What we are proud of, and that is a distinguishing feature of our, it's our name. When there were our names?
Collectors "Dictionary of Contemporary Russian surnames" IM Ganzhina writes:
"… Much of the modern Russian surnames formed from the names of the church calendar. These names, foreign language and foreign to RUSSIAN PEOPLE, only in XIX-XX centuries. have become an active base for the creation of Russian names. But in the XVI-XVIII centuries. such names were few and formed, as a rule, from the secular, consumer variantovkanonicheskih names, usually from long-form (Borisov, Yuriev, Andreev, Nefedov, Isaev, etc.). The bulk of surnames formed othristianskih names, including the diminutive and pejorative forms (such Vanyushechkin, Ivanchikov, Vaskov), there was not before the second half of the XIX century, a period of mass "ofamilivaniya" Russian peasants … "
In one of his articles, studying the Old Slavic names / nicknames in the hamlet Muromino Pereyaslavl-mill Old Ryazan Ryazan district, I came to a curious conclusion. In 1646, a total of 5 people in this small village and nearby village SIOMKIN written in an official document is not a Christian, the canonical name, and under the Old Church! Thus, in Kasari village where residents Muromino SIOMKIN and went to church in the census, compiled for 17 years before (1629) no longer been any old Russian CARRIER NAME. Yes, almost all the inhabitants of the three-member written form (with dedichestvom), but all were written under Christian names.
Meanwhile, "Dictionary" deadlock "onomasticon" Veselovsky replete with examples of the mass use of these names ONLY in the 2nd half of the XVI century.
What do the above facts? Why the middle of XVII century in the aforementioned villages, almost all non-Christian names / nicknames were almost completely eradicated from use without exception? What happened in the 2nd half of XVI — early XVII century?
Author of the first major work on Russian names and surnames, NM Puffins writes:
"In the XVII century. Russian names (I mean non-Christian, non-church) began to lose its importance of personal names … "
I have great respect for a dead end. Because he was the first. For his enormous, enormous project to collect material. So the blind do not answer me a simple question: "Why?" Why suddenly the names began to lose its value? Needless because nothing ever happens. This is not blind chance or providence. So, must be a reason, there is some logic in all happens!
Fashion? Pardon me. It was not a XX century, when the person is so clear, that is free to choose whatever he wants. And then, even fashion is specific people and their tastes. The example of Peter:
"… The teacher SN Uvarov village of scurvy Ryazanskoyoblasti writes that "of the 23 students who graduated in 1955, seven years, and was 17 Ning! Over the last two years of a newborn girl in the said village called or Tanyami or Nadyami. Exceptions are rare … "
XVII century is — is archaic apologist! My question is simple, but I can not find an answer. But questions continue to grow like a snowball! Times were prichinnno-effect relationships in these events, so these events stood a particular person! Or, at least, to individuals. But who? Who? For ordinary curiosity, interest, and want to understand.
So, look for a start in the seventeenth century. Because it was then fade out of use of old, old Russian names.
VO Klyuchevskii writes:
"… Prior to the XVII century. Russian society was different integrity of its class composition. Lord and serf clearly understand things differently, to know for sure is not the same catechism to heaven, but they cherpalisvoe understanding of one and the same source, confirmed the same catechism and therefore understand each other, form a homogeneous moral ground.
Western influence to destroy that integrity. It is penetrating deeply into the people, but in the upper classes of society … it gained its dominance. How to crack the glass unevenly heats up in its various parts, and Russian society is not equally imbued with western influence in all its layers, split.
Schism in the Russian Church in the XVII., Was a church reflects this moral dichotomy caused by Western influence in society. Then we have against each other two world outlooks, two hostile about concepts and feelings, the two camps … "
But is that the case in the western influence? After all, the result of this vliyaniyabylo not use German or English imen.Zapadnoe own influence only pushed trends, which by then had already happened in the Russian state.
And then, even in the census in 1646 (ie the beginning of the reign of Alexei Mikhailovich, the use of old Russian names / nicknames on official documents practically reduced to nothing. A to Peter's reforms were still far away.
So, what are the events? What are trends? Shoveled the entire XVII century, I did not find the answer to my question. The events of this century, rich, bright and, indeed, full of drama: famine, unrest, popular uprisings, the death of the old and the birth of a new royal dynasty. But, looking at the logical chain of events izuchayaprichiny their appearance, could not tie them to my main question: "Why is the middle of XVII century in the aforementioned villages, almost all non-Christian names / nicknames were almost completely eradicated from use without exception?"
Attempts to answer this simple question leads us to the conclusion chtoneobhodimo apply to an ordinary life, practice. Look in the manual NA Petrovsky:
"… Registration newborns held only the church, where the rite of baptism. Thus, baptism is not passed, no child, even if his parents were believers. What are the names given then? In the Russian Orthodox Church was (and now is) a special book — calendars, or saints. In the calendars for each day of the month recorded the names of saints, which in this day honors the church.
Priest before baptism offers several names that were listed in the calendar on denrozhdeniya child. This is usually the case and ended …
In any case, the child could be given only by a name that had in the calendar. No dissent was allowed here … "
So the first thing to do we start — calendar! Look for a start in the "Dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron":
"Church Calendar — Sc. list of saints venerated Orthodox Church, drawn up in the order of months and days of the year, which is timed celebration and honoring of each saint. Church calendar assigned to the liturgical use, and they are printed in the liturgical books — canon, akafistnike, Prayer at the end of them, and sometimes in the middle.
Final, uniform edition calendar printed in the church books, does not exist. Only one rule is observed without fail, every name recorded calendar should belong kanonizovannomu holy church. "
For those who have never seen calendars, reproduced below is an excerpt from it:
"… February 1 (January 19). Venerable. Macarius the Great, Egypt. St.. Mark, the Abp. Ephesus. Venerable. Macarius the Faster Caves. Bl. Theodore, fool-for-Christ, Novgorod. Uncovering of the relics of St. Sava Storozhevsky, Zvenigorod. Venerable. Macarius the Roman, of Novgorod. St.. Arseny, Arch. Kerkirskogo. Venerable. Anthony Stylite Martkopi.
February 2 (January 20). Venerable. Euthymius the Great. Sts. Euphemia and Lawrence hermit recluse Caves. Martyrs. Inna, Pinny and Rima. Martyrs. Vassa, Eusebius Eutyches and Basilides.
February 3 (January 21). Venerable. Maxim App. Martyr. Neophyte. Martyrs. Eugene, Candida, Valerian and Aquila. Venerable. Maxim the Greek. MR. Agnes virgin. Martyr. Anastasia. Ktitorskoy and called "Joy" or "Consolation", Vatopedskihikon Mother of God … "
So, for those who had the good fortune to be born on February 2, from a choice of six names, of which 4 are hardly at all! It turns out that born on this day had to be called Euthymius or Lawrence!
So. Now our main question. Who and when was this menologion?
The answer to this question provides bibliographic dictionary "Literature of Ancient Rus'. Calendar emerged as excerpts from Russian Lives, form the basis of the fundamental work, "Lives of the Saints."
Great Lives of the Saints (Great Martyr) ("Lives" — Dr. Rus. — Read "Saints" — from the Greek. Month) — a set of 12 monthly books (Saints), a kind of encyclopedia of ancient spiritual manuscript book-XVI century. Including original and translated sites, mostly hagiographic and rhetorical, Church didactic speech and other writings of the Church Fathers. The first Russian menology were compiled and edited the Moscow Metropolitan St.. Macarius (1428-1563). Next, better known compilation owned by the Rostov Metropolitan St.. Dimitrov (1651-1709).
So that is that! I'm just not there looking. More precisely sought to answer the question not in the century! Meanwhile, the answer to my question may be 100 years earlier in the century XVI, ie during the time of Ivan the Terrible!
Great Martyr were created as a kind of multi-volume collection of "all books chetih", "chtomyh" in Russia (mainly the "saints", intended for the "inspirational" reading). Their composition, selected and approved by the church, was to regulate the annual "reading circle" for each day. There are three "finishing" fully completed the list of the Great Martyr, essentially three separate edition, or rather — three 12-volume set of books: Sophia, Assumption and Tsar (List name given to the place of their original storage). Assumption Great Martyr list — the only one of the three remaining in full force on the shelves of the Patriarchal Library. Exterior Great Martyr books soaked in grand style "second monumental." The dimensions of each 12-volume set of books are huge and are consistent with the name of "great" Saints, in contrast to the much smaller volume of domakarevskogo Saints. Each of the 12 books of the Great Martyr has between 1,500 and 2,000 sheets of large format (called "senna").
Formation of three stationery lists Great Martyr lasted about 25 years. Creating a set of Great Martyr St. Sophia in Novgorod was launched in 1529-30 years. and lasted for 12 years. Create a list of Great Martyr Sophia happened in Novgorod under archbishop Makarios house productions of "many different clerks' and scribes, to rewrite the work, alter them and taking new orders and reconcile them to the original Greek," from foreign and ancient proverbs translating into Russian language, "wrote In the preface to the Great Martyr Macarius. For the formation of the initial composition of the Great Martyr were brought materials for all subservient to Archbishop Makarios Novgorod and Pskov libraries. Work on the Assumption and Tsarskoye lists partially be continued in Novgorod (where copy text Sophia list), but by becoming the Metropolitan "All Russia", Makarios was able to involve the scribes, and scribes of different cities and monasteries from all over Russia, and the final form of books is apparently under his supervision in Moscow, in its metropolitan's scriptorium.
Preceded the creation of the Great Martyr great plotting, translation and editorial work, she was solid and very significant ideological and stylistic treatment of the material collected spotted so that the presentation in the Great Martyr was designed in the same solemn and pompous style "second monumental."
So now we can understand when it appeared the "Lives of the Saints." But why, for what purpose they were made Makarios? We've come close to the analysis of events in the middle of the XV century.
The Orthodox Church and paganism.
In XII-XIII centuries. churchmen complained that their churches are empty:
"If any dancer or musician, or comedian would call for games, a gathering of pagan, all GLAD THERE rush and spend having fun all day. If summoned to church, we yawn, cheshemsya, sleepy stretch ourselves and respond: "Rainy, cool" or something to dissuade …
Merrymaking at no roof, no protection from the wind, but often the rain comes, the wind blows, a blizzard is blowing, but we treat all this gaiety, carried away by the spectacle, disastrous for our souls.
And in the church and a roof, and a pleasant atmosphere, but there people do not want to go. "
Paganism continued to exist in the broad layers of the common people, reflecting popular culture, ideology and worldview. A new view of the world to form initially in the princes and Boyarsky ENVIRONMENT.
This is an important point. Christianity is largely initially loses paganism. Observation NP Pavlova-Silvansky even in XV. Finnish tribes Vodskaya fifths (modern C-Petersburg Province) worshiped trees and stones, and brought them to the victim.
"Christianity in Rus implanted the" top "of the state authority."
His morality, his teachings, ceremonies it was quite alien to the primordial paganism Eastern Slavs. Between Christianity and paganism began centuries of struggle that led, eventually, to the so-called dualism — the synthesis of Christianity and paganism. Cardinal Ail early XV century. wrote to Rome:
"Russian to the extent brought together their Christianity with paganism, it was hard to tell that prevailed in the resulting mixture: Does Christianity, which took an early pagan or pagan, eradicate the Christian faith."
One of the defenders of Slavic paganism Jaroslav Dob in the XX century. expressed more emphatically:
"… Christianity — a very violent religion, uncompromising dissent," Do not come to bring peace, but a sword. For I am come to set a man against his father, and the daughter against her mother, a daughter-in-law her. And the enemies of man — his own household "(Matf.10) … And it shared! Sword and divided. And what could be worse than discord in the family? What could be worse than the civil war? Is it worth the god at least one such discord? And how many of them? "
And in the same context, he says:
"But whosoever shall deny me before men, I will disown him, I also before my Father which is in heaven." That is, in fact, it leads to the fact that it is better to renounce his father than me. Because otherwise to hell.
Paganism is less strict. It is more natural, more natural. There's a case, for example, drought is acceptable to threaten with his fist at the sky and tell Svarog all you think about. Christianity, in contrast, for such a fair human "bogonedovolstvo" promises to hell and terrible agony.
Russian culture was crushed by Christianity. That Christianity has sent her on a narrow path, causing the often lauded itself. The further from the X century, the more it shows … "
Will not focus on the language. Not the main point of this article. For us, the main thing — to find the motives that led to the fact that paganism in XV century, was declared a deadly war.