A few years before the Berkut: wing sweep back and Sukhoi

Very often it happens that things are better known in the literal sense, only the "tip of the iceberg." Such a situation exists with one of the projects nainteresneyshih design bureau named after Pavel Sukhoi. Their experimental aircraft C-37 — also known as Su-47, also known as "Golden Eagle" — about fifteen years back has attracted the attention of the widest audience. The main prerequisite for this was an unusual aerodynamic configuration with a reverse-swept wing. The C-37 was predicted a great future, and some serious aviation enthusiasts have calculated his chances of "kink" in a dogfight at least some enemy aircraft. But the company "Sukhoi" from the very beginning did not hide the fact that C-37 is the first experimental machine and it is too early to try to come up with him to combat work. Moreover, the Su-47 was not the first development of the design bureau, which was used in the reverse-swept wing. But past experiences almost did not get much publicity.

For a couple of years before the "Berkut": swept wing and Sukhoi

In 1979, the Municipal Committee in aeronautical engineering at the Council of Ministers of the USSR (GKAT) and the Department of Defense began to program from I-90. Its aim was to create a fighter that will serve the country in 90 years. By the 81 th year was ready "road map" of work and began a preliminary determination of the form of the future aircraft. After a series of discussions and debates, it was decided to place the main work of the project on MMP them. Mikoyan. The head of the State Committee for aircraft equipment IS Silaev sought to connect to work on a project I-90 from Sukhoi. But the management of the design bureau of the Committee was able to convince officials that their project Sou-27 is not only modern, and very promising. Because for the creation of a fighter 90s Sukhoi does not require additional work: It will be quite comparable by ordinary methods to modify existing equipment. Need to see this was the logic and, as it turned out, the fighters of the Su-27 will be used not only in the 90's, and years later. At the same time, the State Committee did not intend to give up the company "Sukhoi" without work. Also in '81, she was instructed to draft a stormtrooper 90s under the title of W-90.

For a couple of years before the "Berkut": swept wing and Sukhoi

In light of all these events looks very original initiative of the new chief designer Design Bureau. Sukhoi. Stamp Simonov, just step up the highest office, offered all the same to begin work on a completely new aircraft. The project was a promising fighter index S-22. Of course, a designation that is similar to one of the draft versions of the Su-17, was taken for a reason, and for "masking" active development. At the time, the leading design bureaus in the world once again "sick" thought-wing reverse sweep (CBS). Such carrier planes were immediately several features profitably differentiate them from the traditional wing. The reverse sweep through specific flow increases the aerodynamic efficiency of the wing in bolshennom range of speeds, increases the lift force, improves landing and maneuvering properties also have a beneficial effect on the resistance to stall. First experiments in the field of CBS date back to the 40 th year of the last century. But then, several design companies have not been able to cope with shortcomings reverse sweep. The fact that an increase in the flow rate observed positive divergence elastic wing — twisting, which can lead to structural failure. Strengthening iron power set offset the tendency to curl, but nullified the entire gain in the lift force. In addition, the drag of the wing swept back more than that in particular felt very at supersonic speeds.

The development of the aviation industry in the first half of the 80-ies of the last century has allowed to solve a large part of the characteristic problems of CBS. So, to fill the wing deformation offered by the introduction of composite materials, and the tendency of the aircraft to shake — edge flaps, and overwhelming. As planned by the designers of "dry", the elements of mechanization had to distribute flows from the wing and the influx of so that they not engage in the interaction between themselves in unsafe proximity to the aircraft. In the middle of the 80's all theoretical prepyadstviya been resolved and managed by the head designer VS Konohova in the Sukhoi completed the preparatory training aircraft project C-22.

For a couple of years before the "Berkut": swept wing and Sukhoi

Fighter, made by a "duck", was comparable in size with the Su-27. Thanks to newcomer wing and his delightful prospects could equip 23-ton machine with a single turbojet engine. Engineers have already started the preparation of all documentation for an experienced reference, when it was revealed a few bad project details. It turned out that there is no such engine that could single-handedly "pull" the car with such a take-off weight, which placed her worthy of flying characteristics. Additional verification of the project on the subject of research abilities alteration under another motor of overweight showed a perceptible fighter. Office of the design office had no choice, except to suspend project C-22, and begin to develop a new aircraft at its base. Refreshed version of a promising fighter received a code C-32.

For a couple of years before the "Berkut": swept wing and Sukhoi

Multi-carrier-based fighter Su-27km (later C-32), designed in OKB. Sukhoi to equip the Russian aircraft carrier project 1143.5 ("Smith"), 1143.6 ("Varyag") and atomic 1143.7 (head — "Ulyanovsk"). After the collapse of the Soviet Union the project Su-27km in the form of the creation of the combat fighter was discontinued due to curtailment of aircraft carriers and emerging financial problems, and the theme was transformed into a research project to study "the back-swept wing" (CBS), in which an instance of static strength tests were completed before the experimental aircraft P.37 "Berkut", now known as the Su-47 (photo http://www.buran.ru)

The main designer on the C-32 was assigned MA Pogosyan. Once considered several options for processing the C-22. In the end, more promising was recognized twin-engine fighter with vectored thrust. Its supposed to
be equipped with 2 RD-79M turbofan thrust of 18,500 kg each. These engines were the upcoming development of motor R79V, which was supposed to be installed on aircraft vertical takeoff and landing Yak-141. Unlike ordinary motor RD-79M had a huge craving and slightly reduced wear. But a number of problems with the creation of a new engine led team of engineers under the control of Simon and Pogosyan reconsider their eyes to the power plant C-32. Now plane offered to equip the AL-41F engines with a thrust to the estimated 18-19 tons. When applicable the specific consumption of fuel these engines due to traction allows for the possibility of the C-32 long flight at supersonic speeds without using afterburners. The same engine was assumed complete and other plane programs from I-90 — MiG 1.44 MFI.

Widespread use in the construction of the C-32 composite materials was the result of not only the desire to facilitate the design. Sukhoi has already had some experience in the area of reducing the radar visibility and considerations composites designers took far not the last. In addition, at the end of the machine, including technological, new ejection seat impacted. NGO "Star" offered radically latest concept pilot means of escape, which, apart from other things, allowed him to carry a huge overload, if little old. Accordingly, the estimated operating load has increased, necessitating further enhance the design. And again helped composites.

By the beginning of the creation of the C-32 aircraft active project of "dry" was no longer a secret to the Aviation industry. Because KB constantly reports on the progress of work in front of the Municipal Committee. But in 1988, when the financial situation in the country has become far not the best and a lot of defense companies began to experience severe difficulties GKAT decided to finish work on exciting, but inexplicable in terms of the prospects of the project. For the C-32 military intervened sailors. Awesome takeoff and landing data — even if calculated — were able to make this a good carrier-based fighter aircraft. Thus began a new stage in the biography of the aircraft with swept back wings.

For a couple of years before the "Berkut": swept wing and Sukhoi
Copyright © 2008 Vadim Lukashevich http://www.buran.ru

In the same 88-year designers "Dry" presented a preliminary design of carrier-based fighter Sou-27km. In practice, this was a "hybrid" of the Su-27K (Su-33) and C-32. From the first was taken virtually all the avionics and weapons, and the second to "share" a unique wing design. Such a unique approach to the early establishment of a new fighter-palubnika led to an increase in maximum take-off weight. Su-27km weight by almost 40 tons, which was 7,000 pounds more than the maximum take-off weight of the Su-33. Ramps Russian aircraft carriers were not designed for take-off so languid machines as "Ulyanovsk", which was planned to put the steam catapult, in 1988, was just laid. Needed a solution that would ensure the normal operation of the Su-27km in all types of Russian aircraft carriers. Due to the huge take-off weight of new aircraft had slightly insufficient thrust. Accordingly, he just did not have time to recruit the right to take-off speed of separation from the deck. After some research and test engineers Bureau behalf Sukhoi decided to recommend to the so-called Su-27km ballistic take-off from the springboard. The essence of this method is that the defect rate is compensated by the highest performance of the wing. Ballistic rise was followed should look as follows: plane by typing part of the take-off speed, breaks away from the front end of the ramp. By inertia is moving forward and upward, along the way picking up speed. After passing the highest point of the line ballistic movement, fighter (horizontal speed is still insufficient for this flight) is starting to lose altitude and continues to move forward. Upon reaching the height of the plane through the end of the springboard running at takeoff engines to gaining the appropriate speed and crosses in horizontal flight. A similar rise from the deck is likely only if the back-swept wing. The fact that the first phase of ballistic rise to such plane is the angle of attack at which the traditional risk Access wing stall. In turn, the CBS has a certain resilience in store and at the expense of greater lifting force plane earlier translates into a horizontal position. For greater reliability alignment Su-27km got more advanced mechanization, if was on the C-32.

For a couple of years before the "Berkut": swept wing and Sukhoi
Copyright © 2008 Vadim Lukashevich http://www.buran.ru

In behalf of the Sukhoi Design Bureau has already started to prepare the technical documentation for the most experienced of the Su-27km, but in May the 89th Military-Industrial Commission under the Council of Ministers and the Ministry of Defence concluded that the very great difficulty of this aircraft to take it on board. Project Su-27km lost its own status of a promising fighter for armed aircraft carriers. Still, the company "Sukhoi" allowed to continue work on CBS in an active manner and at their own expense. Prior to the termination of the municipal finance Sukhoi planned to build at the Irkutsk aircraft plant two flying prototypes C-32 and one static test airframe. But the closure of the project Su-27km and the following cash prepyadstviya across the country have led to the fact that all the work on the back of the wing sweep KB had to keep one hundred percent for their own account.

Eventually, in the late 80's and early 90's C-32 project has been revised significantly to the state, the designation C-37. The first flight of the aircraft, also known under the name "Golden Eagle", was held September 24, 1997. So Makar, the plane is the result of Russian and Russian works on the wing swept back up into the air almost 15 years after the start of the first research papers. With the start of flight tests C-37 almost none of its creators did not hesitate in the fact that this is not the fate of the fighter to become a drill machine, at least in the coming years. "Berkut" remained purely experimental aircraft. In our country, the idea has not been forthcoming CBS and development projects of the C-32 and C-37, regardless of the number of technologies that were first used on them were all just ordinary exciting original idea in the history of world aviation.

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