Who drove to the front to attack the enemy at gunpoint own guns
One of the most terrifying legends second world war due to the existence in the Red Army detachments. Most modern television series about the war can behold the scene with gloomy personalities in blue caps of the NKVD, shot the wounded soldiers with machine guns coming out of the fight. Demonstrating this, the creators take the soul of a great sin. None of the researchers have not been able to find in the archives or the 1st to prove this fact.
And what was that?
Barrage detachments appeared in the Red Army from the early days of the war. Such formations were created in the face of military counterintelligence first third Ngo USSR, and from July 17, 1941 — Office of the special departments of the NKVD of the USSR and its subordinate bodies in the army.
The main tasks of the special departments for the period of the war the decision of the Municipal Committee of Defense identified a "decisive struggle against espionage and treason in parts of the Red Army and the elimination of defections in the concrete near the front." They are given the right to arrest deserters, and, where necessary, and shot them on the spot.
To ensure the operational activities at special departments in accordance with the order of the People's Commissar of Internal Affairs LP Beria to 25 July 1941 were formed: the divisions and corps — some infantry platoons in the armies — some rifle companies, the fronts — some infantry battalions. Using these special departments organized service barriers, exposing the ambush positions and patrols on the roads, paths of movement of refugees and other communications. Each detainee commander of the Red Army, Red Navy inspected. If he admitted fleeing from the battlefield, he was subjected to immediate arrest, and it started promptly (less than 12-hour) consequence for trial court martial as a deserter. Assigned to particular departments in the performance of duty to bring the sentences of military tribunals, including the front of the formation. In the "very exceptional cases, when the situation asks for decisive measures to immediately restore order at the front," head of a special department had the right to shoot deserters on the spot, what was here to deliver the same in special department Army and Front (Navy). Soldiers who have fallen in part by an impartial reason, organized, accompanied by a special representative of the department were sent to the headquarters of the coming division.
The flow of military personnel who have fallen from their own pieces in a kaleidoscope of fighting, at the exit of numerous environments, and even deliberately deserted, was enormous. Since the beginning of the war and on 10 October 1941 operational barriers barrage of special departments and units of the NKVD arrested more than 650 thousand soldiers and commanders. A total weight of just dissolved and the German agents. So, defused the winter and spring of 1942 a group of infiltrators had the job to eliminate the physical level command of the Western and Kalinin fronts, including the commanding general, GK Zhukov and IS Konev.
Special departments to easily manage with the volume of cases. The situation claimed the creation of special units, which would be directly involved in the prevention of unauthorized withdrawal of troops from their positions, the return of troops to their stragglers and units and detention of deserters.
The first initiative of this kind has shown the military command. After the proclamation commander Bryansk Front Lieutenant-General Alexander Eremenko to Stalin September 5, 1941 he was allowed to make a barrage detachments in the "unstable" divisions where there once had been cases of abandonment of military positions without orders. A week later, the practice has been to vserasprostranena infantry divisions across the Red Army.
These barrage detachments (of up to battalion) did not have any work to the troops of the NKVD, they acted in the Red Army infantry divisions were equipped with at the expense of their personnel and their subordinate commanders. At the same time together with them there detachments formed of army or special departments or regional NKVD. An appropriate example — the barrage detachments formed in October 1941, the NKVD, which by order of state registration took extraordinary security area adjacent to Moscow from the west and south along the strip Kalinin — Rzhev — Mozhaisk — Tula — Kolomna — Kashira. Already the first results have shown how these measures were appropriate. Just two weeks from 15 to 28 October 1941 in the Metropolitan area have been detained for more than 75 thousand soldiers.
From the outset, the barrage of formation, regardless of their affiliation, are not focused on the management of the indiscriminate killings and arrests. Meanwhile, in the press now has to face similar charges; zagradotryadovtsev immediately called punitive. But here's the number. Of the more than 650 thousand soldiers detained by October 10, 1941, after checks were arrested about 26 thousand people, among which the number of special divisions: Spies — 1505, saboteurs — 308, traitors — 2621 cowards and alarmists — 2643, deserters — 8772, distributors provocative rumors — 3987 samostrelschikov — 1671, others — 4371 people. 10201 people were shot, including before the troops — 3321 people. The overwhelming majority — more than 632 thousand people, ie more than 96% have been returned to front.
With the stabilization of the front strip of protective action folded formations without prior arrangement. She gave a new impetus to the order number 227.
Made in accordance with it detachments of up to 200 people composed of men and officers of the Red Army, no form, no weapons are not different from those of other Red Army soldiers. Any one of them had the status of a separate military unit, and do not obey the command of the division, for the battle formations which housed, and the command of the army through the OO NKVD. Managed security officer squad.
Total for October 15, 1942 in parts of the army worked 193 defensive squads. Stalin's first order was enforced, of course, on the southern flank of the Soviet-German front. Almost every fifth squad — 41 units — were formed at Stalingrad.
First, in accordance with the requirements of the People's Commissar for Defense barrage detachments assigned duty to prevent unauthorized departure of linear parts. But in practice the range of military affairs, which they were engaged, was more broad.
"Obstruction troops — recalled Gen. PN Lashchenko, in the last days of the publication of the order number 227 deputy chief of staff of the 60th Army — were removed from the front, covered the troops in the rear of saboteurs and enemy troops, detained deserters who , unfortunately, were, put things in order to cross the river, directing stragglers from their own fighter units to the assembly points. "
As evidenced by the many members of the war, there were no detachments everywhere. According to the Marshal of the Russian Union of DT Yazova, they are generally absent from a number of fronts, acting on the north and north-west.
Do not hold and release as if the detachments of "murder" of the penalty. The company commander of the 8th individual penal battalion of the 1st Belorussian Front, a retired colonel AV Pyltsyn, who fought from 1943 until his victory, said: "For our battalion in any case there were no detachment
s were not applied, and other scary action. Just this never appeared such needs. "
Recognizable Hero Russian writer Vladimir Union Karpov, who fought in the 45-th separate penal company on the Kalinin Front, also refutes the presence of detachments of their battle formations.
Really army outpost detachments stationed at a distance of 1.5-2 km from the front line, intercepting communications in near the rear. They are not specialized in the penal battalions, and inspected and detained all of whose stay out of the military unit caused suspicion.
Used a barrage detachments tool to prevent unauthorized departure from the linear parts of their positions? This nuance of their combat activities from time to time covered is very speculative.
According to documents seen as evolved combat practice defensive squads in one of the busiest periods of the war, in the summer and autumn of 1942 August 1, (the time of formation) on October 15 they were holding 140755 soldiers "escaped from the front of the front band." Of them, arrested — 3980, shot — 1189, focused in the penal company — in 2776, in the penal battalions — 185, returned to their units and transit points vast number of detainees — 131094 people. The above statistics indicate that wage war without any further disqualifications had an opportunity absolute majority of soldiers earlier for various reasons left the front line — more than 91%.
As for the criminals, then they used the most formidable measures. This was the case of deserters, defectors contrived patients, samostrelschikov. Ever — and shot down the line. But the decision on bringing in the execution of this last measure is not perceived commanding detachments, and the military court divisions (not below) or, in some, cases previously discussed, the chief of a special department of the army.
In exceptional situations, the soldiers defensive squads could open fire over the heads of the retreating. We assume that the individual cases of shooting at people in the heat of battle may have taken place: the men and the commanders of detachments in difficult circumstances could change the shutter speed. But to say that this was a daily practice — there is no reason. Mongers and cowards shot down the line in a personal manner. Punished, usually only the initiators of panic and flight.
Here are a few relevant examples from the history of the battle on the Volga. September 14, 1942 against the coming of the enemy made parts of 399-th Infantry Division of the 62nd Army. When the soldiers and commanders of the 396 th and 472 th Infantry Regiment began to move away in a panic, the chief of the state security detachments Lieutenant Elman gave the order to open fire of his own squad over the heads of the retreating. This led the staff of the brakes, and two hours later took the shelves earlier lines of defense.
October 15 in the Stalingrad Tractor Factory opponent managed to get to the Volga and cut off from the main body of the 62nd Army remnants of the 112th Infantry Division, and 3 (115, 124, and 149-I) of individual brigades. Panicked, a number of soldiers, including officers of various degrees, tried to throw their parts and various pretexts to cross to the east of the Volga-saving value. To prevent this, the task force under the control of a senior security officer Lieutenant security Ignatenko, made a special department of the 62nd Army fielded barrier. 15 days were detained and returned to the battlefield to 800 soldiers and commanders, 15 alarmists, cowards and deserters were shot down the line. Similarly acted detachments and later.
Here prop wavering, Cower back of the unit and, by intervene in the fighting in order to make it break, zagradotryadovtsam, as the documents show, had more than once. Recruiting, arrived at the front, it was, of course, not fired, and in this situation the barrage units formed from persistent, shelled, with a strong front-hardened commanders and fighters were substituted linear parts of a reliable shoulder.
Thus, during the defense of Stalingrad August 29, 1942 to break through the enemy's tanks had surrounded the headquarters of the 29th Infantry Division of the 64th Army. Detachments not only stopped off in a mess soldiers and brought them back to the previously occupied by lines of defense, and he himself entered the fray. The enemy was repulsed.
September 13, when the 112th Infantry division under the pressure of the enemy withdrew from the occupied foreign, defense detachments took the 62nd Army under the command of Lieutenant security Khlystova. A few days detachment commanders and fighters repulsed the attacks of the enemy machine gunners, while on the defensive side is not got coming up. This was the case in other parts of the Soviet-German front.
With the break in the situation that occurred after the victory at Stalingrad, the role of protective forces in the battles over exerted not only spontaneous, lively dictated by the changing situation, and the result of the decision in advance of command. Army commanders tried to use the other without "work" units with the largest utility in matters not related to the barrage service.
On the facts of this kind in the middle of October 1942 reported to Moscow KGB Maj. V. Kazakevitch. For example, on the Voronezh Front on the orders of the military council of the 6th Army two defensive squads were attached to the 174th Infantry Division and entered the fray. As a result, they have lost up to 70% of the personnel, the remaining men in the ranks were given to replenish the betrothed Division, and troops had to be disbanded. Used as the linear part of the detachments of the 29th Army on the Western Front commander of the 246th Infantry Division, whose squad was operational manual. Taking part in one of the attacks, a detachment of 118 men of personnel lost in killed and wounded 109 people in connection with which it had sformirovyvaetsya anew.
Prerequisites objections from the special divisions are clear. But, as is not the case from the outset barrage detachments were subject to the command of an army, not the military counter-intelligence authorities. The People's Commissar of Defense, of course, meant that the barrage of forming and should be used not only as a barrier to the retreating parts, and as an important resource for the specific conduct of hostilities.
As the configuration of the situation at the front, with the transition to the Red Army the strategic initiative and the beginning of the mass expulsion of the invaders from the territory of the USSR need detachments began to drop sharply. Order "Not one step back!" Quite lost its former significance. October 29, 1944, Stalin issued an order in which it was recognized that "due to the configuration of the overall situation on the fronts of the need for the upcoming Content defensive squads disappeared." By November 15, 1944, they were disbanded, and the personnel of the units focused on the completion of the infantry divisions.
So Makar, the barrage detachments not only acted as a barrier that prevented penetration into the rear of deserters, panic-mongers, the German agents, not only returned to the front line behind by their own military units, and were themselves were specific combat with the enemy acts, contributing to the achievement of the victory over Nazi Germany.