China and the afterlife

In ancient China, as in other ancient states, believed in an afterlife and in evil spirits. Therefore, before burying a man here was accomplished ceremony intimidate evil spirits on the whole route of the funeral procession. Buddhist and Taoist monks were on those streets, where the next day was to move the funeral procession, crop all around the holy water and spirits pleasing sound of music.

Belief in life after death has led to the fact that China's rulers have taken care of in advance to the other world and to live luxuriously and make use of his counselors and servants. In ancient times commit mass ritual murders of prisoners brought by as victims. The burial of distinguished persons, along with the bulls, sheep, dogs and pigs sacrificed to slaves who were buried alive in the ground or burned.

When he died Mugun ruler in the kingdom of Qin in the VII century BC, along with the deceased were buried alive one hundred seventy-seven people, among them — three members of noble families. Here, the various buried jade and bronze, including weapons, valuable jewelry, horse harnesses … People and things were thought to serving governor in his life, could be useful to him and in the hereafter.

Afterlife, like earth, determines the position of the individual in society: the richer he was on the ground, the more magnificent furnish his otherworldly existence. And of course, the best in the world to the richest man arranged — the emperor and his family. On long existed in China customs, building tombs for the emperor began in the early years of his reign and is usually continued throughout the government.
So there is nothing surprising in the fact that the imperial tombs were built on a grand scale, and not much different from the real palaces.

If during the life of the Emperor was married, he, of course, requires the presence of his wife and the other world. Hence arose the custom of burying women alive with the dead husband. For example, the emperor Shi Huang, who lived in the III century BC, were buried all those of his wife, who had no children. Later this wild custom was relaxed.

From about the middle of I millennium BC — human sacrifice almost ceased, and with senior dead in the grave were lower figures fashioned from clay, as well as images, cut from paper.

It is no accident at the opening of the ancient necropolis of Tang, archaeologists found a niche filled with ancient statues, and the corridor, the walls of which they saw the images of guardian of the necropolis. Their eyes were turned inward, where the tomb. Scientists finally got to the very grave and saw the tomb, made of carved stone. To the dismay of archaeologists, nothing but small silver plates and a few gems have been found. Jewelry, gold and silver, lacquer boxes and cloth, embroidered with silver, were carried out by unidentified robbers.

But before the eyes of archaeologists brought amazingly beautiful frescoes. In particular, some of them you could see the image of a dragon in the form of fantastic creatures — Lord of Rain, which was considered according to the ancient Chinese, the fruit of the merger of Sky and Earth. In the hierarchy of the Chinese god of dragon ranks third after Heaven and Earth. Long since he was portrayed in the most bizarre ways. China has honored four types of dragons: the celestial dragon guarding the home of the gods, divine dragon, sending wind and rain, the dragon lands, determining the direction and depth of the river, and the dragon guarding the treasure.

But what is surprising! It is in the necropolis of Tang, archaeologists first saw the frescoes of great beauty, depicting beautiful women of antiquity, using cosmetics: plucked and penciled eyebrows, bright red lips and cheeks, face-thick layer of powder … Here it was found another curious fresco, which depicts ladies involved construction hairstyles decorated with precious yarns, fine combs, hairpins of jade figurines phoenix bird holding in its beak a long strands of precious stones.

By the way, the Chinese phoenix is considered the most revered bird. Therefore, it is always located on the arms of the Empress. In this mythical bird throat swallows cock's beak, neck snake tail of a fish, the colors of the dragon, the back turtle. Phoenix feathers in five colors: yellow, white, red, blue, black. They represent the five virtues of benevolence, duty, propriety, knowledge, practice and loyalty. The origin of this mythical bird associated with the sun and fire.

Now, however, the phoenix bird is not playing for the Chinese as important as in the past. Everything in the world changes with time.

The opening of the tomb of Tang gave scientists understand what is life from the time of Prince Lee Hiana completely disappeared along with the tradition of burying the dead emperor of his ladies, servants, musicians, security guards, grooms, horses, camels … They are already in the next century began to replace the statues, to be exact — sculptures. These sculptures are now considered a rarity. In Tanga, archaeologists discovered the statues of ladies, found in one of the niches that have been painted in different colors — blue, green, red … Scientists have long puzzled over the secret of making these paints, some of which have survived, but no conclusion has not yet arrived. The Chinese were able to keep their secrets. True, it was concluded that these colors — not just a fantasy of the sculptor, but a peculiar detail of his creations, pointing to the ladies belonging to a particular caste of Chinese society. For example, the purple sculpture, according to experts, pointed to the ladies belonging to the highest rung of the hierarchy.

Still, it was found in many unexpected, even a sculpture of an alien — a bearded, with a long nose and a rather coarse facial features. Who was it? While history is silent.

Tang found dumping refers to one of the most ancient. So were not only plundered almost frescoes. Sculpture is short.

But later bury their rulers began to protect the Chinese more seriously. Many Chinese emperors were buried in the vicinity of the present city of Xi'an, the capital of China for 1180 years and survived the 11 dynasties. The largest mound poured over the grave of Udi — mighty emperor of the Han Dynasty. Despite the fact that for many centuries this mound exposed the ravages of Nature, it looks impressive: more than a kilometer in circumference and 45 meters in height.

Another famous tomb of China's rulers is not far from Beijing. Eastern Imperial Cemetery Dong-Lin is located 70 kilometers north-west of Beijing, and the Western imperial cemetery Silin arranged on the slopes of Mount Tyanshou longevity in an area of 40 square kilometers. Buried here emperors of the Ming Dynasty, who ruled the country from 1368 to 1644. About coffins empresses preserve precious and expensive women's jewelry. The woman's headdress fenguan (feniksovaya cap) was made of gold decorated with malachite phoenixes and flowers. Casting, engraving and gold inlay of the hat represent a masterpiece of jewelry in China late XVI and early XVII century. In addition to the items listed in the grave were found gold cups, bowls, plates, cups and wine vessels.

Category: Life after death, reincarnation

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