Any laid sleeper from Salekhard to Igarka has cost many lives
Ruins are fascinating. In a large country and the ruins are boundless. One of these monuments nedavneshney our history stretches for hundreds of kilometers along the Arctic Circle. This is an abandoned steel Salekhard — Igarka, which is also called "Dead Man's way."
The Sleep of Reason
It was built by convicts from 1947 to 1953 year zaavesyu under complete secrecy. First information entered at the end of the Khrushchev thaw, and the first group of fans of the 80 stories railways organized three expeditions to the abandoned track. We … for the first time have seen it under Salekhard in sunset light — leaving both sides rusted, twisted rails, rotten, sagging sleepers. Small mounds of pulverized sand, which in places weathered so that some road links were hovering in the air.
In 1952 he officially opened a section of the road
Quiet and lifelessness, so uncharacteristic steel road, doing everything similar to sleep.
Encountered on the roadside poles with planks nailed on top we first perceived the signs for Putney, but they were tombstones "monuments" prisoners. From time to time a lot of hills with such poles created a cemetery. The figurative expression of the 1st of researchers of the road, under each of its sleeper lies a few people.
The helicopter, with a height of 100-250 m, the path looked yellowish stripe, with a never-ending ladder sleepers, winding across the tundra, jumping over the river and the hills skirting. And along — squares camps skewed towers at the corners. We know what they were even standing on the towers watchmen were shot at times, unable to bear the grief and horror of the local.
Northern Exposure by railways was a dream davneshney Russian engineers. Even before the revolution developed highway projects across Siberia and Chukotka in America. However, then no one is meant to carry out an excellent plan to use the adjective will work.
30 years later Tundra almost absorbed evidence of Stalin's construction
After the war, Stalin continued transformation of the country into an impregnable fortress. And then came the idea of head transfer port of the Northern Sea Route from Murmansk to the interior of the country and the construction of the railway approach to it. At first port supposed to be built on the banks of the Ob sponges at Cape Stone, but the construction of the railway project band length 710 km, reaching a year before the station Labytnagi on opposite bank of the Ob Salekhard petered: it turned out that the depth of the sea is not enough for large vessels, and the swampy tundra does not even build huts. It was decided to postpone the next port still further east — to Igarka — and build a metal Salekhard — Igarka length of 1,260 km and a ferry across the Ob and Yenisei. In the upcoming planned to extend the line to Chukotka.
In the Gulag system was the General Administration of camp railway construction, numbering more than 290 thousand prisoners only. It worked best engineers.
After serving their own age, "sheep" overgrown northern birch
Yet there was no project has conducted research and has already reached out trains with the cons. The head sections of track camp ("columns") are placed through the 510 km. In the midst of the construction of the prison population has reached 120 thousand. First surrounded themselves Stitching wire, and later built the dugouts and huts. To feed this army of a wealthy, developed a non-waste technology. Here and found the abandoned warehouses of dried peas, pressed for many years in the briquettes, in which the mouse made a hole. Special ladies' team smashed bricks, cleaning out a knife and mouse droppings thrown into the pot …
Older people remember the phrase "five-building fun." It went from room specially educated in the Ministry of Internal Affairs 2-large system of controls — № 501 (Ob, which swept through the western half of the route from Salekhard to Pura) and number 503 (Yenisei — from Pura to Igarki). Head of the last Colonel Vladimir Drums became the inventor of the system of offsets, which are somewhat reduced the time drummers labor camp.
"Five-gay" — a common example of pioneer construction for lightweight specifications: steering bias (the largest deviation, which is calculated on the weight of the composite and trains) — 0.009% small radius curves — up to 600 m and on the round-trip time — up to 300. Line was designed single-track, with roving through 9-14 km and stations — 40-60 km.
As shown by our expedition, the rails were used only lightweight (weighing about 30 kg per meter) and various, svezennyh everywhere. We found 16 species of Russian rails, including 12 pre-revolutionary. For example, Demidov made at factories in the XIX century. A lot of foreign, including trophy.
Several bridges met German H sections, which in the Soviet Union carried out. On some sections of the rails to the sleepers are sewn without pads. There are tie straps from the tree. It turns out that the path was unique in their own helplessness already during construction.
From Salekhard to Igarka was scheduled 134 separate Fri — at stations Salekhard, Nadym Pur Taz Ermakovo Igarka and arranged the main depot. At stations Yarudey, Pangody, Kataral, Uruhan — the reverse. Traction shoulders (the distance that the trains without changing the locomotive) were calculated for freight locomotives average power of the "eu" and went the length from 88 to 247 km. Estimated weight of standard train is 1550 tons at an average speed of 40 km / h, the capacity of 6 pairs of trains per day.
Technique, coupled with the prisoners were brought to the ocean "lighters" from the north on the big water. After the "death" of the road to take out chtolibo with isolated areas was for myself more, and there was typical of what was then the technology museum railway construction camp.
We found preserved rolling stock depot in Bowie, on the banks of the river: there were 4 locomotive series "Os" ("Sheep") and a couple of 10-s two-axle freight wagons and open platforms. Due to the simplicity, ruggedness and low axle load, "Sheep" more than half a century,
have been regular participants of wars and majestic buildings. And these reddish rust, standing on the skewed ways hardworking valuable addition to the fact that "jumped" after 50 years without any alterations. Four more "Lambs" remained in the camp in Janov Ermakovo. In the eastern sector were found locomobile, the remains of tractors "Stalinets" and ZIS-5.
Most of the work, including land, was done by hand. Soil which almost all of the track have been poor — powder-like sand, endless permafrost — carted wheelbarrows. Often the whole of his compositions went into the swamp, as in the abyss, and has built the mound and excavation slump and sought podsypku unchanged. Stone and coarse sand imported from the Urals. And yet the building progressed. By 1953, out of 1260 km was set more than five hundred.
And this despite the fact that funding was carried at cost, without an approved project and estimates, which were presented to the government only March 1, 1952. Total expenses were up 6.5 billion rubles., Of which 3 billion — the cost of past years. It was assumed that through traffic to Igarki will open in late 1954, and the continuous operation of the line will pass in 1957. But the documents have not been approved. After starting area Salekhard — Nadym revealed that carry on the latest road and some have nothing. Construction supported only by nobody repealed Directive Stalin and as leader is gone, the Council of Ministers on 25 March 1953 it was discontinued. In a matter of months, the road was empty: the prisoners were taken to the Urals. Tried to take out and equipment (for example, the rails from the site Ermakovo — Yanov camp), but almost everything is just thrown. All have been written off, not counting the telephone band, inherited by the Ministry of Communications and Railway branch Chum — Labytnangi that MPS has taken into operation in 1955. A road died.
After the opening of the North enormous supplies of oil and gas has begun a new step of its development. But the railroad came to Urengoi Nadim and not from the west, not from Salekhard, and the meridian — from Tyumen, Surgut through. Use the remains of "The Dead Roads" was virtually impossible: the new lanes were built on other technical conditions, more direct, and fit into the zigzag sections of the "Stalin" route, even where it was held there, was not necessary.