In Lima, Peru, opened the exhibition of archaeological finds in the caves of the Andes belonging to the mysterious people who conquered the Incas called it "lived in the clouds" because they lived in villages, situated on the slopes of the mountains covered with tropical forests and is often hidden behind the clouds. A few months ago in a cave in a farmer discovered the mummy, which was there for over 600 years, his face contorted with terror, his hands, his head and his mouth open. Beside her was the mummy of a child, and jewels, ceramics and textiles. Cave walls were decorated with paintings.Archaeologists very surprised origin grimace women. Some believe that she could not appear in the process of natural mummification. Others believe that the cause of the faces — changes to the body during mummification.
The name of this tribe — Chachapoyas (Chachapoyya). They were tall, white-haired and fair-skinned. Chachapoyas were one of the most advanced tribes of the Amazon. From 800 to 1500 of the kingdom extended to the territory of the Andes until they were conquered by the Incas. And the Incas and later the Spaniards accused of militancy desperate these tribes, who had sought refuge in the mountains and built settlements on the tops hidden in the clouds. It is known that Chachapoyya were farmers cultivating their fields and on mountain terraces. Mountain climate forced them to become excellent weavers and spiritual independence forced neighbors treated with caution and respect for local ideologues — the shamans.
The history of this nation is full of mysteries yet. Virtually all written records of the tribe were lost after the Spanish conquest of the Inca conquistadors in 1512. The first evidence of the existence of the "people of the clouds" back to the IX century BC, that is 600 years ahead of the appearance of the Inca Empire. Chachapoyya occupied forested mountains between the rivers Marañón Uayyaga and an area of 30,000 square kilometers They built hundreds of settlements in inaccessible mountain tops. Some settlements consisted of dozens of buildings, in others they were up to four. Fortified settlements powerful defensive works — it was a defense against their own neighbors because other groups in this area almost was not. However, despite the apparent mystery, the main characteristics of this culture is clearly back to the ancient Peruvian traditions — this burial mummies and stone buildings, and the tradition of the tissues.
From left Chachapoyas Kuelap citadel called at 3000 meters above sea level. It consists of more than 400 buildings and defensive towers, many of which have decorative cornices, and paintings on the walls, the newspaper Daily Mail.
Recall that skinned inhabitants of the Andes was very interested famous Norwegian explorer and adventurer Thor Heyerdahl. He pointed out that the Incas describe their gods as high, light-skinned and bearded, which does not correspond to any of the grounds of the famous racial groups that lived in South America. In addition, he found that the present inhabitants of high mountain lakes are building their papyrus boats modeled on ancient Egyptian.
The result of the experiment Heyerdahl is known: he built a papyrus boat "Ra" and crossed the Atlantic Ocean on it, reaching the coast of South America and thus proving the possibility that these tribes arrived from the Mediterranean. Interestingly, the first attempt, when Thor Heyerdahl built the ship, using materials and technologies, preserved in North Africa, has failed. The second ship — "Ra-2", which successfully crossed the Atlantic, was built from materials and technology present inhabitants of the Andes.
Age of Discovery in the past, and now it seems that every corner of the Earth is visible at a glance. Still, not all of the planet has opened its secrets. One of them is stored in more Amazon jungle in the north of Peru. Writer, traveler and host of Discovery Channel Josh Bernstein went to these places inaccessible to learn all about civilization chachapoyyas "cloud warriors", destroyed five centuries ago.
On the Inca civilization that existed in dokolumbovskie time in South America, heard all. But their immediate neighbors chachapoyyas, founders of a great culture, not many people know. In part, this is not surprising — the territory in which they lived "cloud warriors" as they called chachapoyyas Incas, natural conditions virtually isolated from the rest of the world. State chachapoyyas was in the "triangle" with two sides of the river are Utkubamba and Marañon, and reach these places, you can either rafting on the wild mountain streams, or breaking large areas impassable jungle and Amazonian Andes. It is this version and chose Josh Bernstein, when accompanied by local guides went to the city-fortress of Kuelap, a bulwark of civilization chachapoyyas.
City mummies — Kuelap
In his travels, Josh is not looking for extreme extreme — it is driven by the desire to solve puzzles and uncover the mysteries, and if it was up to Kuelapa can be reached by car, he would gladly do it. But that was impossible — part of the road passes through dense thickets of the Peruvian rain forest. Together with the conductors, he joined the fight against jungle, machete cutting through the path, without which in some areas is not done and a few steps. However, if at the time around here chachapoyyas jungle really was impassable, but now the forest gives way to a man — paths that can take the horses and mules, already. Carrying out of the way on horseback, some — on foot, Josh got to the slope, up to an increase of nearly three kilometers, he was at Kuelapa, the ancient stone city of Kuelap goroda.Kamenny covers an area of about six hectares and consists of 420 buildings, the largest of them — tower and a fortress. The city is surrounded by a massive wall 25 feet high, which made three narrow passage. Despite the fact that the castle was opened by archaeologists back in 1843, the opportunity to actively study it appeared just now. Researchers, a half century ago came to this place and found no high walls, and the ancient ruins sticking out of the ground. The fort was almost totally covered with rock.
To get to the truth, it was necessary to liberate the city from the stone prison. From the fortress for many years exported tens of tons of rock, and finally, in 2007, the team of archaeologists Alfredo Narvaez, project manager for the restoration Kuelapa saw the first houses and streets. According to Narvaez, the city was attacked by the Inca chachapoyyas age-old enemies, the inhabitants of the fortress were killed, and she was burned. Scientists made this conclusion because most of the mummies were scorched by fire, and their postures of horror and despair.
Josh Bernstein joined archaeologists in their work. But to get to the sites, had to go down a narrow stone wells. The travel Josh already had a prodelyvat — for example, the gold mines in Africa, near Timbuktu. Josh put on the helmet with a flashlight and a mask-respirator, without which it would be too heavy to breathe because of a cloud of dust, and, breaking several meters vertically, saw a picture of the terrible carnage that occurred more than five centuries ago. Perfectly preserved mummy — they were old men, women and children, covering the face and hands frozen in those positions in which they found the death.
The people of the legends
On culture chachapoyyas little is known — to discoveries in Peru, the existence of the people in general is in question, and references to the Incas of tall light-skinned "cloud warriors" many considered nothing more than a legend. Today, thanks to the discoveries of archaeologists managed to get though scarce, but more or less accurate knowledge about chachapoyyas. Already in the year 800 AD, it was a fairly advanced civilization, and the "triangle" between the two rivers was densely populated. Despite the isolation of the state chachapoyyas, there is evidence that they have links with other tribes living in the Andes. Findings prove chachapoyyas adeptness in metal and stone. They were good builders, in general, the culture was chachapoyyas farming.
They were good soldiers — this is confirmed by the evidence of the Incas, who tried with varying success to subdue these people for four centuries. The resistance of the "people of the clouds" lasted from around 1000 to 1460 years, until the fall of Kuelap fortress — the last bastion chachapoyyas. After that, a few representatives of the once great people, who managed to stay alive after a brutal massacre of the Incas, were forcibly relocated from their homes in the most different corners of the vast Inca empire that stretched from Ecuador to Chile.
But the confrontation between the two civilizations did not end. Chachapoyyas avenged their eternal enemies, when the territory of South America, the conquistadors came, and came to the side of the Spaniards. However, from the death of this did not save them: the 200 years of Spanish rule chachapoyyas number decreased by 90%. Most of them died from the disease listed in Europe, especially smallpox, and the rest were not able to preserve their identity and mixed with other indigenous tribes and peoples of the continent.
Josh Bernstein Strong Hand
Josh Bernstein, examining mummies found, was surprised to see the turtles some bullet holes. First, it put him in a dead end: the battle in Kuelape passed long before the conquistadors came to the mainland, and the Incas, as are chachapoyyas, firearms not know. However, the solution was found quickly. Scientists told Bernstein that the fatal injuries were caused by stones, fired from a sling. These "shells" flew up to three hundred meters, and a good 70 meters from the slingers almost always hit the head, and the man fell dead.
Josh decided to test the possibility of a sling in practice, and it made a special area: long shestyNASAdili skull, melons and pumpkins, which lead Discovery Channel made a fire. And then he realized that the martial arts to the Incas and chachapoyyas him away: unleash sling failed, but the stone did not fly in the direction you want Josh. The first two shots are not nearly reached the goal, but the third was a success: slingers managed to get into the skull — the truth, the strength is not enough even throw out to knock him off his pole.
Selva have something to hide
Archaeologists Bernstein told about another discovery made near Kuelap fortress — though the culture chachapoyyas it has a very indirect relationship. In 2005, during the study of this remote area of the Peruvian-German expedition was "accidentally" discovered a waterfall, was the third highest in the world! Therefore, from the fortress of Kuelap Josh went to the waterfall Gokta — is the name he was given the discoverers named the nearby poselka.Vodopad Gokta height 771 meters in the heart of the former kingdom chachapoyyas. To see the miracle of Peruvian Nature in all its glory, Josh had pretty sweat: route was now a truly impenetrable jungle and challenging rocky sections. It is because of its remoteness waterfall long remained in obscurity, and the local residents tried to stay away from him. According to legend, in its waters live the evil spirit that threatens to curse anyone who breaks his peace. However, Josh is not frightened by the news — in the travel he did not once had to deal with local superstitions and curses, but as yet none of them lead Discovery Channel did not work — and the audience all over the world continue to discover the unknown with Josh Bernstein!
VALLEY Nazca: ANCIENT WHITE CIVILIZATION IN PERU
For a long time, dismiss the theory that the true Native Americans were people of the white race was confirmed after the discovery of graves in the area of Paracas, Peru.
Below is a picture of one of these mummies recovered from the sandy tomb 2,000 years after burial. Feathers trimmed hat and a lovely coat, embroidered with colored woolen threads are preserved in the dry sands of the very good, as well as a long, straight red hair — Nordic racial priznak.Odnoy of the most famous ancient mysteries of South America are giant figures of Nazca Valley in Peru (see above), dating from around 500 BC Drawings, many of which can be seen only from a bird's flight, usually attributed to "the valley of the Nazca Indians." What, really? In the province of Paracas was found buried with a large well-preserved bodies of members of the upper class, and priests — about 400 mummies. Almost all of them had obvious signs of the white race, for example, red hair color prevailed.
These old white men in Central and South America were the prototype of the Indian legend of Quetzalcoatl, and other light-skinned gods, sailed across the ocean.