the most difficult moment of the posts of head designer of the complex as a whole and the head designer rocket, part of its composition.
The main causes of problems with the creation of the complex is the novelty and complexity of the development of those taken. solutions.
For the weapons of war anti-aircraft missile system "Cube", in contrast to the SAM "Circle", used a lighter crawlers, like the application of automatic control system for anti-aircraft "Shilka". With all of this radio equipment installed on a single "A self-driving" instead of 2-chassis, as in "Circle". Self-propelled launcher "self-propelled B" — was carrying three missiles, not two as in "Circle".
In the development of anti-aircraft missiles to the complex and solve very difficult puzzles. To operate the supersonic ramjet engine was used not liquid, but a solid fuel. It was not possible to adjust the flow of fuel in accordance with the height and speed of the missile. Also rocket had separated accelerators — a charge starting motor was located in the post-combustion chamber ramjet engine. In addition for the first time anti-aircraft missile complex mobile radio equipment the team changed the Doppler semi-active radar homing.
All these difficulties have affected first flight tests of missiles. On Donguzskaya ground at the end of 1959 put the first launcher that gave an opportunity to start throwing test anti-aircraft guided missiles. But by July of next year, failed to carry out successful missile launches from running marching step. With all of this on the bench tests revealed three burnout chamber. For the analysis of the circumstances of the failure lured one of the leading research organization GKAT — SRI-2. SRI-2 recommended rid of bulky feathers, which were dropped after the passage of the starting portion of the flight.
During the full-scale test bench seeker was found missing drive power GMN. Also, have caused poor performance fairing head, which caused significant refractive index signal, synchronized with the next occurrence of interference, leading to instability of the loop stabilization. These shortcomings were common to many Russian missile with radar homing first generation. The designers decided to switch to sitalovy fairing. But, apart from these relatively "thin" events during the trials faced with the destruction of the flight fairing. The destruction caused aeroelastic design variations.
Another significant shortcoming that has been identified in the early stages of testing anti-aircraft guided missiles, was the poor construction vozduhopoglotiteley. To rotary wings adversely impacted system shocks from the front edge of the vozduhopoglotiteley. With all of this created a huge aerodynamic moments that control machines could not overcome — the handlebars just wedged in the last position. During wind tunnel tests of full-scale models, it was found appropriate design solution — extended air intake, moving forward for 200 mm front edge of the diffuser.
First, 1960. apart from the basic variant of combat vehicles SAMs on tracked chassis design office Mytischinskogo have studied plant and other self-propelled gun
s — Case Four-wheeled floating chassis "560" developed by the same company and is used for SAM "Circle" family chassis SU-100P.
Tests in 1961 also had poor results. Reliable operation of the GOS was not reached, starts on the reference line of motion were not made, there was no reliable information on the amount of fuel consumption per second. Also developed was to develop a reliable thermal barrier coatings applied to the inner surface of the housing afterburner made of titanium alloy. The cell was exposed to erosive action containing oxides of magnesium and aluminum products of combustion gas generator sustainer motor. Titan was replaced in the coming steel.
After that followed "draw conclusions." Toropova II in August 1961 changed Liapin AL, Vladimir Tikhomirov place Three times winner of the Stalin Prize in January 1962 took Figurovsky YN But time work of designers who have caused those. view of the complex, gave a fair assessment. Russian newspaper after 10 years with the ecstasy of the article reprinted from the "Paris Match", which characterizes the efficiency of the rocket designed Toropov the words "The Syrians ever the inventor of these missiles will put a monument …". Now the former OKB-15 was named after Vladimir Tikhomirov
Acceleration to speed up the development of the pioneers of the work has not led. Of the 83 running to the beginning of 1963, only 11 were equipped with missiles homing. With all of this fortune ended only 3 starts. Missiles were tested only with the experimental heads — the supply of staff had not yet begun. Reliability seeker was such that after 13 failed start with failures GOS in September 1963 flight tests had to break off. Nebyli inconclusive tests and sustainer engine anti-aircraft guided missiles.
Missile launches in 1964 were carried out in a more or less normal execution, but terrestrial means anti-aircraft missile system had not yet been equipped with communications equipment and alignment of mutual location. The first successful launch of a missile, equipped warhead, conducted in the middle of April. Managed to shoot down a target — hovering at an average altitude of IL-28. Subsequent runs were, in the main, successful, and pointing accuracy just fascinated participants test data.
On Donguzskaya range (Head Finogenov MI) in the period from January 1965 to June 1966 under the control of the commission, headed by Karandeev NA, tests conducted joint air defense system. Complex on arms-Defense Forces Ground Forces was adopted by the CC of the CPSU and the USSR Council of 23.01.1967.
The main combat means SAM "Cube" was Surnov 1S91 (self-propelled unit of intelligence and targeting) and SPU 2P25 (self-propelled launcher) with missiles 3M9.
The structure consisted of two Surnov 1S91 radar — radar detection of air targets and target acquisition (1S11), and radar target tracking and illumination 1S31, and the means for identification purposes, topographic binding, mutual orientation, navigation, television-optical sight, radiotelekodovuyu connection with launchers, self-contained power supply unit (turbine generator), a system of leveling and lifting the antenna. Surnov equipment mounted on the chassis of GM-568.
Radar antenna housed in two tiers — the top of the antenna for the station 1S31, bottom — 1S11. Rotation in azimuth independent. To reduce the height of self-propelled unit on the march base antenna devices cylindrical cleaned the inside of the machine frame, and radar antenna device turns down 1S31, and located behind the radar antenna 1S11.
Based on the eagerness to provide the desired range with a limited energy supply and taking into account the dimensions and weight restrictions on the antenna post for 1S11 mode and target tracking in 1S31 scheme was coherent pulse radar. But, while designating targets for the sustainable operation of homing when flying at low altitude in the criteria massive reflections from the underlying surface have implemented a continuous wave mode.
The station 1S11 — coherent pulsed radar radial angle (speed — 15 rev / min) in the centimeter range having two spaced-independent operating at carrier frequencies of waveguide transceiver channel transmitters are installed in the focal plane of one antenna dish. Detection and identification of the target, target designation and tracking station illumination occurred when the target was at a range of 3-70 km and at altitudes of 30-7000 meters. With all of this radiation pulse power per channel of 600 kW, the receiver sensitivity of — 10-13 W, the azimuth beam width — 1 °, and the total field of view in elevation of — 20 °. In 1S11 station to provide noise immunity provides:
— MTI system (selection of moving targets) and oppression of non-synchronous impulse noise;
— manual gain control of receiving channels;
— frequency tuning transmitters;
— modulation of the pulse repetition frequency.
In 1S31 The station also included two channels with the emitter mounted in the focal plane of a single parabolic reflector antenna — target illumination and target tracking. Via escort pulse power station was 270 kW, the receiver sensitivity — 10-13 W, beam width of about 1 degree. MSE (mean square error) target tracking in range was about 10 m, and the angular coordinates — 0.5 PDE The station could capture plane "Phantom 2" on the automatic tracking at a distance of 50,000 m with a probability of 0.9. Protection from reflections from the ground and carried out system clutter MTI has programmed change the pulse repetition frequency. Anti-jamming implements the method of monopulse direction-finding purposes, an overhaul of the operating frequency and display system interference. In case station 1S31 was suppressed noise, the goal may have been to accompany the angular coordinates derived from the television optical sight and range information obtained from radar 1S11. At the station were provided special measures to ensure sustainable maintenance of low-flying targets. The transmitter target illumination (also radiation homing missiles reference signal) generated a continuous oscillation, constant reliability homing missiles.
Weight Surnov with combat crew (4 people) was 20,300 kg.
At SPU 2P25, which served as the base chassis GM-578 were installed carriage with electronic power servo drives and 3 guides missiles, computing devices, equipment telecode communication, navigation, topographic anchor launch check anti-aircraft guided missiles, stand-alone gas turbine generator . E-docking SPU and rockets carried out using 2-terminal missiles, cut special rods first movement of missiles on rail support. Drive carriage performed prelaunch aiming missiles in the direction of pre-emption meeting point missiles and targets. Drive to work on the data from Surnov that came to SPU on radiotelekodovoy band communications.
In the transport position of anti-aircraft missiles stationed along the self-propelled launchers tail forward.
Mass of the Socialist Party, 3 missiles and combat crew (3 people) was 19,500 kg.
3M9 SAM anti-aircraft missile complex "Cube" in comparison with the 3M8 missile air defense sys
tem "Circle" are more luxurious shape.
SAM 3M9, like a rocket complex "Circle" is made in a "rotating wing". But, in contrast to 3M8, by anti-aircraft guided missile 3M9 used to control the rudders on the stabilizer. As a result, the implementation of such schemes have been reduced in size rotary wing, reduced the required power control cars and used a lighter air driven hydraulic replaced.
The missile was equipped with semi-active radar homing 1SB4, exciting goal from the start, to accompany her on the Doppler frequency in accordance with the rate of convergence of the rocket and goals, generates control signals for aiming anti-aircraft guided missiles at the target. Seeker provided rejection of the direct signal from the transmitter illumination Surnov and narrowband filtering reflected from the target, the signal from the background noise of the transmitter, the underlying surface, and in fact the GOS. To protect the homing of intentional interference was also used hidden frequency of target search and homing ability to interfere in the amplitude mode.
Seeker was located in front of the SAM, with all this, the diameter of the antenna was approximately the size of the midsection of the incoming missile. For homing warhead is located, followed by the autopilot equipment and engine.
As previously mentioned, the rocket was used combined propulsion system. In front of the camera was placed rocket gas generator and a charge of second motor (march) 9D16K stage. Fuel consumption in accordance with the criteria of the flight to regulate solid-gas generator is unrealistic, because to choose the form of a charge to use conditional typical line of movement, which in those years, a number of developers over the possible introduction of a combat missile. The nominal duration of the — a little more than 20 seconds, the weight of the fuel charge — about 67 kg and the length 760 mm. The composition of the fuel LK-6TM developed SRI-862, was characterized by a huge surplus in the ratio of fuel to oxidizer. The products of combustion charge acted in a secondary combustion chamber, in which the remains of the fuel burned in the flow of incoming air through four vozduhopoglotitelya. Input devices vozduhopoglotiteley that are designed for supersonic flight, equipped with central bodies, conical shape. Ducts vozduhopoglotiteley in afterburner on the starting leg of the flight (to the inclusion of the sustainer motor) locked fiberglass covers.
In the post-combustion chamber was set solid charge starting stage — a sword, which has reinforced ends (length 1700 mm, a diameter of 290 mm, the diameter of the cylindrical bore 54 mm) made of combustible ballistite VIC-2 (weight 172 kg). Since the gas-dynamic conditions of the engine on the hard fuel and boost-phase ramjet engine midcourse achieved varying nozzle geometry afterburner, after the start of the stage (from 3 to 6 sec.) Provides for the shooting of the interior of the nozzle with a fiberglass grating which delayed the start-up charge.
It is worth noting that it is in 3M9 similar design for the first time in the world brought to production and putting into service. In the coming, especially after the Israeli abduction of several organized 3M9 during the war in the Middle East, the Russian anti-aircraft guided rocket served as the layout for a number of anti-zabugornyh and anti-aircraft missiles.
The introduction of a ramjet provided 3M9 maintaining a high speed throughout the trajectory of flight, contributing to superior maneuverability. In carrying out serial control and training launches of missiles 3M9 systematically achieved a direct hit, which is quite rare with other, larger, anti-aircraft missiles.
Undermining the 57-pound high-explosive warhead 3N12 (development of SRI-24) was carried out by a team-channel radio controlled fuses autodyne cw 3E27 (development of SRI-571).
Missile provides target engagement, maneuvering with an overload of up to 8 units, but with all this going on reducing the likelihood of damage such purposes depending on various criteria to 0,2-0,55. At the same time, the possibility of defeat was not maneuvering targets 0,4-0,75.
Missile length is 5800 m, diameter 330 mm. For the transport of collected SAMs in container 9YA266 left and right console stabilizers folded towards each other.
For the development of anti-aircraft missile system, many of its founders were honored large municipal awards. Lenin Prize was awarded Rastova AA, Grishin, VK, Akopian IG, Lyapin AL, Municipal Prize of the USSR — Matyashevu VV, Valaevu GN, Titov VV etc.
Anti-aircraft missile regiment, having armed with anti-aircraft missile system "Cube", consisted of a team Fri, 5 anti-aircraft batteries, battery technology and battery management. Any missile battery consisted of a self-propelled guided exploration and 1S91, 4 self-propelled launchers 2P25 with 3 anti-aircraft guided missiles at each 3M9, 2-transport-charging machines 2T7 (ZiL-157). If need be, could do without the help of other military tasks. With centralized management of data targeting and battle management command to the battery came from the command Fri Regiment (from the cab command and control (BMF) of the circuit complex command and control "Crab" (K-1) to detect radiolakatsionnoy station). On the battery, this information was taken cabin for target designation (PCC) of K-1, then transferred to Surnov battery. Techno battery regiment consisted of transport vehicles 9T22, measuring stations 2V7, control and test mobile stations 2B8, hand pallet truck 9T14, repair of machines and other equipment.
In accordance with advice from the State Commission in 1967 launched the first modernization of air defense missile system "Cube". The resulting improvements have allowed to increase the combat capabilities SAM:
— increment the affected area;
— provided discontinuous modes of radar Surnov to protect against anti-radar missiles, "Shrike";
— increased security seeker from spoofing;
— improved reliability characteristics of complex weapon systems;
— reduced dead time set for about 5 seconds.
In 1972, the modernized complex was tested on the Emba testing ground running commission headed by the chief test site Kirichenko VD In January 1973, the SAM under the symbol "Cube-M1" was adopted.
Since 1970, conducted for the establishment of the Navy anti-aircraft complex M-22, which was used in rocket family 3M9. But after 1972 this missile system has been developed under the 9M38 missile complex "Buk", replacing &
Subsequent modernization "Cuba" was conducted from 1974 to 1976. In the end, still managed to enhance the combat ability of anti-aircraft missile system:
— extended the zone of destruction;
— provided an opportunity to fire vdogon the target at a speed of up to 300 m / s, and motionless targets at altitudes above one thousand meters;
— the average speed of the anti-aircraft guided missiles to increment up to 700 m / s;
— ensured the defeat of aircraft to maneuver with an overload of up to 8 units;
— improved noise immunity seeker;
— the possibility of defeat maneuvering targets increment of 10-15%;
— increment reliability of ground combat weapons complex and improved driving characteristics.
First, in 1976 at Emba range (Head Vashenko BI) tests were joint air defense missile system under the control of the commission headed by Kuprevich OV By the end of the year under the SAM code "Kub-M3" adopted it.
In recent years, the aerospace exhibition represents a further modification anti-aircraft guided missile — target 3M20M3, converted from battle SAMs. 3M20M3 simulates air targets with RCS 0,7-5 m2, soaring to a height of seven thousand meters on the highway to 20 km.
Serial production of weapons of war SAM "Cube" all modifications organized by:
— Ulyanovsk Mechanical Plant MCI (Ministry of Radio Industry) — self-propelled exploration and guidance;
— Sverdlovsk engineering plant them. Kalinin — propelled launchers;
— Dolgoprudnenskoye engineering plant — anti-aircraft missiles.
The main properties of anti-aircraft missile systems such as "Cube":
Name — "Cube" / "Kub-M1" / "Cube-M3" / "Kub-M4";
Kill zone range — 6-8 .. 22 km/4..23 km/4..25 km / 4 .. 24 ** km;
Affected area height — 0.1 .. 7 (12 *) km / 0.03 .. 8 (12 *) km / 0.02 .. 8 (12 *) km / 0.03 .. 14 ** km;
The affected area of the parameter — up to 15 km / h to 15 km / h to 18 km / up to 18 km;
The possibility of defeat a fighter missiles — 0.7 / 0.8 .. 0.95 / 0.95 .. 0.8 / 0.8 .. 0.9;
The possibility of destruction of one helicopter missiles — … / … / … / 0.3 .. 0.6;
The possibility of destruction of one cruise missile missiles — … / … / … / .. 0.25 0.5;
The highest rate of the targeted objectives — 600 m / s
Response time — 26 .. 28 ** s/22..24 s/22..24 C/24 sec;
The flight speed of anti-aircraft guided missiles — 600 m/s/600 m/s/700 m/s/700 ** m / s;
Mass of the rocket — 630 kg;
Warhead weight — 57 kg;
Duct on goal — 1/1/1/2;
Duct by SAM — 2 .. 3 (up to 3 "Cube-M4");
Deployment time (clotting) — 5 minutes;
The number of anti-aircraft missiles on combat vehicle — 3;
Year adopting — 1967 g./1973 g./1976 g./1978 city
* The introduction of K-1 "Crab"
SAM ** with 3M9M3. When using missiles 9M38 properties are similar to SAM "Buk"
During the mass production of air defense systems of the family "Cube" in the period from 1967 to 1983 were released about 500 complexes, a few 10 s of thousands of homing. During the tests and exercises carried out over four thousand rocket launches.
Anti-aircraft missile system "Cube" on foreign channels under the code "Square" was delivered in the sun 25 countries (Algeria, Angola, Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, Ethiopia, Guinea, Hungary, India, Kuwait, Libya, Mozambique, Poland, Romania, Yemen, Syria, Tanzania, Vietnam, Somalia, Yugoslavia, etc.).
Complex "Cube" which is used in virtually all Middle Eastern military conflicts. Particularly impressive was the introduction of missile complex 6-24 October 1973, when the 95th-guided missiles complexes "Square", disk imaging on the Syrian side, was shot down 64 Israeli aircraft. Exceptional efficiency SAM "Square" was determined following reasons:
— the highest noise immunity complexes with semi-active homing;
— lack of funds from the Israeli side of the RAP (electronic countermeasures) operating in the desired frequency spectrum — the equipment supplied by the United States, was designed to combat the radio command ZRKS C-125i-75, who worked at a longish waves;
— the highest chance of hitting the target maneuvering anti-aircraft guided missile with a ram engine.
Israeli aircraft, without having those. means of oppression complexes "Square", was obliged to use a very risky tactics. Repeated entry into the zone and start the next snap out of it becoming a prerequisite frisky complex flow of ammunition, then destroyed by means of the forthcoming disarmed missile system. In addition, the approach was used fighter-bomber at an altitude close to actual ceiling and the upcoming dive into the hopper of a "dead zone" of the anti-aircraft complex.
Maximum efficiency of a "square" proved to be true and 8-30 May 1974, when eight guided missiles have killed up to 6 aircraft.
Also, SAM "Square" was used in 1981-1982, during the fighting in Lebanon, in conflicts between Egypt and Libya, on the Algerian-Moroccan border in 1986, in reflection of U.S. air raids on Libya in 1986-1987 in Chad in 1999 in Yugoslavia.
Hitherto AA missile system "Square" in almost all countries of the world is in service. Combat effectiveness of the system can be increased without significant design improvements by using it in parts of the complex, "Beech" — self-propelled units firing missiles 3M38 and 9A38, which was done in "Kub-M4", developed in 1978