Foreign religious influence on the Muslims of Tatarstan in the post-Soviet period

The destruction of Russian Union in 1991 and the subsequent political configuration of the former Soviet Union led to the republics of the CIS announced the rejection of atheism in the direction of the Municipal Freedom of confession and religious organizations, while retaining all of this secular character of the country. This gave impetus to the religious revival among the population, which was explained by the lack of state ideology in any of its forms. In turn, this has generated a fervor in the broad masses of the people the desire to seek spiritual standards, to find that it was possible, including in religion. Natural eagerness of people to restore the post-Soviet religious practices of life that existed before the revolution, has found recognition on the part of the municipal authorities, who have provided support to religious organizations, or those of other faiths.

A specific feature of the religious revival of Islam in Russia, including in Tatarstan, was the fact that the process of "return to Islam" in the post-zabugornye affected countries of the Muslim East, pursuing not only the humanitarian and educational objectives "by fellow Muslims", but and certain political tasks. It should be noted that by the municipal authorities both Russia and Tatarstan, virtually no obstruction on the part of the typical opekaniyu zabugornogo Muslim world Muslim society of the country and the region was not. As was not even a simple control over the activities of various organizations and institutions, formally declaring charity. On the contrary, some representatives of national authorities in Tatarstan in 1990 saw an active missionary work overseas educators as rapprochement with the Muslim world, which gave the dividends of the local ruling elite, who took the course of building a "sovereign state", which received a collective title in the modern history of the Russian Federation as " parade of sovereignties ". It is worth to add that such contacts with Arab and Turkish emissaries of various religious organizations were perceived very complementarily and a certain part of the Mongolian population, which seeks to understand the basis of Islam, but over the years Russian authorities Perplexed tradition as the theology and ritual practice routine, resulting in a mass the minds of the Tatars at least some Arab or Turk was seen as a beacon of knowledge about Islam. Today Tatarstan Mufti Ildus Faizov in one of his own interview described the mood as the middle of the Mongolian population first of the 1990s: "We even looked at least some Arab students just do not like the Prophet Muhammad, it seemed to us that they are now specifically (Arabs or Turks) Islam teach us. " Similarly, the natural zeal of the masses of the Mongolian people to join the religious values of Islam in the end just use zabugornye Near East countries.

Mongolian tradition of pre-revolutionary theology smogshego Russian autocracy over the centuries to prove the need for peaceful coexistence in a multicultural society, failed to pay tribute to a way to get their own development in the 1990s. This was caused by the brutal pressure of spiritual expansion zabugornyh Muslim countries having substantial real resources to conduct a wide-ranging advocacy of financing the construction of mosques to educational activities in various fields: copying foreign preachers of religious literature, the discovery of a network of educational institutions both religious and secular, used the very popular and are perceived as elite population, the creation of a network of Muslim organizations and summer camps zabugornogo training. The vehicle is usually for the Tatars of the Hanafi school of thought of Islam (after the founder of the religious-legal school of Sunni Islam, Abu Hanifa (699-767), which holds most of the Russian Muslim peoples, including Tatars) before losing konkurentnst zabugornom missionaries. In addition, there are often played and the age factor: the conventional Islam in the eyes of the Mongolian people and, above all, young people associated with the old men who, because of the inherent conservatism of thinking this generation lost on the field of information warfare, often trivial, even without being able to drive this propaganda. In addition to the broad masses of the Mongolian population experiencing an acute shortage of religious literature, its own pre-revolutionary classics of theology were trivial inaccessible because of the language barrier and the alphabet, as their writings after 1917 were not released, but in the pre-Soviet era were written only in Arabic script Arabic is either old-Tatar languages, which significantly different from the present by virtue of having a huge amount of vocabulary and Arabisms persizmov. The modern Mongolian language based on the Cyrillic alphabet (go to it occurred in 1939, previously also been a shift from the Arabic to the Latin alphabet in 1927). This just took advantage of the missionaries who translated a huge number of religious literature of Turkish and Arab creators in the modern Mongolian and Russian languages, filling the order and bookstores or spreading it is often free of charge.

The destruction of the Soviet Union, together with the political collapse of one country inevitably spawned a wreck and once unified Muslim religious education in the country. In the Russian Union there was a single center for all Muslims to train Muslim shots — in Uzbekistan, where she studied at the Madrasa Imam "Arab World" in Bukhara and Tashkent Islamic Institute. A similar unification of the official Muslim education allow the state to control this process, it is also to inculcate students with a pro-Soviet orientation, which at that time was a testimony civilian patriotism Muslim clergy. Study in zabugornyh countries could only those who went first learning Russian Uzbekistan, and the boundaries of the USSR cast off to school only after meticulous testing and without the control of the Russian security forces. For example, the current chairman of the Central Spiritual Board of Muslims (TsDUM) Talgat Tajuddin at the end of study in Central Asia is sent to study in the Institute of Egyptian "Al-Azhar" (1973-1978). A similar foreign training at that time was due to the majority of its own purely pragmatic considerations: in the eyes of the Muslim world zabugornogo Russian muftis should look decent, which provided just the fact of learning in any generally recognized in Islamic countries religious education center. Sending in "Al-Azhar" then the young 25-year-old graduate of Bukhara madrasah Tajuddin then he is allowed to return to the Soviet Union would soon take up the post of Mufti of the Spiritual Board of Muslims of the European part of the USSR and Siberia (in the post-Soviet era — TsDUM) in '32. Then Tajuddin specifically after 1991 and up to the present day or will steadfastly adhere to the band for their loyalty to the state, and support the development of normal for Russia and Islam has always emphasized respect for the Russian Orthodox Church. In other words, a similar scheme for the Russian foreign training time has established itself perfectly.

In the post-Soviet Muslim ummah (society) Tatarstan became the object of religious influence zabugornogo different countries of the Islamic world. The degree of expansion of the religious or other countries depended and continues to depend on the formation of the clergy, the availability of those followers or other non-standard for the Tatars zabugornogo Islamic movements in the region of origin, religion, disk imaging, available through the literature and the media, and the role of various organizations of foreign countries from charitable foundations and to diplomatically offices in Kazan and the occupied status of their patrons in the bureaucratic hierarchy of municipalities of the Russian F
ederation and Tatarstan. At the present moment we can talk about the impact of the Arab countries (Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Kuwait), Turkey, Iran, Pakistan and the countries of Southeast Asia to the Muslims of Tatarstan varying degrees of intensity.

Impact of Arab States (Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Kuwait)

Since 1991, after the Central Asian centers of religious education were abroad, Russian, including Tatarstan, Muslims had to build its own system of religious education (the last of the Tartars, who are already in the post-Soviet era continued the tradition of education in Bukhara, was present imam of the mosque of Kazan " Suleiman "Ildar Bayazitov (1997-1998). But this process faced a, including the inevitable difficulties, the main one of which may be referred to the lack of training and lack of religious teaching materials based on the principles of customary for the Tatars of Islam. These shortcomings are compensated zabugornom philanthropists who offered and staff, and literature. Ultimately, this led to that shown in the 1990s, secondary and higher religious education on the ground often Tatarstan and teaching staff consisted of foreigners, mostly Arabs, and tutorials were of Arab origin. Ultimately, and through teachers and through the literature of the Arabs in the middle of training for youths inculcated the ideology of Salafism (Wahhabism).

Under the ideology of Salafism is understood, articulated Takiddinom Islamic theologian Ibn Taymiyyah (1263-1328), the essence of which was the idea of the need to return to Islam that existed in the time of Prophet Muhammad (VII century AD.), Which is treated as a "pure" Islam without some innovations have taken place or state of Muslim regions. In practice, this was expressed in a constructive eliminating them, often to the detriment of national culture and daily life of the Muslim peoples. In the XVIII century, in practice, the theoretical reasoning Ibn Taymiyyah tried to areas Ottoman province of Hejaz (now Saudi Arabia) to apply his successor, Muhammad Abdul Wahhab (1703-1792), after whom the doctrine has been called "Wahhabism". Wahhabis themselves prefer to call themselves Salafis (from the Arabic. "Salaf" — precedes), alluding to the fact that they practice a form of Islam exactly what it was in the earliest era of them, ie in the time of Muhammad. Because the word "Wahhabism and Salafism" can be considered synonymous.

A similar Wahhabi puritanism, on first glance, it would seem, does not have to face the society and the state in Russia. But the main danger lies in their Wahhabi aqidah (creed). Classic for the Tatars was maturiditskaya Softeners (named after theologian Mansur al-Maturidi (870-944). Softeners Wahhabis is that the Muslim faith is based on his actions, and from the standpoint of the Wahhabis person who, for example, does not pray, it — no Muslim, ie kyafer (wrong), even if with all this, he says, and considers himself a Muslim. But under the Wahhabis actions involve not only the obligation to fulfill all the rituals and rites of religious practice of Islam, but including the necessity of jihad ("effort in the way of faith"), which they interpreted as an armed confrontation, to help those who war against kyaferov real ( financing the jihadists) and mentally (to justify their actions in cyberspace.) Bright Muslims expressed similar differentiation of one of favorite in the radical Islamist Wahhabi among ethnic Chechen bard Timur Mutsurayev words: "Before Allah are not praying in silence and comfort of the one who is ready every moment to the hardships of war", giving, in order to realize that the more " real and true "Muslim is the only leading man armed struggle.

In the 1990s, together with the establishment of its system of religious education of Muslims in Tatarstan (the result of this was the discovery of one of the Islamic Institute, 1 higher madrasas and 10 secondary madrasah) was vserasprostranena zabugornogo practice of religious education, representing the right to the present day or the biggest problem of the Muslims of Tatarstan . Zabugornye first missionaries from the states arrived in the Near East in 1992, starting a company of Muslim youth summer camps, the essence of which was to a rich learning Arabic language and constructive forms of preaching Islam (the first such camp was held in Naberezhnye Chelny). After this stay in the camps are recruited young people to train them in zabugornyh countries. Since the Russian system of religious education has gone through the process of creating, learning zabugornyh countries seemed at that time the high-spirited decision to lack of training of the clergy and the same teachers for Tatarstan madrassas. From now starts actually uncontrolled flow zabugornyh wishing to study in Islamic universities, much less that the host country provide visitors Tatars accommodation and meals, and often paying for the road. So comfortable admissions caused a flurry of wanting to learn the Islamic universities in the Arab East, to a greater extent, Saudi Arabia, more than any other recruit in Tatarstan wishing to study in its universities.

One of the main problems in zabugornom learning Russian Muslims is that they often perceive the values and traditions of the country where they are taught how to perfect that serve as a benchmark to follow. Vorachivayas home, they tend to move the practices of life that they followed abroad, Russian realities that inevitably leads to the radicalization of the flock through which newcomers Arab university graduates spend acquired abroad values. Often there is to be a situation where study in Arab countries push off young people aged 17-20 years who have been trained at the school yesterday, and now moving beyond knowledge in the Arab world. While studying there for a long time (there are cases where the Russians were trained in Saudi Arabia for eight or nine years old), their formation as an adult personality occurred specifically among Muslims zabugornoy country. Podobrastie and servility before zabugornoy Muslim culture, which is seen as the only true and real, leading to a situation that foreign graduates of Islamic schools seek to change the classical Muslim indigenous peoples of the RF form of Islam to those vserasprostraneny in the Near East. The most basic difference zabugornogo Islamic education is the lack of experience generated by centuries of peaceful coexistence with inokonfessionalnymi people (and yourself — Christian) with the prevalence of the latter. In the case of the Tatars, being numerically less and living for centuries together with the Orthodox nations (and first with Russian), we managed to develop a unique inter-religious practice of peaceful development. It has left its reflection on the perception of Russia as a country of its own, a willingness to serve in its army and even engage in wars with their coreligionists in the armies of their own country (numerous Turkish and Russian-Caucasian war that direct confirmation). Patriotism and left its mark on the religious education of Russian Muslims inside the country.

But abroad, the same Saudi Arabia, where even the Shiites, as did the Muslims who are subjected to discrimination in the education system just lay Salafi values, the base of which is rejection of peaceful coexistence with other faiths. By the way, Christianity is officially banned in Saudi Arabia, his profession of a capital offense. Upon return, a graduate of the Saudi Institute sees the picture when in Kazan, Russian and Tatar together peacefully coexist, often get married among themselves (the percentage of Russian-Tatar families is 25%) can be each other not only to congratulate the religious prazdnichkom, and even participate in celebrations and feasts on their case and others, which destroys the image of the world of values of Arab university graduates, who inspired earlier in the course of his training that the idea that at least some non-practicing Muslim — kyafer, and in Tatarstan, he sees a situat
ion where not that great percentage of secular Muslims, but even the fact that it is unimaginable for a phenomenon in neukladyvaetsya generated abroad ideological picture: Muslims quite normally coexist with Christians, make friends, make a family, etc. In the end Wahhabi committed to, to change a similar tradition declare to be "bidgatom" (innovation). After accession to the work of the imam of the mosque in Tatarstan, he begins a sermon to carry out this idea further alienating Muslims from the Christians, building a wall between them ideological division, fueling hatred and advantages over all others, including the Muslim traditionalists. The presence of the Imam with Wahhabi beliefs, and even more so muhtasib (head imam of the town or a rural area, which holds administrative power in the middle of the rest of the clergy) can distribute such value judgments to a huge audience, to prove to their official status Wahhabi legitimacy in the eyes of his own flock, announcing Wahhabism "true "or" pure "Islam, Islam and the usual -" bidgatom "(innovation), alien to Islam. In addition, municipalities have to comply with the imam or muhtasibs, as it is now the leading role of the grassroots or the middle, and sometimes higher, level in the Spiritual Administration of Muslims of Tatarstan.

Since the time of Russian Muslims could receive religious education in Bukhara madrasah "Arab World" and the Tashkent Islamic Institute, the clergy of the Mongolian older generation of education, which is usually called "Bukhara", from which many graduates of religious schools called conditionally "Bukhara mullahs' . These include Talgat Tajuddin (Ufa), Ravil Gainutdin (Moscow), Abbas Bibarsov (Penza), and a significant part of the Kazan imams: in the last Mufti of Tatarstan Gabdulla Galiullin and Ishakov Guzman, former mukhtasib Al'met'evsk Nail Sahibzyanov, past Deputy Mufti Suleiman ZARIPOV , mukhtasib Zelenodol'sk Gabdelhamit Zinnatullin and others. Despite the fact that these imams graduated from Kazan, it would seem, the Russian educational institutions, many of them have become agents of Wahhabism in the post-Soviet Tatarstan. Some of them then went to study in Saudi Arabia: Nail Sahibzyanov (1993-1996), Suleiman ZARIPOV (1993-1996), etc.

Along with them is very significant percentage of those imams who were educated in Saudi Arabia without getting it earlier in his homeland. These include the imam of the main mosque of Kazan "Kul Sharif" Ramil Yunusov (1992-1997), the imam of the mosque of Kazan 'Kazan Nura "Rustem ZINNUROV (1993-2000), last mukhtasib Tyulyachinsky region of Tatarstan Tidal Yarullin and mukhtasib Buinsky Linur Sabirzyanov region of Tatarstan, last imam of the mosque of Kazan "Enilyar" Shaukat ABUBAKIROV (2003-2004), the imam of the mosque "Tauba" Naberezhnye Chelny Idris Galyautdinov, etc. Specifically, these are the people (even if you already own and removed from leadership positions after the election of the new Mufti of Tatarstan Ildus Faizova in 2011) of non-standard wires for the Mongolian people zabugornogo currents of Islam. The problem is that from 1998 to 13 January 2011 was the mufti of Tatarstan Gusman Ishakov, which they have had training in Bukhara madrasah "Arab World" (1978-1982) and the Institute of Libyan Tripoli (1984-1985), made suitable soil for the spread of Islam in Tatarstan constructive. In September 2010, six months before his retirement, he said, speaking at the National Forum of Mongolian imams read from the podium, just not hiding that seeks to destination for the posts of Imams and muhtasibs Arab university graduates. With all of this, he argued its personnel policy similar to those that can not deny people better versed on Iskhakova beliefs in Islam, "Well, how can I not appoint someone who five or eight years studying in Medina or Riyadh Quran and Hadith? These young people better versed in Islam than us old people. " But these excuses that sound very convincing in view of the fact that it is not open nature prepyadstviya (koranistiki knowledge of Hadith and may be based on Wahhabi ideology with an appropriate interpretation of Islam), were eventually repudiated by the following events. November 25, 2010 in Nurlat region of Tatarstan was eliminated armed gang of fundamentalist militants, which in one of the forests of this region was able to equip Zakamsky dugout full of food and warehouse tools. The terrorists apparently planned to copy the model of the North Caucasus bandpolya. When, after the elimination of their own Interior Ministry and FSB, began to learn who these offenders, it became clear that the gang consisted as Wahhabis and members of illegal extremist organization "Hizb ut-Tahrir" ("Islamic Party of Liberation"). For the Volga region is very typical when one Jamaat (community) may be adherents of various extremist movements. And in this case, for the sake of a common idea — to combat kyaferami — Wahhabis and Hizb-ut-Tahrir are ready to unite, despite differences in ideological subtleties.

Along with the graduates of institutions of Saudi Arabia in Tatarstan are alumni and other universities. Namely, there are those who have graduated from a famous Cairo institute "Al-Azhar." This university, founded in the tenth century, is the glory as of the 1st of the largest centers of knowledge in the Islamic world. In the main reverence for the "Al-Azhar" is preserved to this day in the middle of Russian Muslims. But observers say, now read about the "Al-Azhar" as a center of knowledge in the field of indigenous customary for the Muslim peoples of the Volga Islam of the Hanafi school of thought (and in the "Al-Azhar" taught Islamic law is in accordance with the various mazhabs, but for all that was in Russian Muslims choice because they chose the Hanafi madhhab, characteristic of the Tatars and Bashkirs) is no longer necessary.

Corresponding feature of teaching Russian Muslims in the "Al-Azhar" is their self on the spot. The situation is critical that students from the former Soviet Union, coming from the direction of their own Mufti study in Egypt, provided nothing is real. Scholarship, they often do not pay in Cairo, with no one country means (unless relatives) does not send, and something you need to live in the period of study. Specifically, it used different Salafi preachers who collect students from the CIS, pay them living in the dormitory, feed themselves and organize their lectures, which are read not in university lecture halls, and in the dining rooms, in the same dorm rooms, etc. The practice of learning "Al-Azhar", such that a student has a lot of free time, which is granted to it for self-education in libraries. But instead of the order to sit for a book, they go to lectures to Salafi preachers who provide their real (usually first eat all together, pray, and later to the students of such acts here, "lecturer"). And it turns out that the Muslim youth from the CIS most of the time in their own learning, "Al-Azhar" holds under the influence of Salafi preachers, many of whom are natives of the former Soviet Union. For example, most are popular broadcaster "Salafi truth" in the Russian language is Muhammad Abu Rinat Kazakhstan (real name — Rinat Zaynullin — an ethnic Tatar, a native of Kazakhstan), who in the 1990s studied in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and later in Egypt, just being in Cairo began to collect Russian Muslims from all over, "Al-Azhar" in his lectures in an informal setting. Past Chief of Staff of the President of Tatarstan for Work with Religious Associations Marat GATIN in the late 1990s — early 2000s, he studied at language courses in Arabic "Al-Azhar" and recalled that all Russian citizens, no matter in what department they are trained, Kazakhstan gathered for their own sermons in hostels and tea parties. The result appeared that on returning home after m
any years of training in Egypt, and with a degree in "Al-Azhar" graduate took a job imam of the mosque, but for all that was behind a course of lectures on the Salafi version of Islam. In the end, luggage knowledge of the clergy itself, proudly bearing the status of the graduate "Al-Azhar" (this is comparable to Cambridge, Oxford or Harvard exclusively in Islamic circles), was based on Wahhabism, or, in most cases, is available on the ideology of the "Muslim Brotherhood "(" Ikhwan al-Muslimun "). Ihvanizm is an eclectic mix of political Islam, the essence of which is in Russian criteria is to ensure that all Muslims (whether Wahhabis, Hizb-ut-Tahrir, tabligovtsy, Sufis, etc.) each other brothers, regardless of differences in polarity and philosophical values . Ihvanisty not opposed to the usual Tatar Islam of the Hanafi school of thought in the open, trying not to oppose himself to it, and use it for their own purposes, one of which is the politicization of Russian Islam (specifically, they often give voice to the idea of having to do the extraordinary Islamic party in Russia or are in favor of Muslims to go into politics, but were not as citizens, and specifically positioning itself as a Muslim — Russian ihvanistami this process is called "Ummah-building"). Also specifically ihvanisty usually act as reabilitatarov Wahhabism, speaking from the position of what they say, the Wahhabis — is also a Muslim, and more than even the design with which to engage in dialogue, they need to recognize that equal members of the Muslim community, together with the traditionalists that In general, in practice, means the legalization of Wahhabism. In Russia, often ihvanisty signs to play a role in the Muslim information space. With all this themselves, they tend to look very respectable: they do not wear thick beards as Wahhabis, dress up in different costumes, try to match the business style. Among ihvanistov is attributed Muhammad Salyahetdinova (Editor Russian news website Islamnews.ru), Rinat Muhametova (active creator of articles on the web site "Ansar.ru"), etc. The ideologist ihvanizma is an Egyptian theologian Yusuf Qaradawi (b. 1926), Hosni Mubarak, ousted from the country of Qatar. Because among professionals who study Russian Islam, you can meet the term "kardavifiliya" or "kardavifily" — so called sympathizers Qatari ihvanizma ideologue, who spoke extensively with anti-Russian fatwas.

In the criteria of criticism as an ordinary Muslim clerics and community experts and Wahhabism in Russia, namely, in Tatarstan, which is usually implied by a focus attention on the destructive effects of religious influence of Saudi Arabia, as a candidate Wahhabism has promoted the idea of "Al-Vasatyyi" — "moderate Islam." Made in 2006 in Kuwait International Center "Al-Vasatyyya" in the face of its ideologue Minister of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs of the Arab country Adel Al-Falah was extensively spread its influence on the Muslim Ummah with the Russian Federation and Tatarstan. "Al-Vasatyyya" opposed to the Saudi Wahhabism, but in practice it is only just upgraded a copy of which is attached with some veneer of moderation. In 2010, the consulate was open, "Al-Vasatyyi" in Moscow (headed past the priest of the Russian Orthodox Church, who converted to Islam Vyacheslav Polosin), and the Adel Al-Falah was awarded the Order of Friendship of the municipal (among professionals is long joked about one curious fact: the same merit was awarded the director of network delis "Behetle" by Muslim Latypova, the left, that and the store manager and the Kuwaiti minister from the standpoint of government worthy of the same coin). Vasatisty, having regard to the enormous often the highest level of intensive and plant their ideology, almost imposing their doctrine "Al-Vasatyyi" Russian Muslims, forcing even the traditionalists to show loyalty to this religious movement of Kuwaiti origin. At present, imported Islam under the guise of "Al-Vasatyyi" virtually compels Russian Muslims to focus on Kuwait. Let's not Saudi Arabia, but it's still zabugorny religious Center. Adopted in 2012 Capital Declaration on jihad, according to the views of vasatistov should have been directed against the Salafis. But in the text of its many quotations from the works of the "father of Salafism" Ibn Taymiyya, well, it is unlikely terrorists fighting in the North Caucasus, after reading this document, here lay down their guns.

As a result, in Russia, and, namely, in Tatarstan foreign religious education is often a guarantee of transfer values and ihvanistskogo Wahhabi communities on Russian soil, the more so that in addition to the series of the clergy and they replenish the ranks of teachers of religious schools, especially, the introduction of non-traditional for the Tatars Islam is already underway through even more accessible to the public Russian educational institutions. At the present time the number of Wahhabis and vahhabitstvuyuschih in Tatarstan is estimated at 3 thousand people. For 2010, in Saudi Arabia, studied 120 Tatars. In 2011, without notice to the Spiritual Administration of Muslims of Tatarstan there left another 20 people.

The Turkish influence

The collapse of the USSR and the uncertain status of the Republic of Tatarstan in the Russian Federation (in 1990 in the Republic adopted the Declaration of Sovereignty of the municipality, and in 1992 held a referendum which resulted in Tatarstan has received the status of "sovereign country associated with Russia") in the criteria helplessness of the federal center and the lack of tribute vertical power generated from the local elite ethnocratic Kazan desire to start an active foreign policy, on the one hand, was associated with evidence of the status of a sovereign country in Tatarstan, and, on the other hand, it flattered vanity and conceit yesterday secretaries of the local Party Committee, suddenly as a result of geopolitical configurations in Eurasia turned into rulers virtually independent states. Against this background, the desire of all the Turkic republics of the former Soviet Union was to enlist the support of Turkey — ethnically and religiously "sister" republic, besides being a pro-Western government, which consists in the military-political bloc of NATO. In general, it is the desire for cooperation was mutual, as Turkey and pursued his interests in "brotherly" Turkic Republics, acting as a "big brother" to them. Ethno-political impact of Turkey resulted in the strengthening of international contacts of Tatarstan, when it first President Shaimiev met at the highest municipal level in Ankara. Hard to imagine for themselves, so that, for example, the governor of a Turkish province would experience as the head of the foreign country's president of, but there were quite normal when M.Shaimiev celebrated in Turkey as an independent ruler of the country.

Together with the influence of ethno-political and religious Turkey produces expansion in Tatarstan. This direction was presented in the form of a regional nursizma, gyulenizma and neosufiyskih Islamic movements of Turkish origin (suleymanisty and kadiristy).

Nursizm (named after the founder of Said Nursi (1876-1960) — Turkish preacher) began to appear in Tatarstan in the early 1990s, finding support from the part of the Mongolian population, which did not feel sympathy for Wahhabism because of its open deetnizatsii Islam. In addition, Wahhabism is often perceived as being an "Arab" does not quite close. Turkish religious influence of ethnic and cultural ties with the Tatars and Turks drew a closer look. In Kazan, one of the first emissaries nursizma Baitullah was the Turks, who played a huge role in the dissemination of this doctrine in Tatarstan first 1990s. Countless translated into Mongolian and Russian language literature, consisting of Said Nursi, was konkur
entnst Wahhabi literature just to show legitimate after long years of the municipal market atheism religious books. Affordable and easy nursistskaya literature distributed after verification of the municipal authorities, to pay attention to it only in the 2000s and eventually recognize its trivial extremist nature, began to get out from the shelves of shops and madrassas when it already seen a lot of people, and her presence was completely natural in the library of the general Muslims.

But the biggest impact has received teaching follower and student of Said Nursi, Gulen Fethyullaha (born in 1941), the emphasis is on the promotion of a "dialogue of civilizations" in the form of neo-Eurasianism, interpreted it as a Christian-Islamic-Jewish symbiosis, and develop its own education system. In Tatarstan gyulenizm found spread among secular intellectuals Mongolian specifically because of their own religious modernism with an appeal to the liberal values of man. Taking into account that the ruling elite in the face of municipal political advisor of the first president M.Shaimiev Rafael Khakimov, now holding the office of Director of the Institute of History of the Academy of Tatarstan, intensively promoted the idea of Euro-Islam (Islamic modernism, the essence of which was to obtain knowledge of the cult as charitable deeds, to the relief of religious obligations of a Muslim, which in practice meant the liberation of ritual practice, practice and assumptions violations of prohibitions, including the consumption of alcohol) is having some similarities with the elements gyulenizma, particularly in the idea of a "dialogue of civilizations" (in Tatarstan, this idea has been intensively conducting platform "YES" — Turkish Consulate of like the magazine, which has in Kazan, managing Consulate — a graduate of the Institute of Turkish Rasim Khusnutdinov), the latter received the tacit legitimacy for their own distribution. A significant part of the secular intellectuals had found in the Mongolian gyulenizme own path to Islam, as his emphasis on ethics of Islam than on ritual and ritual practice, apparently found some awareness in the secular part of Mongolian society.

In the 1990s, in Tatarstan opened 7 Tatar-Turkish high schools in the basis of which was laid nursistko-Gülen's concept of education with the cult of high-quality education. Indeed, the Tatar-Turkish high schools in Tatarstan were perceived as elite schools, where he taught Turkish men, which was and still is uncommon for Russian schools, where teachers are working in the main ladies. It is worth adding that the emphasis in the schools was made not only on the basic research programs from secondary education, but was given an in-depth study of British and Turkish languages, programming, with the result that students of these schools were often winners of various urban and regional competitions and Olympiads. Despite the personal status of the Tatar-Turkish, among high schools students have a lot of Russian kids. As part of electives, often wearing of mandatory character, and taught Islam in nursistskoy base its interpretation. But the main feature which makes Turkish high schools, was the fact that they are grown generation complementarily related to Turkey, and after moving to 1998 Fethyullaha Gulen in New-york, USA and youth. The strategic objective of its Tatar-Turkish high schools was the education of a future state and business elite of Tatarstan that is driven by the West. By investing in education, Nur-gyulenisty give students high-quality knowledge, thus ensuring the competitiveness of the graduate Tatar-Turkish lyceum and laying in the prospects for the future a significant possibility of joining the result of their own over the best knowledge and the best training in the elite leadership of Tatarstan. The plan was to run for re-orientation towards Turkey and the United States the establishment of the republic, comprising 15-20 years of graduate Tatar-Turkish high schools, in the case of certain political configurations inside the Russian Federation (for example, in the event of its collapse in the future.) If you imagine a similar scenario, the Western countries are very fundamentally, that the regional elite oriented specifically toward her: who but graduates Tatar-Turkish high schools that have grafted them back in school complimentary attitude towards Turkey, will make the "right" choice when Tatarstan acquire independence.

In 2008, the republican security agencies decided to deportation to Turkey by Turkish teachers of high school. The formal reason is the expiration of the visa stay in the countryside of Tatarstan, the absence of a number of teachers of higher education diplomas, etc. The real reasons were, of course, optional missionary activities of Turkish teachers. A huge miscalculation not assume that law enforcement agencies were not able to fit right in and the information space to prove the deportation of Turkish teachers, resulting in the Mongolian state media this measure looked like a blatant repression of the Russian Federation, which has caused numerous publications in the local press, contributing to foment anti-Russian Sentiment in the middle of the Tartars.

Neosufiyskoe impact on the Muslims of Tatarstan produced through the activity flow suleymanistov (more recognizable as "suleymandzhilar," named after the leader of his own Suleyman Hilmi Tunahanu (1988-1959) and kadiristov (followers of Turkish theologian Haidar Basha (born in 1947), which is itself a a follower of the Sufi Sheikh Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani (1077-1166), after whom has been called for). Suleymanisty organized in the Kirov district of Kazan children's boarding "Ak Umut" ("White Hope"), but with all this strong advocacy activities do not lead, preferring to dwell on his own community. Kadiristy presented in the main Turkish university graduates who have returned to their homeland. At the meetings they organize their own sonorous dhikrs — repeated pronunciation forms of prayer, performed kadiristami very noisy and is a special ritual movements committed around . Notwithstanding the free distribution of religious literature (in fact, any book store Muslim Kazan is available translated into the Russian language works Haidar Basha) kadirizma followers in Tatarstan are not so big and not small role in the life of the Muslim community in the region do not play as suleymanisty. On least, not yet.

Experience shows that in the period of active Turkish religious influence in Tatarstan support it provided not only a different region visited Turkish leaders of business, culture or religion, and diplomats from the General Mission of the Republic of Turkey in Kazan, opened in 1996. There are cases where even the Turkish builders-gasterbaytery were involved in the spread of Turkish religious literature. But when law enforcement agencies began to fight with the Turkish influence in the religious and educational spheres, official representatives of the Turkish representative did not show their own indignation, trying to observe diplomatic protocol. Almost all of this was due to the fact that in Turkey were significantly stronger position Kemalists, despite the fact that since 2002, the Prime Minister of the country is the favorite of the Islamist Justice and Development Party Recep Tayyip Erdogan. But over the last two or three years, Erdogan failed to reverse the effects of domestic politics Kemalists, especially after the affair "Ergenekon", and even more often and more often to position Turkey as an Islamic government. Inevitably in this situation is to wait for increased religious influence in Turkey in the post-Soviet space. This is particularly noticeable was almost the last six months, when a Russian Islamic online media suddenly began to rise rapidly topic nursizma, almost forgotten in the last 5 years due to the deportation of Turkish teachers of Tatarstan and other regions of Russia, where there were similar educational institutions, and the ban nursistsko
y literature. It is possible that the Muslims of Tatarstan will wait for the second wave of Turkish religious expansion, while a fertile ground for this is given by the fact that the republican authorities more focused on the fight against Wahhabism, which is associated as the fight against religious influence of Saudi Arabia, not paying attention to other causes zabugornogo religious presence.

Iranian influence

The growing impact of Iran due to the discovery in 2007 in Kazan General representation of the country. Even in the period before the emergence of Tehran's diplomatic mission in Tatarstan by the Iranians sounded like an appeal to the Spiritual Administration of Muslims of the Republic and to the regional authorities with a proposal to allow to build a Shiite mosque in Kazan. But the past were strongly against the wishes of the Iranian similar, considering the completely reasonable that the isolation of the Shia in the form of whether their own churches would contribute to strengthening their impact, including religious, uncontrolled authority. But the Iranians have left this idea and tried to go back to it after the start of the representation in Kazan, finding some support from the then mufti of Tatarstan Gusman Iskhakova. That, apparently for the generous donation, I decided to go for bypassing the position of regional authorities, politely but firmly opposed the construction of a Shiite mosque. Guzman Ishakov decided to reincarnate one of the mosques in Tatarstan operating in virtually Shiite, while he did so not in the capital of the republic, and in Chistopol (city 135 km from Kazan). To Chistopolsky mosques "Nur" and "Anas" are based ethnic Tajiks, but wean religious universities of Iran and the followers of the Shiite version of Islam. The mosque has become a de facto Shiite and Tajiks beginning to engage in propaganda in the middle of the Tartars. This caused an outcry from muhtasib Chistopol Ilnura Khusnutdinova, which became smash alarm over attempts shiitizatsii Tatars, but in the end the mufti of Tatarstan, obviously unhappy with the performances Khusnutdinova headed for his dismissal and departure from Chistopol. Despite the fact that Guzman Ishakov January 13, 2011 resigned as mufti after the events in Nurlat region of Tatarstan, and now head of the Spiritual Administration of Muslims of Tatarstan is Ildous Faiz particular devotee conventional Islam mosque as before under the influence of Shia Tajiks, though , in the new reality, when today's Mufti began coming to non-traditional forms of Islam in the country, an active propaganda work Shiite preachers finished.

Iranian diplomats after study in Tatarstan tried to spread among the Tatars anti-Israeli sentiment that has been connected with the outside Tehran's policy aimed at confrontation with Israel. Affect the Mongolian population tried through local media, why then-Iranian consul Reza Bagban Kondori assembled journalists a number of Mongolian media at a meeting and invited them to begin to publish their own newspapers and magazines articles in support of the Palestinian people in general Muslim symbol of solidarity. But the proposal is not a diplomat in Tehran to find a response in the environment of the Mongolian media priemuschestvenno as publish anti-Israel articles Mongolian journalists agreed only for the money, very much astonished his commercialism Iranian consul, calculated on the solidarity of the Tatars with their Palestinian co-religionists.

Shiites in Tatarstan are mostly ethnic Azerbaijanis (60 thousand people living legally and illegally, 2 of which can be regarded as thousands of heavily Shiite believers) who attend the mosque Republic on equal terms with the other workers. Spiritually Azerbaijani community of the region nourishes a family originally from Asgerov g.Masally (64-year-old Isa Asgerov and his son Fariz Asgerov). Shiites gather for their religious activities in the mosques of Kazan "Nurulla" and "Zakabannaya" often rent under this conference rooms of hotels. Tatars in the middle of Shiism is not a lot vserasprostranen except wives Azerbaijanis. Azerbaijani Shiites themselves do not tend to proselytizing. Fariz Asgerov, more than 10 years, who studied in Qom (Iran), has written on arrival in Kazan in 2007, the two books "Softeners wa Amal" ("Belief and Action", 2007) and "The sects split" (2011) in the Azerbaijani language (translated the Russian), the latter aimed against Wahhabism.

At present, the Iranian diplomatic mission, seeing that by the official municipal bodies and the new Mufti of the Republic no particular religious concessions, trying to influence the public different Muslim organizations, for example, the Alliance for the Muslims of Tatarstan (Chairman — Naila Ziganshin) and combining the main company of retired women "Muslim" (chairman — Almira Adiatullina), which is completely good at. So, in 2011, the Iranian representative to visit Kazan organized women's organizations of Tatarstan in Iran, where those encountered at a decent level, regardless of their purely public status. Then on the return they organized cultural evenings in Kazan on the role of women in Islam, the role of the wives of Iranian diplomats.

Other measures in the middle of a religious disposition in Tatarstan Iranians become a propaganda achievements of the Islamic revolution and the role Ruhollah Khomeini in the Islamic world. Typically, these shares are held through a company research activities in the universities of the republic, namely, in 2010, there was international conference "The Islamic Revolution in Iran: the paradox of civilization and its prospects" at the Kazan Institute, during which the Iranian its members constantly pedaling theme of the Islamic Revolution in 1979 in Tehran for the entire Muslim world, including the significance of this action for the Russian Muslims.

Iran has learned a few students from Tatarstan, but the percentage is less than 1% of all Tatars who send trained in religious universities zabugornogo Muslim world. On his return from Iran, most of them did not hold any positions in the system of the Spiritual Board of Muslims, preferring to work in Iran related to commercial organizations. Shiitizatsiya Tatars is not even perceptible effects on the general background of the processes in the Muslim community in the region. Typically, a similar phenomenon occurs, or as a result of marriage or love relationship with the Shia (Institute of temporary marriage, available in Shi'ism, intensively used by Azerbaijanis Shiite and novels for cohabitation with Russian Tatar women and even girls, it is naive to believe that a prisoner with them religious marriage will guarantee conclusion legally official civil marriage), or as a result of exposure to the appeal of the Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, whose position in the international arena is admired by his fans in Tatarstan, which serves as motivation if not for the actual adoption of Shiism, that, at a minimum, drag them. Themselves Iranian diplomats in Tatarstan until intensely lobbied the idea of opening a separate Shiite class in a school in Kazan, while not yet found awareness among national authorities.

Pakistani impact

The impact of Pakistan in Tatarstan felt by the band and illegal activities of extremist organizations in Russia, "Tablighi Jamaat" ("bringing the community"). Its adherents from among the Tatars engaged in missionary activity by walking from village to village some areas of the North-West and South-East oil in Tatarstan, overnight in mosques and collecting alms for their activities. They are easy to distinguish in appearance: longish shaggy beard and certainly Pakistani odezhka (shalwar-kameez). In the 1990s tabligovtsev in Tatarstan headed Gabdelaziz Zagidullin, at the present time one of the favorites listed Rafael Samigullin. Education is spent in Pakistan and Bangladesh in the camps, where going to their conventions
. Classes are in their circles on the principle of joining together around some preacher. In Tatarstan, their number is based within the 350. Without taking up any posts in the Spiritual Administration of Muslims of Tatarstan, they are trying to play a role in the middle of the Muslims of the region. Their main method of promotion is touting the mosque people. Here they are very reminiscent of the "Jehovah's Witnesses": tabligovtsy when meeting begin to debate about God, the importance of ritual prayer, offering to read that or other booklet on Islam and is sure to come to the mosque. We have our own tabligovtsev "Markaz" (center) in one of the cottages in pos.Severny Kazan where they are going from time to time to discuss the coordination of their activities.

Often some of the imams treat them goodwill, and as tabligovtsy their way of life show some good-looking image of Muslims, the truth is that far from the truth. But they specifically by introducing such Makar, confusing the clergy and others who are doing the right soil for the same Wahhabis, despite the differences in ideological systems. In practice, this is reflected in the fact that the newcomers in the community, people who are drawn tabligovets own propaganda, may soon be affected by the Wahhabi missionaries, often provide better preacher than adept "Tablighi Jamaat".

Trace the introduction of Pakistan tabligovtsev to enhance their own influence in Tatarstan until quite difficult due to the fact that it is for non-traditional Tatar Islam has fewer followers, but, taking into account that after a while tabligovtsy for their own proselytes organize trips to their camps in Pakistan ( Rayvind town and Bhopal) and Bangladesh (Dhaka), it is possible that we have to be recruiting them okolopravitelstvennymi Pakistani religious organizations to continue the missionary work to return to Tatarstan.

Another line of strengthening Pakistan's influence in Tatarstan can go through the activities of the Tajiks, having studied in the country. Thus, in the region of Tatarstan der.Shumkovo Rybnoslobodskogo settled seven large families with a migrant-Tajiks who are religious propaganda in the middle of the local Russian and Mongolian inhabitants of that fundamental shumkovtsam strongly dislike. Religious favorite of the Tajiks of this population is Fri who studied for 12 years in North Waziristan in the madrassas "Jamal" of their own countrymen.

The impact of Muslim countries of Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore)

Enthusiasm and interest in Indonesia and Malaysia in the last couple of years in Tatarstan associated with most of his own choice of the orientation of the regional administration in the face of current President of Tatarstan Rustam Minnikhanov on the model of South-East Asia (Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia), which decided to take the head of the region for standard of municipal management. This is attributed and a certain style of this region as economically prosperous republics, with or dominant in numbers, or a significant part of the Muslim population. Setting the tone for a certain orientation of the elite at the countries of the region, they are seeking a typical enthusiasm and Islam in these countries, trying to link it with the causes of the breakthrough features of the economy. Against this background, one can read in a purely the interest in Islamic economics as the model to offer for export to South-East Asia. Frequent different events (seminars, conferences, forums) related to Islamic banking, which have become almost constant in recent years, provide potential investors from Indonesia and Malaysia to meet with Tatarstan, which is heavily advertised as a Muslim republic, despite the fact that almost half of its population is not even a Muslim ethnic origin. Active role in the Islamic verbovanii money makes managing municipal vkladyvatelnogo Development Agency of the Republic of Tatarstan Lenar Yakupov, who graduated from International Islamic University in Malaysia and heads the Russian Centre of Islamic economics and money in Russian Islamic Institute. Specifically, it acts in Tatarstan as a model of a typical promoter of Islamic economics, appealing with all this experience to South East Asia. While we talk about any specific religious influence in Indonesia or Malaysia Tatarstan is not necessary, as the debate goes on the more likely investors verbovanii of this remote region of Asia to the Russian Federation, however, slightly burning desire to start intensive business in the Volga region. Only then should keep in mind that under the guise of Islamic banking heavily propagandized in Tatarstan, maybe get a legitimate method of financing of non-standard currents of Islam meaningful sense. In February 2011, during the visit of the Consul of the Embassy of Indonesia in Russia Aji Surya in Kazan was suggested readiness to provide 25 scholarships to study Russian students in this country. In May 2011, a visit to Tatarstan delegation of the Islamic Municipal Institute "Sharif Hidayatullah" from Jakarta led by Abdul Hakim Subarnoto. In June 2012, the region visited by representatives of the Indonesian Muslim organization "Nahdatul Ulama 'led by the general chairman of this organization Said Aqil Siraj. The side of the Republic of Indonesia was represented by the chairman of "Nahdatul Ulama 'Sukvamira Arif Budiman, senior advisor" Nahdatul Ulama' Dashar Soenarko Mohammad, chairman of the Central Council "Nahdatul Ulama" Sulla Mochamad Iqbal, general secretary of the Central Council "Nahdatul Ulama 'Sahudi Marsudi Syuhud.

In the Islamic universities in Indonesia and Malaysia in real time trained several students from Tatarstan, but their number does not exceed and 2-10-s people.

Findings

So Makar, foreign religious influence on the Muslims of Tatarstan, one way or another country is dependent on the degree of intensity of international contacts as secular control of the region, as well as religious leaders from among the Islamic clergy. This also should include the education factor, which has often decisive role in shaping the values and beliefs of young people, the distribution of religious literature, the presence of the patron saint of high-status Russian and Tatarstan municipal leaders.

In our opinion, the Russian Muslims should be aimed at Russian religious centers of Kazan, Ufa, Harsh, but not like any of Ankara, Riyadh, Tehran, Cairo or Kuwait, in case of failure to change the trend in the orientation which -or a foreign country, at some point all Russian Muslims will be converted to a faster "fifth column" in their own country, for which the authorities are ideologists of Wahhabism, ihvanizma or "al-Vasatyyi" and not their muftis. Experience shows that there is nothing decent foreign religious influence promises to the Muslims of.

The report was prepared for the VIII Congress of Orientalists in Kazan, Russian Federation (25-28 September 2012), was announced in early versions of the program. But in the final program there, he was expelled because of the actions of the Kazan members of the Organizing Committee of the Congress, which have not even been able to give any intelligible explanation of his actions. Vice-president of the Society of Orientalists of Russia (representative of the Metropolitan side) Kirill Babaev, apologized for the incident before Rais Suleymanovym who remains a member of the Society of Orientalists of Russia (membership card number 99).

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