February 2, 1943 victory of the Red Army which ended in the greatest battle the second World War — the Battle of Stalingrad. According to the Supreme Commander of the IV Stalin: "Stalingrad was the decline of the German-fascist army. After the Battle of Stalingrad, as you know, the Germans were unable to recover. "
Specifically, the battle for Stalingrad began August 23, 1942 a terrible German air raid that lasted until August 29, raid, in which participated more than 1,000 German aircraft. The city, in which there was no military connections, but hundreds of thousands of peaceful inhabitants, including evacuees from the West, the Germans already occupied areas, was actually burned and destroyed, and many 10's of thousands of peaceful inhabitants, including ladies and kids were killed .
By the evening of August 23, the strike group of the 6th German Army came to the Volga River north-west of Stalingrad. Urban perimeter defended by the 10th Infantry Division of the NKVD — the main force of the Stalingrad garrison at this time. Soon the protection of the northern and central parts of the town stood 62th Army General Vladimir Chuikov, and southern — 64th army General MS Shumilov. The two armies were the main forces and the defense of Stalingrad.
In this article I am not going to describe the history of the Stalingrad battle. I would like to convey our feelings and the spirit of the defenders of Stalingrad on the example of my older brother's letters to Marx Ivanovich Alferov, while 18-year-old boy, who fought a platoon leader, company commander and then gunmen in the southern part of Stalingrad from 26 October 1942 until the victory and the capture of Field Marshal F. Paulus in the central square of the town Jan. 31, 1943.
Marx was born in Polotsk, Belarus, January 1, 1924 and was named by my parents in honor of Karl Marx, I was born six years later in Vitebsk, and his name was in honor of Jean Jaures — fiery tribune, the founder of the French Socialist Party and the newspaper "L'Humanite . "
Our ancestors — Ivan Karpovich and Anna — born and raised in Belarus. Seventeen year-old father of a young man in 1912 came to St. Petersburg to find work. He worked as a porter at the port, a laborer at the St. Petersburg plant. In World War I he — brave hussar, a non-commissioned officer of the 4th Hussars Mariupol, and in September 1917 joined the Bolshevik party and kept the faith in the communist standards for life.
Marx graduated from high school June 21, 1941 and decided to volunteer in a reddish army and started working at a defense plant apprentice turner. Marksik, as it was called at home, took a great reputation in the factory and in the midst of youth (he was elected secretary of the Komsomol of the plant), and among the older generation.
In February 1942, Marx Ivanovich Alferov is a cadet of the Sverdlovsk Infantry School, for 6 months was preparing platoon commanders socialist army.
Study began with the formation of the quarantine and study groups. The first letter is felt as a young man still hard to break away from home and he misses him.
From a letter dated 03/03/42
I am now in the morning to write you a letter pessimistic enough content for the moment the night, I platoon duty and because I do not sleep. During the day I settled down a little, found out something. In-1's, 2 exams passed — by Russian and arithmetic — and more of them will not. The tests are not very difficult, perhaps, they would have passed Jora. (So he called me. — Comm. Aut.)
The composition of future students is heterogeneous, there with 5 classes and have a higher education …
From the time I got on the train, I did not take off Vatanka: it documents sad that you, the mother, tried, sewed it for me, and someone else will be wearing. 6 months will be trained, and then will be sent to the part, so that the front, the mother would get no less than a month after 9-10. (It is not enough to calm even though her mother.)
Well, that I was in Sverdlovsk, you will occasionally run into, well, of course, to get to artillery school in Irbit would be even better …
This is an excerpt from the first letter. Irbit — between the city of Turin, where we lived, and Sverdlov, widely known for its motorcycle factory: they have made very popular, the most massive Russian tales M-72.
And he has to be in the hunt to Artillery School, where his knowledge and capabilities could be even more useful!
From a letter dated 06/03/42
Veterans … they say that we beat the German's great that now fire the Germans fell by 50 percent. They say the Germans are very afraid of our gun Katyusha. You Jaures, teach the German language. In the middle of many Germans know the Russian and therefore are often forged by our …
In our company strongly many married, they remember the women, well, I'm not counting the one you do not …
From a letter dated 20/04/42
Well … what about a subscription to a loan I have already said that we immediately signed up in 1000, no less certain for 2300 rubles. But someone figured out and decided that we will not pay this amount as required equal Shred, and later grandmother wrote on the water truck, turn out of us lieutenants. And we are all overwritten. I am now 300 p …
You signed up for a loan is excellent. Dad on a six, and his mother (how are you, Mother, for the moment you receive?). If 350 p., It means the mother signed up for a six-week salary.
But Juarez — it's just done, signed by 50 rubles and, most importantly, organized membership in the class …
You, Dad, you write to me, that I learned to peel the enemy. Do not worry, let alone finish, and I'm not osramlyu Alferov …
I know that war is a hard thing. But I know what I'm going to fight.
I will go at their own people, for his happiness, honor. I will follow you, my family. To liberate Belarus, where we were born, and where our family, my grandmother, there is the grave of my Protz, there burned their houses. I'm going to destroy the invaders at Leningrad. I will be among the many rescue from failure of Leningrad, to help out his uncle and his family.
I fight, my father was a free man, Mom — free agent's po
pulation, Big Brother — a man and a man with the Coming great future. I will fight for himself. For your and our right to a free life.
You Jaures, well done, what are you doing charging. This is a very strengthen you. But what about the loan you are completely done. Do you, I wrote a big salary for bibliotekarstvo, etc., so that you bring the money earned by their labor …
For your parcel to you endlessly I'm grateful, especially for the carrots. Can you imagine the delight with which I have eaten! Well, of course, is a delicacy, and you practically unavailable …
Re-reading these letters, I think I would have felt Marx now, if I were alive, reading our newspapers, watching TV. What he would have thought after hearing that "this would have lost the war and now would drink Bavarian beer", and from the front-line soldier, writer V. Astafeva that "it was necessary to pass the Leningrad". To what moral emptiness must be kept down to become advocates of betrayal, you can buy someone a bottle of vodka, and who is behind all the bank account. This stately Russian people, it's not quite so long ago Russian people klyavshiesya allegiance to the communist standards, some — nedavneshnie members of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU, is now sending curses stately humanistic ideas of communism!
Letters from school — is writing young men for the first time who left his home and family. Almost all of it is appalling, almost all of the letters a few words about their own well-being, and between the lines is clearly seen as a young cadet has always hunt.
Graduation took place at the end of August, and to come to Turin failed, it immediately sent to a part in a small town in the Molotov (now Perm) region — Warm Mountain.
Here was formed and studied specifically for the battle of Stalingrad 96th separate brigade of Stalin. Rank and file of the brigade consisted of students, border guards and sailors of the Pacific Fleet, junior officers — graduates of the schools. But since the company commanders — is already fighting officers who took part in the fighting, after many wounds and healing in the hospitals.
From a letter dated 13/09/42
(One of the first letters of warm Mountains)
The apartment … I found delightful. Bed with feather bed. I arranged with the hostess, she told me that every day will pour a pint of milk … The apartment has 5 kids, the eldest walks to school … amazing food in the dining room: frontline rations.
From a letter dated 09/20/42
… That's already the second day in command of a platoon of auto-matchikov … The work themselves realize brand new and exciting.
The whole family with the father at the head, I congratulate with assignment plant Red Banner T-bills. As I walked down the street and read about it, I was smiling from ear to ear with joy and surprise passers-by looked at me.
From a letter dated 09/29/42
Now I'm going to the front to defend the social gains. Revolution against Hitlerism.
Wherever you get, throughout their homes. Stalingrad. West, Leningrad, so the food at home …
Long live the life and victory in the name of it, be confident in me, I'll fight against fascism and courageous stands, I swear to you, and not osramlyu our name.
The Germans attacked us, well, let hold, we will prove them their right to life, liberty and happiness.
Well, dear, only better for you, your loving son and brother Marx Alferov.
From a letter dated 26/10/42
Now … I'm on the front … Places where I stand, the familiar, where I was trained in the 5th, 6th grade, however, it was a long time ago …
Marx was the Stalingrad front in the 64th Army, commanded by General MS Shumilov, and he had to fight a war in those places: the southern suburbs of Stalingrad, Beketovka where we lived in the years 1935-1937. So he almost defended his own house!
In the book, the commander of the Stalingrad Front Marshal Russian Union AI Eremenko "Stalingrad" has the following lines:
"By this time is another fundamental counterattack of our troops, who had his own purpose in-1's, relieve the 62nd Army, and second, 2, — this is important — to divert the enemy's attention from the direction of preparing a counter-offensive. Well-organized, this counter-attack was applied to the right flank of the 64th Army, General Shumilova in Kuporosnoe …
On the site for many fierce fighting broke out, which lasted from October 25 to November 1. They particularly excelled 96th Infantry Brigade, Colonel Fyodor Pavlovich carefully … While promoting our units was only 3.4 miles, but the enemy had to keep significant forces here and here even throw his last reserves. In these critical days of the struggle to maneuver the enemy was almost completely eliminated. Results counterattack once said, for a number of days to stop fighting the enemy in the original part of Stalingrad. The enemy suffered heavy losses, which, of course, have also led to the deterioration of their strike groups. " (AI Eremenko. Stalingrad. Moscow: Military Publishing, 1961. Pp. 236-237.)
From a letter dated 09/12/42
For 40 days I sent to you first letter from the front.
Darlings, I left home, "a non-smoker and non-drinker — an angel, not a son." I'll smoke NIGHT MODE, smoke of days, and when there is vodka and drink will not give up. First day at the front, in good conscience say it was scary, but now nothing, all right, as if the way it should … Do dad, class products and more. It requires a lot of gunpowder …
During the break between those 2 letters (from 10/26/42 and 12/09/42), the country sighed with relief. In late October, we all know that in Stalingrad the fate of the war, and although we all believed in the victory, but understand what the zigzag and the heavy is the way to it.
And so it happened: surrounded army Paulus, repulsed an attempt to relieve her stein. We know that the most languid fraction of the men had the 62 th and 64 th Army generals VI Chuikov and MS Shumilova who fought in the Stalingrad. In some of them fought son of my parents, my elder brother Marx.
From a letter dated 17.12.42
Now momentous day in my life: I now accepted as a candidate for the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks). Well, Dad, I am now a candidate for that party to which you will be held for 26-Year …
From a letter dated 18/12/42
Brother, you're asking to describe the fight against the German occupiers. It's a longish story, tell it better than the outline. Well, you know you did: barrage, and you creep forward, closer to the Germans, barrage was over — beating up our machine guns, crawled, jumped 30 feet, threw a grenade, you open fire with a machine gun, broke into the trench, the bunker, the Germans get away, the front edge is broken, you really do not think that it's all so simple, as I wrote …
In one letter, I asked whether he was killing Germans, and if so, how many killed. Marksik in his own letter said that only a day receiving my letter, he crawled out on the "hunt" and killed five of the Nazis, and all — it was a letter in January 40 the third year — has destroyed more than 30 Nazis.
From a letter dated 01/01/43
Happy New Year, although the letter comes and a month after that date, yes, I now hit 19 years old. It's a pity that I did not get a brand new year, your parcel, well, nothing new year and my birthday we celebrated well.
The wine was a starter and was so day or two, 31 th from 12 am until the 1st 12 hours, we walked, of course, not zapamyatyvaya about the enemy …
43rd year will be the year of the defeat of Nazism.
Your son and brother Marx Alferov.
From a letter dated 01/04/43
Yesterday I received from you, the mother, was a letter from 16/12/42 Thanks for the congratulations
on the New Year and days of birth … You're congratulating me with a baptism of fire, yes, 2 months and 1 day I first walked in time coming, and with the time is not losing my best.
You ask me:
1. Do terribly. At first, there is little, and after a damn thing about horror and not thinking. 2. The food is regular. 3. Have to sleep. Mother, because the front is the same life, and if you do not sleep, do not eat and tremble with fear, then you can die …
Came the decisive and last battle to eliminate the army surrounded F. Paulus.
From a letter dated 01/08/43
Good morning dear, dear mother, father and Zhorinka.
Now I look forward to your letters, if possible, immediately write a response.
The deepest snow fell, but the weather is wet, day a grayish. The deepest snow — it is confusion: bad mount an offensive. "God willing," the ground is now the night will cast a thick fog, the coming is at hand. I am at the moment cleaned machine, he is now sure and the attack did not let you down. While this letter will reach you already have long read in the newspapers about the defeat of the German large groups, this operation will be involved and your son and your brother, Jora …
… Dad, I am very concerned that the mother a lot of crying, and she spoils vision. You're her somehow soothing, something to do, and you Zhorik, too. If you are the mother, not crying, I would have a day or two letters sent to you, but you're crying over them.
Again, congratulations, dad, with the Order, I am proud of all of you, but the mother of an assistant, so she particularly proud of the Order, it is work and your spouse.
Surely, one of the most exciting for us estimates the battle of Stalingrad during this time gave limited English newspaper "Daily Telegraph", published January 18, 1943 report from a correspondent of Stalingrad: "Here, on the edge of Europe, which already begin Asian deserts, several delicious Guard divisions and units of the local militia, which became a powerful, bleeding heart of all of, helped by European culture and, perhaps, and our England. "
From a letter dated 10.01.43
Good morning, dear father, mother and Zhorinka.
Yesterday I received from you 4 letters from the mother 3, one of the pope, from the 1st Zhorinki not reached. Many thanks for writing. Yesterday I received a parcel from you on 27/HI-42.
Thank you for the tremendous us from ourselves and from the entire state machine company. The cigarettes that have tried many, many things we are reminded. Although I love my mother's brain without cookies, I have not eaten one, and with my company commanders and all vyhvalyali mother's talents.
My army at the moment destroys a large German group, so much so that the smoke from her goes. Dad, you're talking about, the plant operates at high, let more ammunition, keep pace, and our Reddish Army without weakening pace crushes the enemy. Mother, do you think you're something of mistakes in my education, so I left it really such a bad one? I assure you, mother, that you was and is the most gentle, fair and beloved mother in the world. My mother and father in general, such that about them I will not let anyone say ugly words, I assure you — the best in the world.
From a letter dated 03/02/43
Good morning, dear, dear mother, father and Zhorinka.
For a long time I have not written you, but respectful of reasons: I finished the German group in the district of S. I do not even write to thank you for the parcel I received was already 26/I-43 during Advent.
31 th I and his men have marched in the center of town and kicks drove the Germans out of the basements and banished the weave in the rear. They are scum, yet claim that Russian did not shoot as well, incidentally, all this is the most notorious SS, they resisted as long as it was possible. Trophies that we have captured you, of course, you know from the newspapers.
You know, Dad, how vorveshsya to the German headquarters there and cigars and cigarettes, and canned goods, and soaps, perfumes, etc. Well, now we have finished with nemchuru, oh well here and beat them, the thousand.
At the moment, a little rest, and a new front, destroy Hitler's evil.
Well, good luck, wish you happiness and health.
Your son and brother Marx Alferov.
On this day, the commander and chief of staff signed the premium list:
Comrade. Alferov in action 3 November 1942 showed bravery and courage, boldly led the assault platoon own "vitriolic bar." Being wounded in the battle, did not leave the battlefield. While in defense, he killed 5 Krauts. In the coming year, 24-31.01.43 comrade. Alferov, a group of fighters always moved ahead divisions skillfully guiding men to assault the enemy. Where was hard, comrade. Alferov encouraged fighters, and they followed him, carrying out his assignment. So it was in crossing the River Queen, assault nameless heights and white houses.
Worthy of government services — the medal "For Courage".
The battalion commander Fëdorov
Chief of Staff. Signature.
February 3, 1943
Awarded to the government merit — the medal "For Courage"
The commander of the 96th Separate Infantry Brigade
February 5, 1943
Now, when our media are trying to vie with one another to provide a reddish adjective army units who fought under the muzzles of guns barrage units of the NKVD, it is interesting that read, while our army press zabugornye Western allies. October 10, 1942, when the final battle of Stalingrad was for them is not yet clear, the English "The Economist", not left the body in its own advanced wrote: "Russian believe that they are willing to make the new and the best system … Deep in their hearts the hope of living that all their sacrifices and suffering — it's just an inevitable evil in transition, only the birth pangs of a new society. This is the key to the secret of the Russian morale, so striking Hitler and his satellites. What inspired the defenders of Sevastopol and Stalingrad — is doubly hope: the struggle for social progress and for the salvation of the fatherland. "
So no desire to recognize today's gravediggers Russian Union that majestically Russian war, our army and all the reddish Russian people not only defended their homeland, and their Russian Socialist Fatherland. Our army has waged war under the Red Banner. And under the tricolor flag of the Russian Federation to us today were running, pressing machines to the tummy, Vlasov — ROA, so called "Russian Liberation Army"
How Marksik said, "they were terrible for us SS men, and prisoners we did not take them."
From a letter dated 02/06/43
For the past few days, it does not hear any of the 1st shot, even once breathtakingly. At the moment I am (crossed out by the censor). Zhorik certainly do not remember, and my mother and father have to keep in mind the area, which have always been demonstrations in Stalingrad. In this square we, warriors Stalingrad, made thanks to Nikita Khrushchev. The beautiful city of Stalingrad, the Nazis destroyed. No 1st whole house. The whole city is littered with the corpses of Hitler locusts who did not want to give up. But, of course, the prisoners to hell, you would have beheld these Aryans, they are humiliated. Now they do not believe in their cause. They ask: how bad Russian fighter? They obsequious smile, "Oh, the Russian fighter is not bad, and Mamma Mia."
From a letter dated 21/02/43
Bratushka, you write that you may still come letter, enemy in my district can not be broken, but it has long been broken. January 31 his main forces were defeated, and I was already (crossed out by the censor), unfortunately, I was advancing slightly to the right of where he was sitt
ing by Field Marshal, and then I looked thereof German general with his hands up.
Now I have a light in my soul, I broke those Krauts so much that on our whole family for a few Krauts, and of the captives to hell.
After Stalingrad, Kursk was where Marx was seriously wounded in the head. And after the hospital again to the front — a "second Stalingrad" — Korsun-Shevchenko battle where the Feb. 15, 1944 died in battle in their 20s Guard Lieutenant Marx Ivanovich Alferov — my older brother, forever remaining for me twenty years.
In October 1943, Marx spent with us in Sverdlovsk three days when after the hospital went back to the front. I remember the day or all three, its front-line stories, his passionate youthful faith in the power of science and engineering.
Of his stories and letters, I think, of course, that one of the main outcomes of Stalingrad — it became a massive confidence of our soldiers and commanders that they were stronger than our enemy and will be able to successfully continue its peel.
We still strongly enough photos of Marx, and the last — this image, made after the end of his school, and a small photograph with its industrial permit. We want to be photographed during the three day or October 40 the third year in Sverdlovsk, but Marx refused, saying: "I will not. Die, and you'll look at it? No, take a picture after the victory. " And, in parting, he added: "I have left chest protected medals and the Order of the right — Guards badge."
Mom, he once said: "No hands, no feet, only to come back alive."
In the late 80s, at my request Shapiro Leningrad painter painted his portrait from photo made after Marx school, but in the form and with the merits, against the background of the destroyed Stalingrad. In our family adored shoulder straps, because the painter painted a portrait of Marx in the form of an old commander of the Red Army from the field tabs — with greenish "head over heels".
Now in my office in the country where we live much longer than in a city apartment, where I work, I write, as these minute, check books in closets, he looked at me very seriously and thoughtfully. It seems to me that he wants to ask:
— How did it happen that after we beat the Nazis and defended for the first time in the world to make the government workers, the country, the purpose of which was social justice, you gave it to kill?
— How is it possible that Hitler's goal — to kill the Russian Alliance, dividing it into separate new countries — has been made?
— How did it happen that destroyed public property of the means of production, the country has only recently outpost of peace and socialism on the planet, now became a state and bourgeois thieves who exploit people's labor, science and education?
— How is it that our country now can once again access the lines of the poet:
"Farewell, unwashed Our homeland,
Country of slaves, land of lords
And you, blue uniforms,
And you, their loyal people. "
And what can I say to him in response? The destruction of Russian Union suddenly occurred to many fast, but preparing for quite a long time. Our homeland — one of the most resource-rich countries in the world, and the wealth per capita it simply has no equal. Hitler wanted to seize this wealth, and one wonders how one of the most cultured nations of Europe together went to plunder other nations and peoples, undeterred most forms of gang robbery. We defended our country in open battle, brought relief from the brown plague the people of Europe and Germany first. Now the goal was the same — to take our wealth, but other methods have been chosen. Hitler also created a "fifth column" in the camp of the enemies. In our case, this was the way and the main, and very subtle. Ultimately our modern quislings of stupidity or purposely thrown majestic country. By the helm come the people for whom the only god to whom they pray, are the means. So majestic and mighty power was on the side of world history.
Now all of us, the older generation in particular, there is no forgiveness, that we have made. We, the country needed the word "Stalingrad" and "Kursk" victory for its revival.
Thinking about it, I think for us the new "Stalingrad" can only be a union of Slavic majestic triumvirate: the Russian Federation, Ukraine and Belarus. And this is, in fact, should be interested, even today management of these states. Unfortunately, in reality it only shows my native Belarus, further preserved by its own President Alexander Lukashenko's economy and the people's socialist principles. Only after such association, we can become a truly independent nation on our planet.