In 1976, as part of the forthcoming development of complex decision to equip the Tu-22M2 missiles Aeroballistic in different ways.
During the work on this topic has been remodeled one of the serial Tu-22M2 by experienced complex Aeroballistic with missiles.
The new complex has successfully passed the tests and was recommended to the adoption, but it was decided that the upcoming missile introduce a more advanced modification of the carrier aircraft Tu-22M3, which was successfully carried out in the first half of the 80s.
In 1977 — 1979 years have held joint municipal tests Tu-22M with Kh-22MP and X-28 with passive homing created to defeat the working ground and naval radar
In 1979, the GIS of K-22MP with Kh-22MP been successfully completed and the complex was also recommended to be adopted by vooruhenie.
Providing data from the Air Force requirements for the Tu-22M EDO Dov and companies involved and programmke creation and improvement of the aircraft and the complex, very difficult — particularly the achievement of the desired characteristics for maximum range and maximum speed, also on the forthcoming increase in the reliability of complex parts.
First, it was necessary to solve the problem of the engine. Taking into account the current situation with strong economical turbofans for languid supersonic combat aircraft, Oke ND Kuznetsova early 70's, after several attempts to make the best NC-22 (for example work on the NC-23) has made a new turbofan NC-25 ("E"), made three-shaft design and equipped with new systems, electrical automation, makes it very improve the performance of the engine on the different modes.
The biggest take-off thrust of NK-25 headed for 25,000 kgs, the specific fuel consumption at subsonic decreased to 0.76 kg / kg h
In 1974 he experienced NK-25 engines are tested with serial Tu-22M2, which received the designation Tu-22M2E. In the next two years, the new engine was a large amount of tests and dovodok in flights on the flying laboratory Tu-142LL.
Immediately with work on the NK-25 turbofans in the bureau turned Kuznetsova work on a promising NK-32 turbofans with essentially the best efficiency in the subsonic cruise flight. The engine in the future had to be unified type turbofan for many distant drums of regime our Air Force aircraft — for both strategic Tu-160 and Tu for the far-22M (initially draft Tu-160 was based on a power plant based on the NC-25).
In addition to the introduction of new engines, the bureau continued to aggressively work on the forthcoming reduction of weight of the empty aircraft through constructive activities and technological nature. There were also provisions to improve the aerodynamics of the aircraft.
These and some other very promising directions for future development of the aircraft resulted in an improved production series Tu-22M, Tu-22M3.
In January 1974 a decision on the upcoming modification of the Tu-22M2 under the NK-25 engines. In the course of study possible ways of modifying the Design Bureau, based on its own work, offers not only limited to the substitution of engines, and conduct further improvements in design and aerodynamics of the aircraft. In the end, June 26, 1974 the government issued a decree that determines the development of Tu-22M with engines NK-25, with improved aerodynamics, the airframe, with a reduced mass of empty aircraft and advanced tactical and operational features.
Brand new modification of the Tu-22M has received official designation Tu-22M3 ("45-03").
In addition to the introduction of the SC-25, DB held subsequent to such measures, substantially altered plane:
* Changed vozduhopoglotiteli vertical wedge on shovels vozduhopoglotiteli horizontal wedge.
* Increment the greatest differences between the rotary angle of the wing to 65 degrees.
* Introduced the latest elongated nose of the fuselage with a modified refueling boom.
* Changed paired dvuhpushechnuyu feed setting to odnopushechnuyu with improved aerodynamic contours.
* Ennobled removable units, condensed gap, changed fairings, etc.
Undertaken activities to decrease the mass of the empty aircraft: eased the main landing gear (defected to another type Copes, refused sliding system of the middle pair of wheels), introduced a lightweight stabilizer and rudder is shortened, the design of the inner wing made a one-piece, fled to titanium in the construction of fire walls and tail stekateley, changed the type of insulation and sealants, nipelnye pipe connections changed to solder, changed the hydraulic pumps and generators introduced in the measured frequency of alternating current electrical system, defected to the contactless generators in the system constant current, removing side languishing massive rotating converters, fled to a heat-resistant electrical wires, eased FCC units, the elements are manufactured by casting and forging, steel to do with negative tolerances. Any effort to reduce weight, even with the adherent masses of new engines were to provide an overall reduction in the weight of the empty aircraft 2300-2700 kg.
Spent in the elements of the configuration navigation system. Considered the issues to expand the options for shock weapons and upgrade avionics and REB. A question was raised about the introduction of a Tu-22M new PrNK, radar type "Browse" REP complex instead of separate units with ECM, new types of missiles, including aeroballistic and kreysiruyuschih subsonic.
As a result of all the improvements carried out in the design of the plane, its flying characteristics in the end had to reach the values of the respective requirements of the regulations in 1967.
The new project of modernization has caused a lot of enthusiasm on the part of the customer — there was a real opportunity to make a much better tactical flight characteristics of aircraft and expand the capacity and efficiency of the overall impact of aviation complex.
Taking into account the anticipated high quality leap in the development of the Tu-22M, a customer at the initial stage of existence of the Tu-22M3 gave newcomer ssmoletu new designation Tu-32.
In the upcoming tightening due to the development of many promising directions of modernization on the complex left common designation Tu-22M3.
Well-coordinated work EDO and the production plant is permitted to carry out an immediate and thorough modernization of the aircraft prepared for flight tests first experimental Tu-22M3, which made the first pslet June 20, 1977 (commander test pilot A.D.Bessonov). After executing applets flight development tests of Tu-22M3 with 1978 runs in batch creation. Until 1983, the Tu-22M3 is constructed along with the Tu-22M2, and since 1984 in the series was only Tu-22M3. A total of several hundred CAPO built Tu-22M. Batch creation of the aircraft was discontinued in 1993.
Tests of the first Tu-22M3 showed that in their flight and tactical aircraft features the latest modifications are significantly higher than the Tu-22M2. In fact, in charge of flight traits managed to reach the requirements in 1967, with significant increase in combat capabilities of aircraft and the entire complex. Joint Municipal Tu-22M3 tests were completed in 1981, and the aircraft was recommended for the adoption.
From 1981 to 1984, the plane took an additional set of tests in a version with advanced combat skills, including in the version equipping Aeroballistic missiles. New weapons systems claimed the extra time on tests and fine-tuning them, because in the final form of the Tu-22M3 officially accepted into service only in March 1989.
Prospects for the development of the complex Tu-
22M3 associated with the modernization of avionics rearmament promising high-precision weapons systems and the provision of necessary resources and service life of the airframe of the carrier, its systems and equipment.
The main goals of modernization are:
* Expanding military capabilities of the complex;
* Increase the defensive capabilities of aircraft in a combat mission, navigation accuracy, reliability and noise immunity of communication;
* Ensuring the effectiveness of the introduction of the latest generation of rocket guns, bomber weapons, both managed and unmanaged.
In terms of modernizing the avionics on the Tu-22M3 need to install the latest functional radar with enhanced abilities and overestimated noise immunity. In units and avionics equipment required transition to the latest modern element base, which will allow to provide drop size and weight of the avionics, should also reduce the power consumption of the equipment.
The proposed measures to modernize the avionics in totality with the ongoing work on the extension of life characteristics will provide the opportunity of effective operation of the aviation system to the 2025 — 2030 period.
All these activities are constantly bureau conducts, improving and developing the basic structure of the complex of Tu-22M3 by designing since the creation of the complex are several options for its development.
As mentioned earlier, apart from the main options for remote missile-bomber armed with bombs and missiles Kh-22N was prepared variant, armed with anti-radar missiles on the basis of X-22H missiles and rockets Aeroballistic.
By the early 80-ies EDB prepared and submitted to the creation of several versions of the Tu-22M is different from the basic armament and equipment.
The introduction of the sighting system apparatus reconnaissance and target designation allowed dovooruzhit Tu-22M anti-radar missiles, and then Aeroballistic missiles of various types. At first, these works were applied to the Tu-22M2, and then on to the Tu-22M3. In the 80 years of this work culminated in success — serial Tu-22M3 and received an option to Aeroballistic missile missiles at ISU and vnutrifyuzelyazhnyh but wing ejection systems.
To substitute aircraft jammers Tu-22PD in the 70s was an attempt on the basis of the creation of the director of Tu-22M.
In the process, turned into a bot director serial Tu-22M2. The aircraft, designated Tu-22MP, passed the tests, but in the series and on the arms was not sent because of the complex nedovedennosti REP. This coming from the idea of special aircraft REP group and refused to bet on the equipment serial Tu-22M3 new effective complexes REP personal and group protection, which began to be installed on the Tu-22M3 with the second half of the 80s
As noted above, the Tu-22M3 was supposed to install the engines HK-32, in order to better unify its properties and its propulsion system with another aircraft design bureau — strategic Tu-160.
To test the latest power plant converted one of the serial Tu-22M3, but prior to installation of new engines is not reached in the upcoming This machine was used as a flying laboratory for the testing of the new equipment and weapons.
In 1992, the bureau together with LII TSAGI based on the 1st of the first production of Tu-22M3 has made a flying laboratory Tu-22MLL created for a wide range of full-scale flight of aerodynamic research.
In addition to these options built Tu-22M EDO were studied in several projects, aircraft modifications and upgrades, work on which is not out of the initial design stages. In 1972 the bureau for Naval Aviation has prepared a technical proposal for a radical modernization of the Tu-22M. The project received the designation of "45M".
According to the draft, "45M" had to be equipped with 2 engines NK-25 or HK-32 and have an unusual aerial assembly, to a certain extent similar to the assembly of South American scout SR-71, combined with a variable-sweep wing.
The shock of arms assumed 2-type missiles X-45.
But this project was not accepted for the forthcoming implementation due to difficulties with a fundamental restructuring of mass production and with an adequate rate of loss of output and re Air Force with new aircraft, that at that time the Soviet Union to allow himself could not.
There were projects on the basis of the creation of the various modifications of the Tu-22M remote interceptor Tu-22DP (AP-1) capable of beating not only with shock planes at huge distances from protected objects, and with the AWACS aircraft, transport aircraft connections, as do strike functions
In addition to these there were a few other development projects in the Tu-22M on the basis of the introduction of upgraded engines, new systems, equipment and weapons, for example — projects Tu-22M4 and Tu-22M5. Work on the complex Tu-22M4 began in the middle of the 80s (until 1987 the topic was how profound modernization of the Tu-22M continued to wear the designation Tu-32)
The project was a modification of the serial Tu-22M3 with a view to the forthcoming increase the combat effectiveness of the complex zone by equipping aircraft with new equipment and weapons
First introduces a new sighting and navigation system, which came a modern navigation system, made on the basis of a new element base; inculcated brand new onboard radar type "Browse" modernized complex ECM, brand new optical sighting system, and the individual units of equipment internal and external communications are replaced by a single set , introduced a system boost fuel tanks with the introduction of watery oxide, etc.
The new composition of the use of the equipment provided in the complex as a full-missile missile systems and precision bombing and missile weapons. On the creation of the program there Tu-22M4 to the early 90's was built experimental aircraft, but in 1991 on money judgments on the work were actually curtailed in favor of a cheap applets "small upgrade" serial Tu-22M3 upgraded under the flight complex and control system aircraft guns
Experienced Tu-22M4 was used for work on the forthcoming modernization of the complex.
In 1994, the bureau in an active manner, a draft of the forthcoming upgrade serial Tu-22M3 and Tu-theme development 22M4. Increase the combat effectiveness of their estimated due to the growth and renewal of the range of weapon systems, with a focus on high-precision instrument, the forthcoming modernization of avionics, reducing visibility signatures aircraft carrier, to improve the aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft (modification contours of the wing, improved aerodynamics and the local properties of the outer surfaces).
In the complex planned missile was supposed to include the promising high-precision anti-ship missiles and tactical missiles mission air-to-air (for self-defense and implementation of complex functions of aircraft maintenance and the "raider") in Bomber typing modern free-falling and managed (corrected ) bombs.
The structure of the modernized avionics to be introduced: new sighting and navigation system, upgradable system management tools, on-board radar "Browse" or promising the latest radar, upgraded communications system, modernized complex ECM or promising new complex.
According to the airframe were subjected to refinement: the nose of the airplane; socks middle part of the wing and rotary-wing fairings over the nodes of the rotation of the wing; zakilevaya aft fuselage and rudder.
Especially for delivery over the limit, the Design Bureau developed an export version of the Tu-22M3 — plane Tu-22M3E having some featuring in the arms and equipment, taking into account the recent improvements serial Tu-22M3 on the composition of avionics requirements of the potential foreign
customers, and international obligations of the USSR and the Russian Federation. As future purchasers of aircraft can be considered to countries such as India, China, Libya and others
In addition to these works on the development of the Tu-22M, the bureau under the conversion program in the second half of the 90s was considered the draft SPS administrative class Tu-344 for 10-12 passengers, the creation of which is supposed to be based on the Tu-22M2 or Tu- 22M3.
In considering the possibility of the creation of the bureau on the basis of the carrier aircraft Tu-22M3 promising aerospace system (AKC).
It must be emphasized that, in the aerospace systems in the bureau as a more expedient and have the prospect of implementation and future development are considered two directions.
First trend — the creation of commercial systems based on available carrier aircraft Tu-160 and Tu-22M3 for real time orbit relatively small loads needed.
Second trend — the development and flight testing of experimental systems for testing parts of future hypersonic vehicles, including ACE and videoconferencing, first hypersonic ramjet WFD.
The introduction of a carrier aircraft Tu-160 allows for removal of the low-Earth orbit a payload of up to 1100 — 1300 kg. This topic is quite well-developed in the bureau as part of AKS "Bourlak." In contrast aviotsionno-space complex on the basis of the carrier aircraft Tu-22M3 can provide injection into orbit a payload weighing 250-300 kg The project bureau, according to his views developers have more opportunities for practical implementation than the game on the basis of the Tu-160, due to the larger number of possible aircraft carriers, and most likely a network-based airfields
For the near future the world manifested a clear trend away from the languid and expensive functional units gallakticheskih to use small space created on the basis of the latest achievements of micro-miniaturization of equipment onboard equipment necessary loads and service systems SC This trend price gallakticheskoy equipment into orbit is reduced by 20 — 30% year, and the terms of the creation of new satellites fall from 8 — 10 years to 2 — 3 years, the cost to create them quickly pay for themselves in the class of small spacecraft launched a year to 20 units weighing up to 250 kg. In this class are created spacecraft subsequent fates: the spacecraft systems for mobile communications (weighing 40-250 kg), remote sensing satellites (weighing 40-250 kg), and technological institute of spacecraft (weighing 10-150 kg).
At the current time the main means of starting small spacecraft continue to be one-off boosters ground start Daylight game and a game that is based on the Tu-22M3, will allow significantly lower cost characteristics derive the required loads and provide a number of tactical advantages in comparison with launches using ground-based missile carriers start. An estimated bureau, aerospace complex based on the Tu-22M3 can be created and brought to the stage of commercial use for 3 — 4 years
In the second direction (making videoconferencing and work on hypersonic aircraft) but the basis of the carrier aircraft Tu-22M3 can be created by aircraft experimental facility for testing accelerator hypersonic flying laboratory "Rainbow-D2" development GosMKB "Rainbow", which may provide a suitable breeding a trajectory of experimental apparatus with a scramjet working on an ordinary hydrocarbon or cryogenic fuel
Modified version of the serial Tu-22M3 in the export performance of the Tu-22M3E, taking into account the special requirements of the customer, it is proposed foreign customers with a slightly different set of shock weapons. Complex than the use of the export version of the X-22ME, has advanced the ability to use different types of missiles, including missiles entered service in these countries, such as missiles, "BrahMos", developed together Indian and Russian companies.
The first of the combat units in the distant aircraft Tu-22M was the 185th Guards TBAP in Poltava. The personnel of the regiment retrained on the Tu-22M2 Tu-16. Polk fairly quickly mastered the new machines and complex. Also in 1974, the Tu-22M2 began arriving in the combat units of Naval Aviation. During the 70s and 80s a few regiments And Naval Aviation fled on the Tu-22M2 and Tu-22M3. After the collapse of the Soviet Union Tu-22M remained exclusively within the Air Force of the Russian Federation and Ukraine (the last Tu-22M3 was in split in Ukraine in the past year). The Tu-22M2 and Tu-22M3 bombers took part in the fighting during the Afghan war, limited the Tu-22M3 bombers took part in the counter-terrorist operation in Chechnya.
At the current time in the Distant Aviation and Navy aviation operation takes a significant amount of Tu-22M3, all remained in the ranks of Tu-22M2 in the early 90's, were removed from the Air Force and disposed of as redundant for the modified structure of Russian Air Force.
The long-lasting successful operation of the complex Tu-22M3, its highest modernization potential, also achieved during his long years of flying and tactical characteristics can read about it as a unique means of struggle for land and naval theaters of war, including as an effective tool to address with carrier strike groups, as well as a means of delivery of advanced aircraft weapons for the destruction of a wide range of purposes in the operational and tactical depth of combat formations as in the case of local conflicts, and in the case of a global conflict with the introduction of mass destruction, in the criteria for the introduction of modern air defense systems .
All this was made possible not only because of the many design features incorporated in the basic design and developed in the course of development of the complex, and acquired the highest performance features as the aircraft, and the entire complex as a whole. For example, the operation of the Tu-22M3 can be used with more than 10 variations of weapons. The transition from the 1st option of weapons (missiles, bomber or mixed) to another is provided in operation as soon as possible.
Conducting tactical flight maneuvers with the introduction of the Tu-22M3 in various regions of the country showed that the aircraft can be operated with operational airfields with the lowest cost of training equipment and weapons. This is clearly confirmed in the role of the Tu-22M3 in combat operations in Afghanistan and in the North Caucasus
Successful use of complex Tu-22M3 contributed to the waste system operation, which included:
* Logistics, whose main task was to supply technical equipment, ground support, fuels and lubricants, spare parts, supplies and ammunition to carry out all types of work on the aircraft and its combat introduction;
* Provision of radio that allow for the flight of aircraft in the terminal area, and the vast distances from it;
* Other types of material and technical support, allowing to use the excellent complex Tu-22M3.
Plane (the compound aircraft) as soon as possible can be prepared for relocation to the operational airfield, located at distances from the airport home base in 5000-7000 km. Ordnance for the first sortie usually transported on board samopeta. The presence of the APU can provide training for combat operations immediately after landing on an operational airfield. The waste system operation of the complex allows for the preparation of the aircraft at the base airport using stationary ground support, and operational airfields using available mobile facilities and technical aid kits used by the ITS relocation.
All this allows you to use a set of perfectly in any theater of war, in different latitudes and weather zones as the basis, and on operational airfields.
Taking into account th
e large residual life of the existing Tu-22M3 and the fact that the composition of the Russian Air Force has quite a huge number of Tu-22M3, bureau continues to work on the upcoming modernization of the fleet of Tu-22M3. As noted above, the aircraft must obtain high-precision weapons, avionics refreshed composition. The Design Bureau is also under constant work to improve the life characteristics of the complex and its component parts. Modernization applets on the Tu-22M3 should significantly impact the potential increment of the complex plane and by ensuring its effective operation for at least for 20-25 years. So makarom Tu-22M3 with upgraded avionics, Retrofit precision weapons, more long years will form a significant part of the fighting strength of the strike force Distant Russian aviation and naval aviation.
A brief technical description of the Tu-22M3.
On their own, the layout design scheme of Tu-22M3 is a twin-engine, all-metal nizkoplan with 2 turbofans, mounted at the rear of the fuselage-wing sweep in flight and swept tail opereniem, with tricycle landing gear with the front pillar to the airframe and its components are used in The rated duralumin and titanium alloys, durable and heat-resistant steel, non-metallic materials of construction.
The wing consists of a motionless center section — the middle part of the wing (SCHK) and 2-rotating parts (PCHK) — consoles have the following fixed positions on the corner of the sweep 20, 30 and 65 degrees. The angle of the cross "V" wing — 0 degrees. Boom arm has a geometric twist, the angle of twist — 4 degrees. SCHK sweep across the front edge — 56 degrees. Two-spar wing center with back wall and bearing panels cladding. Rotary console attached to the center section by means of hinge assemblies rotate. Lift consists of the three-section slats and flaps dvuhscheleeyh on consoles and rotary flap on the center. Foreseen locking flaps and slats at the corners of the sweep of more than 20 degrees. Console equipped with rider platform interceptors to control the slope (no ailerons on a plane) Turn the wing panels made using an electro-hydraulic drive system with ball screw units connected between a synchronizing shaft.
The fuselage of semi-monocoque construction, reinforced with strong longitudinal supports (BIMS) in gruzootsekah The forward fuselage of the radar, crew cab, designed for 4 people (captain, assistant captain, navigator, navigator and co-driver-operator), equipment bays, the frontal recess landing gear. Jobs crew ejection seat equipped CT-1M. In the middle of the fuselage fuel tanks are located, niches main landing gear, gruzootsekah, vozduhopoglotiteley channels. At the rear of the fuselage, engines and brake parachute compartment
Vertical tail consists of a dorsal fin and technologically detachable keel and rudder fin Sweep 57 degrees horizontal tail consists of 2-whole-of the wing with a sweep of 59 degrees hydraulic control console with control actuators.
Tricycle landing gear, nose support — two-wheeled, tucked away on the flight back. The main three-axle six-wheel bearings are removed in the wing, and partly in the fuselage. Wheels main supports are equipped with hydraulic disc brakes and automatic devices antiyuzovoy Wheels are the main pillars of the size of 1030×350, the front — 1000×280
The power plant includes two double-circuit turbofan engine with afterburner NC-25 multi-mode adjustable vozduhopoglotiteli horizontal wedge and managed recharge and bypass valves, on-board auxiliary unit, the fuel and oil systems, control systems and control units of the power plant. Afterburning turbofan has the highest takeoff thrust, 25000 kg and the highest takeoff besforsazhny -14 500 kgs. The auxiliary power unit TA-6A starts the engines on the ground, on-board AC power supply and a constant current to the ground and in the cases of abandoned in flight, air-powered aircraft systems on the ground and in some cases discussed in flight. Fuel is located in the fuselage and wing (and center-console) sealing fuel sides, filled with inert gas filling system, also in the dorsal fin tank. Vozduhopoglotiteli Soviet-type horizontal ramp equipped with feeding and bypass valves, and automatic control system vozduhopoglotiteley.
Digital flight control and navigation complex aircraft inertial navigation systems provides automatic navigation solution, manual, automatic and automatic cross-country flight in a horizontal plane with provision of pre maneuver and approach, issuing the necessary disk imaging to automatically exit the aircraft in a given area at a given time; the issuance of the required disk imaging aircrew, also in complex systems
The aircraft is equipped with on-board equipment distant and near-navigation (RSDN and RSBN), automatic radio compass, sighting and navigation radar type PNA interfaced with the control system of missiles like the X-22N. Aircraft to equip blind landing system, radio altimeters large and small heights. Connection to the land and the aircraft made using VHF radio transceiver and KB. Vnutrisamoletnaya communication between crew members carried out by aircraft intercom.
Missiles Tu-22M3 consists of one (under the fuselage in semi-flush position), 2-(under the wing) or 3 (option handling) UR X-22N (or AI) designed to defeat big sea and radar-contrast ground targets at a range of 140-500 km. Launch mass of 5900 kg, length 11.3 m, maximum speed corresponds to M = 3.
Armament hypersonic bomber completed (M = 5) Aeroballistic short-range missiles X-15, created for the destruction of stationary ground targets or the enemy's radar. 6 missiles are located in the fuselage on the drum rocker launchers, four rocket hung on outdoor sites under the wings and fuselage.
Missiles of the X-22N are: fuselage in semi-flush position in the fuselage gruzootseke on the sliding Trimmer holder DB-45F, ~ wing pylon on the beam holders DB-45K. Aeroballistic missiles — but the ISU and catapult wing installations.
Bomb armament, consisting of ordinary and svobodnopadayuschih nuclear bombs weighing up to 24,000 kg, is located in the fuselage (up to 12,000 kg) and 4 sites outside of the suspension on devyatizamkovyh beam holders MBDZ-U9-502 (standard versions of bomb load — 69 FAB-250 or eight FAB-1500). In the future, may be adopted Tu-22M3 correctable precision bombs, as the new CD to destroy ground and sea targets.
Aiming at bombing done by radar and optical bombsight with set-top box.
The defensive armament of aircraft consists of a gun-type weapon with a gun GS-23 (with a shortened barrel unit, installed vertically and has increased to 4,000 rounds / min rate) to the computing unit and telepritselom VB-157A-5, paired with small radar sight. The aircraft developed to equip the complex ECM and automatic clutter