In human DNA of 46 chromosomes, half of it inherited from his father, a half — from my mother. Of the 23 chromosomes derived from the father, the one and only — the male Y-chromosome — contains a set of nucleotides that is passed from generation to generation without any changes over the millennia. Geneticists call this set of haplogroup. Each man now living in the DNA is exactly the same haplogroup that his father, grandfather, great-grandfather, great-grandfather, and so on in a number of generations.
Haplogroup because of its inherited unchanged the same for all people of the same biological origin, that is, men of one nation. Each biologically original people have their haplogroup is different from a similar set of nucleotides in other nations, which is its genetic marker, an ethnic label.
Haplogroup changed very rarely, at intervals of goals (in biology, such changes are called mutations), and genetics have learned to accurately determine their time and place. Thus, American scientists have found that one such mutation occurred 4500 years ago, in the Central Plain. A boy was born with a slightly different than that of his father, haplogroup, which they appropriated genetic classification R1a1 (its old name R1a).
Currently, owners of haplogroup R1a1 is 70% of the male population of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus, and in the ancient Russian cities and villages — up to 80%. Also, this haplogroup is prevalent in Poland, among the Sorbs, the Czechs and Slovaks, ie it is common for the Eastern and Western Slavs, who are one race.
Originating 4,500 years ago, in the Central Plain (location of maximum concentration of R1a1 — ethnic focus), born bred and quickly began to expand their range. 4000 years ago, our ancestors came to the Urals and established there Arkaim and "civilization cities" with a lot of copper mines and international connections up to Crete (chemical analysis of some items found there shows that copper — Ural).
Even after 500 years, 3500 years ago, haplogroup R1a1 appeared in India. History came to India better known other vicissitudes of territorial expansion of our ancestors by the ancient Indian epic, the circumstances in which it is described in detail. But there is other evidence of the epic, including archaeological and linguistic.
It is known that at the time the ancestors of Eastern and Western Slavs called Aryans (as they were recorded in Indian texts). We also know that not local Indians gave them the name, and it is — self.
It is also known that the appearance of haplogroup R1a1 in India 3,500 years ago (calculated geneticists time of birth of first Indo-Aryans) was accompanied by the development of local destruction of civilization, which archaeologists first excavations at the place called Harappa. Before his disappearance this people, who had crowded at the time of the valleys of the Indus and the Ganges, and began to build fortifications, which he had never done before. However, strengthening, apparently, have not helped, and the Harappan period of Indian history was replaced by Aryan.
The first monument to the Indian epic, which refers to the appearance of the Aryans, was issued a written 400 years, in the XI century. BC. e., and III. BC. e. The completed form has formed the ancient Indian language of Sanskrit literature, remarkably similar to modern Russian.
Now men kind R1a1 makes up 16% of the male population of India, and in the higher castes are almost half — 47%, indicating that the active participation of the Aryans in the formation of the Indian aristocracy (the second half of the men of higher castes represented by local tribes, mainly Dravidian).
Just as our ancestors migrated to Iran. Iran literally — the country of the Aryans. Persian kings liked to emphasize his Aryan origin, as eloquently demonstrated, particularly popular with them the name Darius.
It is also known that some kind of Rurik belongs to the genus R1a1, and part of the genus N (Finnish tribes).
Our closest relatives on the father's side are the Celts (Haplogroup R1b).
Germanic tribes corresponds Haplogroup I1a (dissemination clearly coincides with the spread of Nordic subrace), in Germany it is more common kindred I2b. Germanic tribes closest relatives are the South Slavs, among these were the haplogroup I2a.
Accordingly Nordidy are not Aryans, Haplogroup I1a almost does not occur outside of Europe. Culture in Iran, India, China and Egypt brought the kind of R1a and R1b (this haplogroup Tohartsy concerned — the people who brought the culture of China, as well, this haplogroup was found in Egyptian pharaoh Tutankhamun).