After the first acquaintance with the Russian archaic embroidery lasting impression remains of ceremonial combination of silver-white canvas and red pattern with gold and white gold with red.
Chance that the colors chosen?
In the language of traditional white symbols associated with the concepts of light and sky, originating from Indo-European root meaning "light", "shine", "shiny".
Universe is illuminated by the light of heaven, which was seen in the element of the highest good, joined to him of happiness and abundance of intangible Divine Light, which is independent of the heavenly bodies (eat them) and has no apparent source, consistent with silver-white canvas — the basic fabric of Russian embroidery .
Antique embroidery 1) "luminous flux" in the ornament severorusskoy tissue XIX century. Photos GP Durasova. Fragments towels depicting collecting and sowing rectangular swastikas. Bran weaving (photo Durasova GP)
2) Kargopol y. Olonets lips. Early. XX century.
3) p. Pinega, ex. Arkhangelsk Province. Cohn. XIX c.
In Russian, the word "white" has shades of "free", "clean". According to custom, the newly baptized clothed in white vestments.
In this case, the white color was seen as a limit of the material and the spiritual, it was associated with the end of something (the death), with a break point, leaving no choice. Dressed in a white box on the dead man had Uzoroche:
He's in a white area, severe parting bluish tint in his eyes and rippling lakes (N. Klyuev).
Going to fight to the death, also wore a white shirt.
If white, in the end, expresses the idea of the spirit (the Divine emanations), the red color is associated with the soul and the bearer of it — red with blood, "… for the life of all flesh is its blood, it is his soul." They said: "The Beauty of the blood," but at the same time correlated red (= red) color with fire. Orthodox consciousness combines a biblical idea of blood, soul and Aryan blood-fire.
The word "red" due to the physical manifestations of fire and light. It was understood as "specious", "fine" and went from concept to the designation of light color. White well entrenched solely sverhtelesnym, spiritual light.
Intermediate position between them won gold — the color of the halo in the icons of Christian holiness. It is the color of the age, where there is no antagonism between the ideal and the material. Gold — symbol is not the existence of an immaterial spirit, but spiritualized flesh.
The three primary colors of embroidery Russian bear, so the idea of purity, freedom, beauty, Life and Holiness. With them in the folk tradition introduced the idea of the fullness of the world divine spirit-bearer energies.
Swastika could structure the very texture of the fabric to show through it. Widespread strochevye openwork patterns performed already netted pre prodernutoy the cell tissue. Contoured design filled with oblique stitching in a grid or veiled thick flooring. As in cross stitch, there remained unfilled well seen through the crosses, swastikas and solar power outlet. In general, the Russian archaic embroidery or pattern was performed with openings in the form of solar or svastichnyh characters or background was a "trellis". White cloth embroidered with red swastikas appeared in transmission light flux, washing the pockets of flame.
"You — the light of the world … So let your light shine before men, that they may see your good deeds and praise your Father in heaven." Present on the clothing swastika — the symbol of origin of Light — like testified that the light is not something external to the soul, but is inherent in it.
But it may be medieval, much less old people do not have the peasants XIX-XX centuries. nothing? These writings, treatises, extinct and forgotten tradition — by themselves, and the Russian ethnos — by itself? No.
Even if regarded as an argument in favor of such a connection only one material culture, we can talk about the relationship of ornament, in cases where it is found similarities ornamental facilities. SV Ivanov has convincingly shown that they are usually unique: "The tribes or tribal groups that have developed them for a long time remain outside the range of motives. Part or group disintegrated tribe often diverge and lose contact with each other, but the pattern, continuing to keep the ancient traditions of the ancient evidence of similarities of these groups. " Severorusskaya, especially women's, clothing, up to modern times decorated with swastikas and other patterns, sometimes dating back more than twenty thousand years, and the majority was formed at the beginning of II century BC
"The simple villagers to continue the centuries to preserve some religious respect for form, color and the smallest accessories costume of their ancestors," — noted anthropologists in the mid XIX century. In the cities the traditional Russian dress was common up to the specified time. In rural areas it is commonly worn in the beginning (sometimes even in the middle) XX century.
Rules of wearing traditional clothing had a number of features: one was supposed to wear those not yet reached the age of consent, and the other — an adult, but have not yet become parents, the third — with children, and the fourth — the persons who are grandparents and have lost the ability to bear children. At the same time, old maids, after a certain age do not have the right to wear the old girl's costume. Regardless of the origin and social status occupied Russian man, his clothes reflect primarily marital status.
Most rich symbolism carried wedding dress. According to the "Chin wedding," called the young prince and princess, others stagger military hierarchy, big boyar tysyatsky, nobles satellite bride and groom. Wedding shirt had special znachenie.Yazykoved and ethnographer AA Potebnya wrote: "Every act of … art is effective, together, act of knowledge … The image — not fiction, not consciously arbitrary composition of available data in the head, and a combination of them, which seemed the most faithful to reality."
Along with marriage informatics, attire reflects the knowledge of man as a microcosm (the "image and likeness of God"). Hem of women's clothing and skirts were often decorated with a pattern that contained ancient ideograms. If the lower part of the costume was associated with the land, the hat always — with the sky. "Dressed in his traditional festive attire old Russian princess or a peasant in the XIX. represented as a model of the universe: the lower, ground floor covered with clothing symbols land, seeds, and vegetation at the top of the clothes we see the birds and the personification of rain, and at the top of all of this topped clear and undisputed symbol of the sky: the sun, the stars, the seven figures denoting the constellation, birds, horses, sun, etc. "- indicates BA Rybakov [285, № 1, p. 31].
Ornament folk clothing irrefutable evidence of its religious nature. The word comes from the Old Slavic pattern behold (see). Before us is a visible essence of spiritual, often unseen. The word "pattern" is associated with the cult of the sun, sky, and identifies them in the preceding period. Under Uzoroche understand the benefit and beauty. In Slavic languages, the pattern has a lot of one-root word meaning: dawn, lightning, glow, shine. All of them, in one way or another, are connected with the "light" and "warm." AK Chekalov drawn attention to the contrast in oversight and npu-tensor: the first is intended to protect the owner of clothing from the second (ie, witchcraft).
Like any other traditional art, embroidered image located in a strictly defined schematized composition, no random parts. Comparing embroidery with miniatures and icons clearly convinced of the unity of their origin. Almost all songs are folk embroidery pre-Christian past, that did not prevent later rethink their new culture in the mainstream.
Crosses, swastikas, squares, diamonds, triangles, and other components of geometric, plant and animal symbols, their numbers are a combination of a complete explanation of a system of celestial archetypes and their incarnation on earth. Often do not learn to read peasants who produced and worn pretty dresses with branching plots, could not give them an accurate explanation. However, they strictly followed the generic skills and practices.
With the 2nd half of the XIX century, when a large number of affordable and elegant cotton fabrics, in a number of provinces was introduced borrowed from the Tatars chain stitch. Utside catchy vestibule and cotton contributed to the destruction of the ancient canons of embroidery, although the core characters try to save.
In contrast, chain-stitch seam in archaic transfer error pattern is practically impossible. In the north of Russia, for example, has been extended "deaf" embroidery "paintings", half-cross, or, as it is popularly called, "doselnym", "long-standing seam" implemented on account of threads. On the surface of the canvas shimmering silver short stitches that go in line with a mesh fabric, horizontal, vertical and diagonal predominantly red thread spawns circuit pattern. He could be strict and graphically or luchitsya off of it in different directions loose geometric symbols. Then the horizontal and vertical rows of stitches "sieve" pattern, and the resulting cells in a staggered filled straight cross, forming a dense mesh surface. Pattern could be filled squares and chains, triangles, rhombs, sewn stitch, resulting in perforated created fiery red surface.
In the middle of the XIX century was still alive rite reading patterns, a member of the bride brides. That's how he came to the village of St. Nicholas County Kadnikovskoe that in Vologda. Under the Epiphany (January 6 tbsp. Cent.) From near and distant villages came and visited the girl-bride, bringing with them the best outfits. These clothes were almost all made with their hands. The girl wore a shirt underneath with two red stripes on it — four or five with the most intricate patterns that led from the hem to the chest. On top shirt — dress, three or four fancy apron. On top of all — a sheepskin coat, covered with fur and covered peasant cloth.
After dinner began the crucial moment bride. Brides become rows in the church wall. Some guys choose an older woman, and under her leadership sent to diluted girls who were afraid to move. Woman approached one of the girls, pushing floors coat and showed her fancy aprons. Then he lifted her skirt sundress, one by one, all patterned shirt to the same one on the hem of which were two red stripes.
All the while, an explanation of the patterns. Grooms was judged by the shirts and aprons of the capabilities girl and her hard work: whether it is able to spin, weave, sew, weave and lace.
Language Russian folk embroidery — a "writing system", which replaced the ink and paper on canvas, and, most of all, the red thread. The concept of "write" in ancient times was to "decorate" and "represent." "Scribbled letter" meant to embroider line naznamenovyvaya one by one a series of symbolic signs.
When she was preparing herself a dowry, the mother or grandmother closely monitor its operation and corrects errors.
An eyewitness tells how his daughter's dowry weaving towel in his fringe wanted to put two rows of triangles, the top of the top. Seeing this, the mother stopped her: "You can not do that, my daughter! Dragon's teeth you will get bad luck on his head naklichesh, girlish color and your married life in the teeth of the dragon will be. Put uzorki sole to sole — will leave the sun. And they will shine for you in life. "
Swastika found on all the elements of traditional dress. We can say that it permeates a Russian outfit literally from head to toe.