Russian Navy in zabugornyh publications devoted to the rare articles (on this, see the magazine "National Defense» № 4/2011). Because the emergence in the March issue this year in the leading South American naval journal Proceedings wide article about naval strategy of the Russian Federation and shipbuilding in this country could not direct attention to themselves. Please find this publication.
Apparently, the military shipbuilding in Russia is once again on the rise. But we should not forget that the actions of the Navy of the Russian Federation in the XXI century is inextricably linked with similar missions of the Soviet Navy in the XX century.
In the circle of those involved in the naval strategy, equally accustomed to reports of enhancing the power of the Chinese Navy. But the last Chief of Naval Operations U.S. Navy Adm. Gary Roughead almost stunned members of the military subcommittee Senate Appropriations Committee, said in March 2011 that "the Russian Navy on the rise again." Some experts at already drew attention to the fact that our homeland is developing its own capacity, so once again be a danger to the various theaters of the naval forces of the West, especially taking into account the role of the Black Sea Fleet of the Russian Federation during the war between Russia and Georgia in 2008 But a more profound analysis of the latest events can make a subsequent paradoxical conclusion: the slumbering bear wakes up, but now he is in a different, less warlike and brutal form. From the perspective of American naval strategists, Navy is developing the potential of the Russian Federation, priemuschestvenno in the direction outlined in the American "Joint Strategy naval power in the XXI century" (see magazines "National Defense» № 8/2008 and number 11 / 2011 — Approx. edition).
At the current time, the number of petty officers of the U.S. Navy are studying naval strategy and mosh Russian Navy. The collapse of Russian Union caused bolshennye configuration in the global ratio of naval capabilities. The power of Russian Navy — U.S. Navy head opponent in 1980. — Decreased significantly after the fall of the Berlin wall. According to most professionals, Navy Russian Federation was in 2007, about one-quarter of the maximum level of Russian Navy. The potential of the submarine fleet, which at one time was the most precious component of Moscow in the Armed Forces of the USSR fell even more sharply — from about 400 submarines in 1985 to 65 in 2007, while on a presumptive estimated that less than half of them were on full alert. The number of sailors on the actual military service fell almost half a million in 1985 to 146 thousand, many of which — conscripts. A dramatic shift of of a centrally planned economy, which had a military orientation, the test to create a capitalist economy carried convulsive jerks. The government could not, and maybe not lusted after, to direct appropriate investment for the development of the Navy. And this is reflected in the results.
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But starting in 2008, began to receive signals about the update of the Russian Navy. Screaming title in metropolitan newspapers reported on plans to build a nuclear aircraft carrier battle groups, and the ships of the Russian Navy resumed its operations in various theaters, where they were out for a generation. Thus, the two warships — an aircraft carrier "Admiral Kuznetsov" and the nuclear cruiser "Peter the Great" — performed demonstrative exercises in the Mediterranean and the Caribbean. Naval aviation of the Russian Federation began to conduct regular flights in the Norwegian Sea and in the region of Alaska. These acts of Moscow witnessed the return of the Russian Navy to his own former leading role. What after all has changed?
General government strategy changes dramatically in the rarest of cases. But in 2000, not so long ago, President-elect Vladimir Putin gave to understand that in the XXI century, our homeland again become a global favorite. In the documents of the strategic plan, published soon after his election as president, asserted forcefully the idea of a special international position of Russia. But only words and a definition of their status were insufficient for improvement and modernization of the Armed Forces. The economy of the Russian Federation, based on mineral resources, as previously lagged behind the West, and the transformation of the Armed Forces, which hoped for, were not effective due to the allocation of budget funds insignificant.
After the economic expert Dmitry Medvedev became president in 2008, and Putin — Prime Minister, the world saw a change in the official strategic doctrine, which is characterized by a narrower approach and changes in the definition of values in the economical sphere. Although our homeland as previously sought to demonstrate its role of "world leader" of its brand-new strategic doctrine of "national security strategy until 2020," reflects a mature awareness of all parts of the state power. Namely, in accordance with the latest military strategy the potential is largely seen as a means of Merit new targets: the real well-being and economic prosperity. Emphasis was placed on the following points that deserve attention:
• Our homeland will continue to develop in the direction of globalization, and in connection with the international system; Our homeland is planning to enter into the top 5 countries in the world by GDP;
• the main efforts in international policy will focus on energy resources, particularly in the Arctic Ocean and the Caspian Sea;
• Two areas of higher public value of — is to increase the competitiveness of the economy and restore the status of a world power;
• national defense will be based on the principle of reasonable sufficiency and public diplomacy, it is aimed at maintaining peace, including in the framework of international military cooperation;
• terrorist organizations as before pose a danger to national security.
The main efforts in the strategy of national security of the Russian Federation, focusing on such key issues as the financial policy and the state of life, and on the failure of the zeal to imitate South American principle of "dollar for dollar" (inefficient implementation of money on defense) show competitive, but not confrontational intentions Russia. In accordance with the strategy of our own homeland no longer portrays himself as a captive of the Eurasian continent, but assigns special importance of the Arctic, the Caspian Basin and the Far East zone (Pacific), the value of which increases in world trade and mutual relations. Moscow willingly shows eagerness to voluntarily participate in international peacekeeping operations globally and actively pursue extremist terrorist groups.
ECONOMY prevails over Militancy
While "The military doctrine of the Russian Federation" — the Russian equivalent of our national military strategy — was, as you know, the rigid band conductor, for defense, it nedavneshne
e edition (February 2010) was, of course, the least confrontational. The main tasks of the Armed Forces in this edition include the following provisions: multilateral cooperation with partner countries, the fight against piracy, providing support economic activities of the Russian Federation, a role in international peacekeeping and the fight against international terrorism.
For the past 10 years has been much more difficult to define a naval strategy of, than its more general and far-reaching national security policy. In practice, since 2001, our home was not officially vseobyatnoy and naval strategy. Given the historically dependent and subordinate status of the Navy in the Ministry of Defence we should direct more attention to the instructions of the Ministry and the official statements and press releases, in order to realize the offensive nature of modern naval strategy of.
Back in 2004 in the program of the Ministry of Defense for the development of the Navy focused on improving the defensive abilities in the 500-mile territorial zone instead of building the high seas. The document "The National Marine Policy in Russia", published in 2010, concerns the question of naval strategy, since the focus is on the problem of the release of the funds spent on the potential of the area in the ocean, in the interests of Russian economy. It points to the role of the Navy in the implementation of the national strategy, but only after a long full consideration of the issues of navigation, fishing, mining of minerals and scientific activities. Together with the fact that the trivial role of the Navy includes personalization strategy of deterrence and protection of sovereignty, more exhaustively discussed and peacekeeping tasks, the use of mineral resources, ensuring freedom of navigation and show the flag.
In the section on regional values of the Navy explains that the most important are the theaters of military operations in the Arctic Ocean and the Pacific region, and then specifically in the Caspian Sea. The document focuses on ensuring access to the exclusive economic zone and continental shelf in the Arctic Ocean, also on providing complete control over the North Sea by the Arctic Ocean, which each year is free of ice for a longer period. Not surprisingly, that the maintenance of advantages in the development and deployment of nuclear icebreakers as before is a priority. When considering the Pacific region the focus is also given to the economic activities associated with the implementation of sea-based assets, and more than rich mineral production. This, in turn, calls for the development of coastal and port infrastructure in the Kuril Islands, which are disputed with Japan.
The priority task in the Caspian region can be expressed in one word: oil. As for the state maritime strategy, the main interests of the Russian Federation are the economic issues: extraction of mineral resources, marine transportation, and protection of pipelines.
For strategic doctrine relating to the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, are characterized by two themes. In 1-x, in all types of aircraft and arms are made reforms associated with a decrease in the number of personnel and increased professionalism. A more significant reduction is foreseen for those arms, which normally does not meet the objectives of the general strategy of. In-2, the economic interests of the Russian Federation require additional military forces to maintain security and increase activity in this area. These statements assign its proper form of thought in Russia for its Navy.
FROM "irreversible decomposition" to the accelerated construction
The command of the Russian Navy had witnessed the deterioration of the fleet after the death of Admiral Sergei Gorshkov in 1988 with the advent of the era of Putin's administration in 2000, there were arguments (only the discussion) about how our home is going to restore the old naval power. Then there was some movement back. In 1-x, political leaders decided that the capital of the Russian Federation on the development of infrastructure, congestion to the beginning of the XXI century will not be used for the modernization of the Armed Forces. In addition, the global economic downturn led to a sharp drop in oil prices — the source, provides a huge portion of the wealth of. Western naval experts at Russian Navy was named as a "fleet, doomed to destruction," referring to being published in Moscow "Independent Military Review", which looked at the state of the military shipbuilding in Russia as "a situation of irreversible collapse."
But soon there were more life-affirming message. In 1-x, the new Defense Minister Anatoly Serdyukov, known earlier mission, in the main, as a commercial expert, claimed to carry out a comprehensive reform of the Armed Forces. This applied to the exclusion of obsolete ships, also reduce a significant part of the officer corps. In addition, were consolidated Russian shipbuilding companies in order to lower their excess amount and increase the efficiency of the surviving shipyards. In the end, the administration Medvedev announced enhanced growth programmke finansovlozheny the construction of the Armed Forces and has allocated 25% of these finansovlozheny Navy. This investment significantly exceeded finansovlozheniya directed the Army and Navy during the entire preceding period equal to the life of a generation. Such a plan is completely close to reality, because oil prices have gained new record levels. Our homeland — the largest world exporter of oil, natural gas and many precious of minerals — will be the winner in the criteria, when, as predicted by economic analysts to continue the inexorable rise in the price of raw materials harvested.
Optimized RF shipbuilding capacity is beginning to show the progressive trends in the construction of several types of warships. Over hyped project — is the development of nuclear submarines with ballistic missiles such as "Northwind." In accordance with the plan, by 2017, will be built eight of these boats. "Yury Dolgoruky" — head submarine of this type — was commissioned in 2009 in St. Petersburg (sic — Comm. Edition) after 25 years of construction. But assembling these ships is roughly in accordance with the schedule. The ships of this class are designed for substitution of obsolete nuclear m
issile submarines types of Delta III and Delta IV and are the naval component of the strategic nuclear deterrence forces of Russia. The submarine "Severodvinsk", entered service in 2010 after a 16-year construction period, is a leading nuclear missile ship of 10 units of the "Ash". The commissioning of the submarine "Kazan" — the second ship of this type — is scheduled for 2013, only four years after the start of construction. The accelerated construction time for both classes of submarines are attributed to "the resumption of direct financing of military orders and the revitalized industrial co-operatives."
In the construction of surface ships can be seen the same trend. In 2007 he was commissioned frigate "Guarding" displacement of 2,100 tons, having, as it appears from the advertising, low visibility and a high degree of automation is also complexed combat systems. Reflecting a resurgence in Russia improvement and development of its own surface warships. While for the construction of the lead ship took more than six years, for the following — "lively" and "rack" — it is useful, is believed to significantly less time ("Savvy" was recently put into operation). Adopted 10-20 programm construction of ships of this type designed to perform the tasks of the coastal patrol and escort. Moreover, our homeland has built a number of patrol vessels for the Indian Navy, and at the moment is building a 3-like patrol ships (Project 11356) for its own Navy, who plan to deploy in the Black Sea. Even more impressive is the fact that the Russian shipyard launched on and get ready to put into operation the first guard ship of the "Admiral Gorshkov" deadweight 4000 tons This ship is designed for combat against modern submarines and surface ships, and to perform maintenance tasks naval forces.
ON THE ARCTIC fear, PACIFIC AREA AND THE CASPIAN SEA
The composition of the icebreaker fleet of the Russian Federation requested special consideration because it is of concern. 6 Russian nuclear icebreakers (four — ocean and two — coastal) are designed to provide navigation in the Northern Sea Route for both commercial and military purposes. This will be replaced by an aging fleet of nuclear vessels of third generation, able to operate in coastal waters and in the deep Arctic Ocean. In Russia plans to build 3 or 4 of icebreakers, the first of which will begin to operate in 2015
Development of offensive strike platforms — aircraft carrier battle groups — a separate issue because certain activities carried out in Russia, does not correspond to the statements made by Russian officials. In a couple of years Moscow has stressed the importance of aircraft carriers, claiming that they are the main element of the composition of all significant naval fleets. First, in 2008 the last commander of the Russian Navy Admiral Vladimir Masorin gave indication of the design office to make plans to build a nuclear aircraft carrier displacement of 60,000 tons, even President Medvedev announced plans to build "five or six aircraft carrier battle groups" established for operations in the Pacific Ocean or the North water areas. But Defense Minister Serdyukov said that the construction of aircraft carriers will not begin until 2020, and that the construction of a new ocean cruisers no longer considered that amazingly does not match previous statements.
Small artillery ships such as "Astrakhan" the Russian Federation will provide an advantage in the Caspian Sea.
In all likelihood, in Russia the development of nuclear aircraft carrier battle fleet is postponed for the future, and the composition of the cruisers will only be represented by 4 obsolescent warships after the repair. Closer to reality is the plan of action regarding naval aviation. It lies in the fact that our home will provide your need for these facilities through the procurement of large landing ships of the "Mistral" French production. Our homeland intends to acquire two of the ship, and then build two more in their own yards. They are also provided for the delivery of troops and humanitarian aid, as the humanitarian missions during natural disasters.
In principle, it is not only what ships are built in Russia, and how and where they plan to use. The Northern Fleet, which had always been critical for the Russian Navy will be like before getting a huge amount of new warships. This, according to the views of the majority of professionals in strategy, explained by the fact that in addition to the submarines with ballistic missiles on board, created for strategic deterrence in the region, there is an urgent need for the exploitation of mineral resources beneath the Arctic seas, and sea routes for the realization of trade. Such a task is put in front of the Russian Pacific Fleet, which is the second on his own strength. Given the smoldering confrontation between Russia and Japan over the Kuril Islands dilemma most experts tend to believe that, at least, one of the first 2-ships of the "Mistral" ("Vladivostok" and "Sevastopol") will be assigned to the Pacific Fleet. He will be able to do tasks like landing Marines, and humanitarian assistance in response to natural disasters.
It may be that the reduction of the Baltic Fleet will last, but before it will be put additional tasks for the protection of Russian underwater oil and gas pipelines. While the front of the Black Sea Fleet task is to resist Georgia. Pool of the Black Sea — is also a region of expanding Russian trade and oil operations. Caspian Flotilla, which has always played a subordinate role in the strategic plan at the moment is amplified impressive artillery ships such as "Astrakhan", which will provide RF in this region, the oil-rich, high-quality naval forces. To provide greater support in conducting its own operations against piracy on a global scale, Our homeland is intense interaction with Vietnam, Syria and Venezuela (and until March 2011 and as with Libya) in matters of logistics and repair services in major ports these states.
You can find a naval strategy of the Russian Federation (as any other), analyzing rassredotachivanie military resources. Evaluation of the Russian Navy leads to several conclusions. In 1-x, in Russia regarding the growing importance of the Navy. The ships are being built noticeably more spirited pace, and they are sold not only foreign countries, but more of them adds to Russian Navy. So Makarov, Admiral Roughead assessment was correct. Russian Navy once again on the rise. In-2, Our homeland is mainly relies on its Navy, so the ability to provide strategic invulnerable to nuclear retaliation deterrent forces — nuclear submarines with ballistic missiles on board. In general, in-3, Russian warships projects (with the possible exception of nuclear submarines with cruise missiles such as "Ash") is not designed for warfare naval forces of other states or for the deployment of offensive forces beyond its territorial waters. Together with those of the Russian Navy weapons systems allow operations are independent and maintain liaison with the navies of other countries, and not to throw them a call. Most of the new Russian ships are smaller than their predecessors, and they are designed to perform multi-tasks, rather than for limited operations.
THEORY OF NAVAL CONVERGENCE?
Ultimately, the naval strategy of, as indicated by the activity of the Russian Navy, the statements of professionals and economical resources allocated to the development of the fleet, built exactly in li
ne with the strategy of national security of — perhaps as its principal military instrument. This strategy, as mentioned earlier, seeks to strengthen, first, to increase the prosperity of civilization and international significance of. Military might is aimed priemuschestvenno, to prevent war, but in other circumstances, it is considered as another element of national power, used, in the main, to support the economic growth of. The same basic idea is carried out in all of our guiding principles contained in the "Joint Strategy naval power in the XXI century".
While the strategy of the Russian Federation and the United States refer to the potential for combat operations in interaction with allies, the armed forces of the two countries are provided, priemuschestvenno, to ensure the stability, confidence, prosperity and cooperation. Both strategies also recognize that while competition in matters of sovereignty in relation to natural resources could lead to conflict in the future, a possible major challenges for the navies of each country are terrorism, criminals and natural disasters.
This logic may similarly underpin the argument about the relative importance of U.S. naval power, allowing us to draw on the balance of power on the high seas after the withdrawal of our troops from the state of war in the Middle East and Central Asia. But, according to this logic, is almost certainly need significant changes in the volume and composition of the future configuration of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation and, in particular, its Navy.
Historically suitable for RF intrusive thoughts about the need for a large standing armed forces, consisting of recruits and promotes policy impermissible military instrument that does not have a credible destination. Even technologically sophisticated weaponry in the Russian Armed Forces started to conduct offensive operations against other countries, were the least effective, and this causes the need for the smallest in terms of prof army to defend the borders of the Russian Federation and participate in the resolution of internal conflicts caused by terrorists and nationalist movements . By this logic also requires such an army, the main purpose of which is to ensure the prestige of the Russian Federation abroad and benign enlargement of its economic activity. This is — an expanding sphere of activity of the coming of the Russian Navy in the strategic field.
This trend could lead to the rise of the Russian Navy at the most elite level in the middle of the naval forces of the world. We believe that most likely will be more possible role of Russian warships in multinational operations against piracy in the Gulf of Aden, if a follow up by South American carrier battle groups in the Pacific Ocean or the Mediterranean Sea to tracking. Acts against the pirates will be all basically means small, highly mobile, multi-purpose stealth ships. The increase in the presence of Russian forces in the Arctic Ocean will be mainly due to the provision of global trade and security measures relating to oil, not the protective functions of submarines with ballistic missiles on board. Russian strike groups in the Caribbean will soon contribute to increasing international prestige of the Russian Federation, also provides sales tools to Latin America than to represent a danger to the teachings of the U.S. Armed Forces. The U.S. has little problem to be able to look for the difference between the actions of the armed forces, which are needed to ensure the expanding economic activities, and such actions are throwing a challenge to U.S. interests in the actual implementation of the strategy of our national security in the 2nd decade of the XXI century. It may be that the U.S. Navy maritime strategy touched the right chord in Moscow.
Thomas R. Fedyshina (Thomas R. Fedyszyn) — captain (Captain 1st rank), retired U.S. Navy, director of the research group "Europe-Russia" Naval Institute of the United States, which is an educational institution for the training of personnel for the South American commander of the fleet. While serving in the Navy commanded the guided missile cruiser Normandy (CG-60) and was a naval attache in Russia.