"VICE-PRESIDENT of the USSR Academy Frolova KV MEMORANDUM psychotherapists AM Kashpirovsky (Vinnitsa, st. Artobolevsky …)
This note outlines some that may be of practical interest considerations and observations arising in the course of more than two decades the practice of hypnosis and suggestion, covering about 800 thousand people, and tested in the clinic for the treatment and during the stage of psychological experiments ( More than 1,500 performances). These various practical areas, pursuing different goals, gradually merged into a single and indivisible field of study important mental problems suggestion. Foreordained some conclusions and conjectures, which at first intuitively and then after many years had to consciously reconcile the observed manifestations.
These findings include:
1. Methods and techniques of psychological influence in the direction of improvement.
2. Comparative assessment of the individual in terms of determining the nature of the mortgaged and expressed in varying degrees of ability to self-regulate, and thus respond to the suggestion.
3. Of what is happening as a result of suggestion phenomena as material processes.
A more detailed discussion of these points will show their inseparable relationship, and give the basis for judgments about the new prospects of studying the nature of suggestion and its application not only in medicine but also in other fields of human activity, particularly in the military sphere — in directions that have never been practiced .
The means and methods
Methods of hypnosis and suggestion are described in detail in the manuals for psychotherapy. A common drawback of these methods is the one-sidedness in the choice of the means expressed in the words of the traditional re-evaluation as a priority, and almost the only factor in the structure of suggestion (a modern view of hypnosis, previously less attention has been paid to the word — a verbal attack and more special abilities hypnotist or "medium" — RP). This approach reduces the potential psychological impact, limiting its area of auditory perception and creating the possibility of criticism of verbal information stored in the suggestion.
It is an extremely vulnerable moment is the basis of the constant search for therapists all over the world methods of influence, excluding difficulties in regulating mental activity. The same time serves as an occasion to create new versions of existing techniques and the birth of new trends in psychotherapy and psychology — as we have in this country and abroad. However, both the old and new methods continue to be based primarily on the long-term effects of verbal (sometimes in combination with specific drugs), and are usually designed for long-course.
The highest prevalence of verbal methods can be attributed to the easy availability in the mastery of them, it is more difficult for other, more sophisticated methods based on the creation of a programming situation that requires a doctor's fine intuition, a lot of experience, specific, and sometimes rare qualities. Given that a person reacts to the world around us, not only to human ears, the psychological effect in this case can be realized without words, addressing to the other senses through various means (look, gesture, movement, supporting the information, or touch passes, as if full of some kind of meaning and even the "eloquent silence"). Ably carried out such methods can quickly cause the desired effect, for example, phenomena such as analgesia, falling asleep, hallucinations, cutaneous and vascular responses.
An example of a situation of anesthesia
The subject is to puncture the brush rubbed with cotton wool moistened with alcohol, back of the hand and the palm. Needless to explain the subject, what awaits him. This has already been "told" wool with alcohol and life experience. Confident professional doctor's behavior is also better than any words "speaks" to him that the pain will not and inspires confidence in pain management. Such methods could carry profound anesthesia in operations in the dental and oncology. In this case, never been attempts to traditional "deep sleep" or hypnotizing patients are usually unnecessary and aggravating the path to pain relief. What has been said, does not reject the role of speech as one of the leading factors of the psychological impact, and only pays attention to other means of influence, which in terms of pseudoscientific theories are considered as a manifestation of "bio" in the so-called "psychics". The gap in the underestimation and misunderstanding of nonverbal methods turned a kind of "psychic" XX century epidemic that swept many countries.
The healing possibilities of "bio" and the special qualities of "psychics" have been reported many times in the pages of domestic and foreign publications, discussions were held in the press. On the existence of extrasensory perception as a special category of people endowed with unusual physiological properties, expressed in print in the affirmative scientists are very high ranks, which caused widespread among the population of the false, mystical concepts, existing up to now. The damage of this confusion is evident in the medical, moral, and spiritual. Using gestures as methods of influencing alleged psychics often, indeed, called therapeutic effect in some patients. There are many other examples where the impact is not on the acoustic analyzer, and on the other senses has led to the appearance of different phenomena, sometimes in people, in which verbal suggestion of doctors did not have any impact. Therefore, therapy should have a system that would be able to work on any body senses, but not one any method, because there are no special techniques, and there is a special, skillful application and combining them in order to have the biggest impact on human self-regulation.
1. The influence of the word as the dominant means of psychotherapy is not the one and only factor in psychological impact.
2. Verbal suggestion as vigorously and confidently delivered condition (for example, "As soon as I touch …", "as soon as the count to three …", "as soon as the music sounds …") in conjunction with the subsequent "talking" gestures, certain key words, phrases, music or any other conditioned, and "talking" Interwoven — is always preferable and more effective just words alone.
3. Suggestion and psychological impact should be by all means capable of through the senses and the imagination to influence the latent capacity for self-regulation.
4. Choosing the means of skillful masking depend on intuition, experience and personality of the doctor who knows how to take the least erroneous decisions based on the characteristics of the individual, mainly for its ability to self-regulate.
The body's ability to self-regulation is the least known and the most important issue among other psychological problems. The term "self-regulation" conditional and ambiguous, because includes three versions of its manifestations — biological, psychological, and controlled self-regulation.
Biological self-regulation — is genetically coded, complex internal processes that underlie the growth, development and daily life, and the protective functions of the body that can take place without the participation of consciousness, without stopping, and when fully off. For example, under anesthesia. Even in the dead biological self-regulation supports the growth of hair and nails.
Involuntary or self-psychological adjustment
Functioning under the subordination of genetic programs, biological self-regulation at the same time extremely sensitive to the effects of consciousness, responding to signals refracted through the consciousness of the environment — volatility, fluctuations properly. The mechanism of action of consciousness on self-regulation is a biological reflex, uncontrolled and often (depending on the strength of the stimulus) "overdose" in nature, which can disrupt the biological self-regulation with the usual rhythm and translate it into a perverse mode of operation. It is these acts changed the functioning of the biological self-regulation underlie various diseases and abnormalities in the activity of an organism, resulting from Trauma, neural overload and stress. Thus, uncontrolled, reflexive consciousness on the biological effects of self-regulation is an involuntary self-regulation, which is based on biochemical processes.
Arbitrary or self-guided correction
The dependence of biological self-consciousness of the signals can be used as a tool of consciousness on the biological effects of self-regulation in order to supply certain "commands" and correction settings, mobilization or suppression of various acts of biological self-regulation. Only due to this feature it is possible for the application of psychotherapeutic methods, in particular, suggestion, auto-suggestion, hypnosis. Called "suggestion" and "auto-suggestion" phenomena in the present exposition is treated with the above, namely:
"The suggestion — is targeted psychological programming by one person or two to stimulate the specific processes of conscious and unconscious sphere that can cause self-correction."
"Self-hypnosis — it is arbitrarily cause a specific reaction of consciousness on the biological self-regulation."
"Hypnosis — caused by a narrowed consciousness suggestion for causing an increased tendency towards concentration." Thus, the controlled self-regulation — is controlled (outside or on their own) the act of consciousness impact on the body.
The reactivity of self-regulation
The reactivity of all three variants of self-regulation and the depth of the processes taking place at the same time with different people is expressed in different ways. Not all people, for example, are prone to instant terror bloom, not all of resentment, feelings, fear neuroses arise, ulcers, heart attacks, strokes, stuttering, and insomnia. Not all by suggestion can cause hallucinations, analgesia, hypnosis, temperature and vascular reactions, memory disorders. Hence, with all things being equal, people differ in the degree of intensity of the manifestations of self-regulation, showing more or less "talent" in this regard. Practice suggestion showed that among the common masses revealed a fairly large percentage of people with this kind of "talent" that speaks to their great potential for conscious self-regulation abilities. Properly selected method and talent physician increases this percentage. From the above it follows the conclusion of the possibility and the need for specific tests to determine the capacity for self-regulation, which may be of great importance for professional selection for the selection of the correct aspect of the people and economy in the conduct of psychological training with them.
On the possibilities of mind those who have mastered the conscious self-regulation
Mental capabilities of such persons do not fall within the traditional ideas about self-control, endurance, speed improvement of different abilities and other qualities. Miscalculation of American psychologists is the lack of testing for the ability to self-regulation, which forces spend a lot of time and material (of drugs, special equipment) on the people of mediocre in terms of psychological training, and therefore not always reliable in the performance of their programs inculcated. Past special training may find the ability to arbitrary degree of insensitivity to pain relief to the fire, the ability to sleep deeply at any desired point in any setting. They will tend to perform complex work, being awake in a special state of sleep. They can easily be programmed to perform various tasks, as well as teach, if necessary, suppress or excite desires, sensations, feelings, exacerbating the imagination before the vivid hallucinations. Even this partial list shows attractive and at the same time, the real prospects associated with the targeting of many people pledged undisclosed addiction to self-regulation. The important point is that a person with a strong tendency to self-regulation, can take possession of the listed capacity without too much time for a long training, no special equipment, and other conditions that is economically profitable. They have these capabilities can "run" at times outright, from the first contact with an experienced psychologist and so easy for a psychologist that relieve the problem of finding a "strong" method of exposure.
The tendency to self-conscious and Medicine
What has been said about the prospects for the use of conscious self-regulation can be clearly illustrated by the experience of the therapist instructive Alexander Romanovich Dovzhenko of Feodosia and psychotherapist Hasa Aliyev (see "Help Yourself" in the "Literary Gazette" of 09/09/87), which in its practice intuitively bearings a person's ability to self-regulate and quick "run" with short, energetic suggestions. However, not comprehending this theory, the authors do not distinguish the importance of the human capacity for self-regulation, and the significance of their "methods" (called the technical terms "coding" and "key"), thereby diverting attention from a deeper understanding of the problem. The methods of these authors is based on the selection of individuals with an increased ability to self-regulate and followed by vigorous suggestion necessary task that, given the characteristics of these individuals is easily implemented. This principle is built economical, effective and prompt treatment of alcoholics doctor Dovzhenko and cross-sectional suggestion of ability to self-regulate physician Aliyev. The practical success of the authors (despite the confusion in the re-evaluation of the method, not the unique ability of the human mind) proves the high efficiency inherent in the use of human propensity for responsible self-regulation with appropriate methods of exposure.
Revision of the relationship between the significance of the method and the hidden human propensity for self-regulation in favor of the greater importance of the latter makes it possible to reconstruct the attitude to the methods that can give an unprecedented boost psychotherapy towards the huge cost, availability and effectiveness of psychiatric help and lead, in turn, to the birth of a new yet nowhere in any country nepraktikuemogo treatment and psychological training. This method is the effect of suggestion on television, though, at first glance, this seems unlikely. Transfer could be called, for example, "Eye to Eye" and broadcast twice a week.
This treatment is feasible, because Calcd for the treatment of diseases in which usually a tendency to self-expressed in a particularly high level (enuresis, asthma, migraine, intestinal ulcers, stomach etc.). Modalities for such a category of patients are simple and concise, because due to the pronounced tendency to self-regulation, these patients are readily available effects. Suggestion on television, conducted by highly qualified professionals, accompanied by music, scenically colorfully decorated, with a large supply of the eye, it will be better live, immediate impact. Trying to organize the delivery, which had a goal of treatment for bedwetting (enuresis) in children has already been undertaken in Almaty in August 1986, where I have conducted lectures and demonstration of psychological experiments. The recording was made on the "quick fix" without pre-designed script, but at the same time being in the other room near the TV control group of children quickly fell into a hypnotic state, subject to the "television suggestible."
However, the question of production of the broadcast is not yet decided, apparently because of too unusual nature of the transfer. But sooner or later, such programs will become commonplace and, in treatment, will give a huge economic impact. It is easy to make calculations by comparing the productivity of a medical institution with the work of only one therapist, acting on television. If, for example, to treat a national scale alone children suffering from enuresis, nursing home average power required 5,000 years of continuous operation, the doctor-therapist for the same purpose would only need 6-8 hours of TV time with a score of 70-80% cure rate. The same treatment success on television may be subject to other patients — with no less economic benefit for the state.
In the same section you can take to create programs of treatment, prevention, and psychological training for different age and professional groups, not only on television but also through video equipment, installed in hospitals, and in other conditions of use. This would significantly reduce the harm unqualified intrusion into the psyche of every kind of "healers" and incompetent therapists, sometimes referred to as such only. In this connection it is appropriate to say about the long overdue need for strict regulation of psychotherapy within the law, strictly prohibits persons without medical education to use the methods of suggestion and any other psychological experiments in pop and medicinal purposes. Recently, thanks to the uncontrolled sale of literature on psychotherapy and the absence of the relevant article of the penal code, a lot of spread any "psihoeksperimentatorov", "hypnotist", "suggestologov" and "healers", "yoga", "psychics", causing great damage scientific and ideological, moral education and mental health of the population is seriously undermining the credibility of psychotherapy and its methods.
On the other hand, it is necessary to legalize the natural right of psychotherapists to conduct public speeches and lectures with the show and the scientific explanation of the phenomena of suggestion, auto-suggestion, hypnosis, entrusting this highly skilled and experienced professionals, abandoning the dubious "services" filarmoniynyh "psihoeksperimentatorov" with their pathetic attempts "scientifically" explain complex phenomena of the human psyche, which amount is usually a desire to surround his personality aura of mystery and mysticism. Returning after an interrupted this long retreat to the subject of indirect effects on the psyche of a therapeutic and prophylactic purposes using television and video, it must be said that it is far from being exhausted in the proposed review.
Professional selection and military aspects of self-regulation
Testing to identify and determine the ability of self-regulation is an important and necessary item for a professional qualification for certain industries, transport services, in sports, the arts, for military purposes. The importance of such testing in these areas, especially in industries with intense and responsible mode (AES, for example) will be measured indirectly by reading professional selection and training in the military. For these purposes it is necessary to establish a special training school, regulation and control of human behavior. In this school the best of the best students, having multiple "sifting" through the sieve of hard and demanding tests, and special psychological training, could be a gold fund for space, aircraft, submarines, Border, Intelligence, Special Forces.
In justifying the need for such a selection and training can give some examples of practical implementation of this idea in a particular application. Possibility of accelerating the adaptation to the changing conditions of the operator space flight, distance from the center of the control, regulation of sleep, emotion and imagination of the operator. The possibility of exciting his imagination to the point of vivid and real sensation of being in earthly terms — in the family, in the lap of nature and other situations that will ease the problem of the psychological state of a person during long space flights. Evoke extended outages of consciousness — for the same purpose.
Preparing for aircraft, submarines and other military services strenuous people trained to act calmly and accurately in emergency situations and are able to be more psychological endurance and patience. Provision for special "extra" time for implementation in the military units stationed in dangerous areas to provide a more reliable security personnel during the night. These sentinels without compromising their health and will be able to demonstrate the ability to rest during the night did not lose contact with the external environment and unusually sensitive to perceive a dream slightest danger signals and immediately raise the alarm. It is these trained guards were lacking at the time our units in Afghanistan. For state security, counter-intelligence and special services can train people who can sleep with their eyes open, able to lull themselves into any moment and in any environment. After passing the training, these people will be able to sleep with my eyes open and unmistakable long, fatigue-controlled transport. Finally, if necessary, they can easily anesthetize themselves to insensitivity to the fire and withstand any test of pain, not feeling it. In this regard, it is very important to study the psychological stability of the person trained in the use of conscious self-regulation in the introduction of psychopharmacological agents aimed at breaking this stability. Bet on the selection and training of talented people solely in terms of self-regulation is the main distinctive (and, at the same time, more efficient and more cost-effective and affordable), the moment in comparison with similar explorations of U.S. military psychologists.
On the basis of the material and suggestions arising from this thesis prospects
At the heart of suggestion is excitement consciousness biological self-regulation, which operates through the formation and release of various chemical compounds. Our body is universal pharmaceutical system capable of creating a variety of compounds of these drugs. Drug first isolated from the organism were protective protein — antibody produced by cells of the immune system. A second group of drug found in the body are hormones. The third group were the mediators — neuropeptides and prostaglandins. "Internal" drugs while open is very small, but it is clear that they function in a harmonious interaction, forming a kind of "chemical orchestra" of the body. Disease — is there is an imbalance of the orchestra, resulting from failure of some systems under the influence of external factors and expressed in violation of the quantity and quality of emissions of chemical compounds. Action suggestion aligns this imbalance causes the body to secrete special substances — internal medicine. For example, the psychological allocated endogenous morphine analgesic peptides. When administered to their natural antagonist naloxone is blocking these peptides and analgesia disappears. This example shows that the chemical nature inspired in analgesia. But not all of suggestion can induce analgesia, ulcer healing, ie can not affect the biological self-regulation.
In other cases, on the contrary, there is a strong activation of the biological self-regulation. It has been observed when under the influence of suggestion going recovery from diseases that are considered classics in terms of inaccessibility to their psychological impact. For example, treatment of varicose veins, scars resolution — under the influence of suggestion. The problem is finding these rare substances that are under the influence of suggestion body produces some people. But not only in search but also in deciphering the chemical formula, and such substances may artificially. Another option is to use as donors for persons who happen cure of suggestion actions, such as an ulcer. Laboratory task is to determine what is a donor material. After finding this stuff, you could treat those who do not help either medicine or suggestion. A donor could be those who are cured of asthma, ulcers, psoriasis, scar formation, because the body of these people will develop under the influence of these inner promptings "pill." Search for substances produced by the body under the influence of suggestion, will find unique medication and psychotherapy save as expressed Academician Pavlov, from the "accursed questions": what is the excitation or inhibition, hypnosis or suggestion in its material nature?
Improved general methods of psychological influence will increase the number of channels of influence on self-regulation. Transferring the main focus from the individual therapist and his arsenal of methods on the personality of the individual and his property for self-regulation — provides the basis for the emergence of new methods of psychological treatment of personality and new directions not only in psychotherapy, but also in other behavioral sciences (psychology, pedagogy, neurophysiology, neuropsychology ). Need to develop and introduce special tests to determine the capacity for self-regulation by professional selection and for motivating. Consideration of the phenomena occurring as a result of suggestion as a biochemical process — can lead to the discovery of the unique "internal" drugs and to expand the horizons of understanding of the complex product of matter — the human brain.
Anatoly Kashpirovsky 1987