Komplot and killing the majestic emperor Alexander Bogolyubsky

Campaign against Novgorod

After the march on Kiev, Andrew Bogoliubsky also had to punish and subdue Novgorod. The same army that defeated the Kiev, under the supervision of A. Mstislav went to the north. As part of the army were the Vladimir-Suzdal, Smolensk, Polotsk, Ryazan and Murom shelves. The reason for the war was a dispute over "Dvina fee," which Novgorod received from the Finno-Ugric tribes and which from 1169 began to pay Dvintsev Suzdal.

A large army entered the Novgorod lands and began to ravage them. A. Mstislav of Novgorod offered a couple of times to negotiate, but they turn away. Prince Roman the Great and posadnik Yakuna armed men and prepared for defense. In autumn 1169 the Allies advanced on the walls of the stateliness of Novgorod. Four times governor led the assault on the shelf, but every time Novgorod fought off their head. Novgorod knew about the fate of Kiev, as opposed angrily. Also affected by the absence of unity of command in the besieging army, began quarrels, dissensions. Many have come to plunder secured besieging Novgorod, and not breathe in fierce fighting. Assaults ended, famine, loss of horsepower. Mstislav A. gave the order to retreat. Novgorod were inspired and rushed in pursuit, broke several units. Took many prisoners.

But it was only a tactical victory Novgorod. Andrew scored a strategic victory Bogolyubskii — Novgorod estimated losses from the war, durable devices, and sent ambassadors to Vladimir, ask forgiveness majestic monarch. Prince Roman Mstislavovitch, who defended the city, put out, and was invited to the table of Novgorod Rurik Rostislavich (his proposed Bogolyubskii, Svyatoslav Rostislavich at this time already died). But Rurik not converged with urban residents, and went to the south — in 1171, his brother Roman, occupying Kiev, gave him the Belgorod. Novgorod table took younger son Andrew Bogolyubski — Yuri (Jora). As a result, a large and rich land of Novgorod was placed under the control of the king Bogolyubsky, on all matters of principle and the Archbishop of Novgorod mayor went to Vladimir.

Battle of Novgorod and Suzdal in 1170, a piece of the icon in 1460.

Continued turmoil in Kiev

Purpose Gleb Perejaslavskogo Prince of Kiev did not bring peace in South Russia. Mstislav II did not accept the loss of Kiev table, his claim supported Byzantium, Rome and Poland. In addition, it also had strong support in Kyiv. Kiev did not know lusted to put up with the new order. Mstislav gathered the army in March 1170 from Lutsk, Galician, Turowska Gorodensk shelves and entered the land of Kiev, took piglets and came to Kiev, whose inhabitants without a fight gave him the city.

Hleb, in turn, gathered strength friends and relatives called Polovtsian Union and moved to Kiev. Meanwhile, the Allies Mstislav from Galicia, scared and started to leave, or have entered into negotiations with the stronger side. Mstislav, having lost a large part of the troops, did not dare to join the battle and again threw Kiev. He went to Volyn forms the latest army, but in August, fell ill and died.

Hike to the Volga Bulgars 1172

Vladimir and Murom lands again bothered by the Bulgars. Andrew Bogolyubskii decided to make another big punitive expedition. It was decided to send troops is not in the summer, and in winter, that descend at once. Control troops was put Mstislav A., which has already proved itself as the best commander Bogolyubsky, it was the coming assistant governor Boris Zhidoslavich. By the campaign's sons joined Murom and Ryazan princes.

But from the early campaign fell problem. Brigades and regiments joined the princes at the confluence of the Oka and the Volga troops have come to expect of the boyars, but those are not iduchi idyahu (dissuades those that say do not fight a war in winter time). I had to act without knights teams that seriously weakened the army. Then came the cold and snow tumbled down. Despite this army Mstislav successfully broke into the land of the Volga Bulgar, captured their capital — Bilyar. Were captured by the rich booty, prisoners. On the other town did not go, it was hard to move around in the winter, many warriors froze. In addition, the Bulgars were collected militia, and are unfavorable relation of forces.

Mstislav began to withdraw troops. Ryazan and Muromtsu returned to their lands. The infantry regiments were sent to light in the forefront. The prince and his warriors remained to cover baggage. Bulgar army caught up with the Russian rearguard. Mstislav was required to take the fight to the loss-making criteria. Russian militiamen returned fire, the enemy were cut discarding one attack after another, the convoy moved slowly to his. Exhausting battle went on for a number of days, the Russian squad retreated, having the ability to relax and eat normally. But Russian fighters were able to go to the mouth of the Oka River, where they had expected the main force. Bulgars retreated. In this campaign very Mstislav fell ill and died in 1173. So Bogolyubskii lost another son of the 1st and the coming assistant, his main support.

Bane Gleb Jurevicha and newcomer turmoil. The siege of Upper Town

Slightly earlier, Bogolyubskii lost another one support — brother Gleb, who was the most faithful companion in the South of Russia. Hleb was reliable governor in the south. According to the Chronicle, Prince Gleb was "bratolyubets, faithfully kept kissing the cross, distinguished by gentleness and good manners, loved monasteries, revered monastic rank, gave alms generously to the poor." January 20, 1171 Gleb died suddenly.

In the Dnieper from Andrew had two brothers — Mike and Vsevolod (later famous as a huge nest). I must say that Vsevolod together with her mother and brother Andrew was expelled and went to Constantinople, being an 8 year old little boy. But, despite the science moms craving for Russia was stronger, and he is a beautiful day with the Russian servants fled. He left my mother and ogrechivshegosya Cornflower, traveled in Europe, has been in the courts of the Czech king and German emperor. Knight errant came to Russia and joined his brothers, Hleb and Misha. He gathered a small squad, and support the brothers. Andrew did not dare to appoint the 1st of them as his deputy — they were still young, do not have the right weight — one was 20, the other parent 18 years. Change Gleb they still could not.

Kiev around the table again swirled intrigue. Said to myself clan Rostislav. Of the descendants of Rostislav Pious, only the eldest son — Roman Smolensky, the soul like his father. Rurik Ovruchskyi was a man of narrow-minded, but the principle and mean. Davyd Vyshegorodsky and Mstislav distinguished courage, and believed that they can keep control of the inheritance of the Kiev principality majestic, without the participation of Andrew Bogolyubsky. Under the patronage of Bogolyubsky they strengthened their position and now want to get rid of care. Kiev Know supported them, hoping to return the previous position of Kiev, to get rid of the power of Andrew.

Rostislavichi, without the consent of Bogolyubsky, Kiev decided to take and pass the uncle — Vladimir Mstislavich (though he soon died.) The stately prince expressed his displeasure, but to bring the matter before the conflict is not willed and gave Kiev Rostislavich — defining the throne head of the family, Roman.

The situation has stabilized, but suddenly the action again took a bad turn. Andrew came to the king the news that Hleb did not die in their own death. Well-wishers from Kiev said that his brother had been poisoned, like his father. The crime did nobleman Grigory Hotovich. Andrew claimed to conduct an investigation and issue a suspected poisoning. Rostislavichi worried, Hotovich nobleman was one of those w
ho helped them to occupy Kiev throne. It might appear a suspicion that they were involved in the killing of Gleb. Rostislavichi refused to make demands of Vladimir monarch.

Andrew angry Rostislavichi challenged cause of his life — the unity of Russia. Refuses to extradite murderers brother made known open disobedience. Bogolyubskii Rostislavich gave the order to go to their inheritances, and Kiev throne to his brother Misha. Straightforward Roman Rostislavich the will of the majestic Prince and left to discover in Smolensk. But Rurik, Davyd and Mstislav decided to fight back. They, with the help of Kiev boyars, leaked to Kiev, where he was Vsevolod (brother lingered in the fort Torchesk). Vsevolod thrown into a dungeon, and the stately Prince of Kiev announced Rurik. Tried to capture and Torchesk, but this was a border fortress strong nut and the siege of success has not brought. Misha offered peace, brother and Pereiaslavl, in exchange for the abandonment of Kiev. Mike agreed.

But Bogolyubskii did not accept this agreement. It was about the fact fundamentally — the old strife and self-will of princes, nobles, or a single, mighty Russia. Rostislav acts were regarded as a revolt. Andrew sent them own swordsman Michna and announced the verdict: Rostislavichi deprived of their own destinies (not counting the Roman), Rurik was required to travel to Smolensk, under his brother's hand, and Davyd and Mstislav expelled from the borders of the Russian land. This message has enraged princes, they replied: "We'll get you up to this time had a love as a father, and you with such speeches are not sent as the Prince, as to hand assistant and the average person …". Ambassador Prince obstrigli majestic beard and head, causing those terrible insult to the majestic Vladimir Sudar and all of Russia.

The answer was obvious — Vladimir-Suzdal shelves in 1173 led prince Yurii and Governor Boris Zhidoslavich. Vladimir's Monsieur raised regiments and brigades of other princes, and sent orders to serve everyone, as his subjects. Did not dare to disobey, even made the squad Roman Rostislavich. Gathered more than 20 princes and 50 thousand troops. Such ratification in Russia not long ago beheld.

Rostislavichi wondered defend Kiev, they ran to their inheritance. Rurik locked himself in Belgorod, Mstislav in Vishgorod with his regiment and a regiment of Davyd, and he went to Davyd Galich ask for help from Osmomisla. All army besieged Vyzhgorod to capture a prisoner Mstislav as ordered Andrew. The problem was that it was not a single army, with the general command, tight organization and discipline. As a result, repeated siege Lofty Novgorod, and more generally. They tried to take control of the Yuri A., Vsevolod, the eldest of Prince Svyatoslav of Chernigov, but did not work out quite good.

It should be noted that this was a very severe symptom. In the near future, this lack of unity will lead to a catastrophe on the river Kalka, and then defeat the princes of the Russian troops of Batu.

Many princes were obliged to fight "nilly", they did not want to defend the interests of Bogolyubsky. As a result, many remained passive, or usually changed. So, Luck Prince Yaroslav II of Kiev should communicate with Rostislavich, and provided they support him in claims on Kiev. In secret negotiations also took Svyatoslav of Chernigov — he agreed to support Yaroslav, with the extra lot. The result was a beautiful conducted the operation to eliminate enemy forces. Both the prince at one point took off their shelves and took off. The army was disorganized. There were rumors that the prince Davyd with Galician-Volyn troops. Panic, the besiegers were chaotic retreat. Mstislav litsezrev from the walls of Upper Town Planner general, reacted instantaneously. He led his squad, and pounded the retreating troops. Sortie was successful running of the crowd almost no resistance, many warriors, crossing the Dnieper River in a hurry, drowned.

Entertaining the fact that, despite the new military defeat, dignified Prince Andrew won again strategically (as in the conflict with Novgorod). Kievan Prince Yaroslav II of Kiev was, but he did not fulfill promises to give the inheritance in Kiev principality Vsevolodovichu Svyatoslav of Chernigov. Lord of Chernigov moved his troops to Kiev, Yaroslav fled in Lutsk, leaving in the hands of his favorite wife, son and treasury. But at this time in Chernigov land invaded, Prince Oleg of Novgorod-Seversky Svyatoslavich. Svyatoslav went from Kiev. Jaroslav received the message that Kiev is empty, returned back and freely entered into the city. Arriving in Kiev, Prince Yaroslav, in revenge for the fact that the people of Kiev did not protect his wife and son, and in order to collect the ransom, began to plunder the city, sparing the clergy and monasteries. In this broil Rostislavichi firmly thoughts and decided to return the good works of Andrew. They asked for forgiveness for his actions and acknowledged the superiority of Prince Vladimir. Supposed to work together to stop confusion and landed in Kiev Roman Rostislavich.

Komplot and killing the majestic monarch

The problem of the majestic monarch had not only the quarrels and intrigues of the Byzantine princes, and elite ambitions nobility. Massive Rostov and Suzdal nobility enthusiastically looked at the orders of the Novgorod and wished to establish the same in the Vladimir-Suzdal. They did not disturb prepyadstviya unity of Russia and the common good.

Change the people around them, forcing them to think more than the highest categories of Andrew could not. He built the majestic power, suitable to all Russian jointly and severally. Boyars thought only of personal gain. For the time Bogolyubsky enemies lurking, waiting for the comfort of the moment. Meanwhile Bogolyubskii deprived of the basic pillars of their own — the eldest sons were killed Izjaslav and Mstislav, was killed by a priest Theodore, poisoned his brother Gleb Jurevicha. In 1174, Svyatoslav brother died, peacefully ruled in Yuriev-Polsky, he maintained throughout the prince of Vladimir. The circle of those to whom it is able to rely Andrew, constantly narrowed. He had two offspring — Yuri (Jora), Prince of Novgorod and Gleb. But Hleb, whose father after the death of Mstislav, tried to accustom to municipal affairs, was a man of Faith, more interested in building temples and monasteries, prayer and works of charity. From the age of twelve spent a solitary spiritual life, especially loved reading religious books, and despite the young age, the prince chose a feat of serious fasting and prayer vigils. In 1174 (according to other data, 1175), he went to another world, then he was recognized as a saint.

In fact, Andrew ran into the problem of confronting the head of at least some of Rus-Russia, creating majestic power. She decided the creation of a repressive apparatus that sometimes holds a "cleansing" of the elite, leading to its renewal and prudence. But Andrew was not able to solve this puzzle. He did not lusted unnecessary conflict with anybody, nor with the nobles, nor to the Greek church. He even eventually took the Bishop of Leon, the other was not.

Did Andrew and another major mistake — he decided that the adoption of the service of the baptized natives: Bulgarians, Jews and people from the Caucasus, will strengthen its position. He sincerely believed that they are one hundred percent owe their position majestic prince, it will be a reliable support. But many foreigners were baptized just for the sake of power and enriching career opportunities. At first they thought of profit. The appointed governors and Tiunov (managers), they were stealing, prey. It is natural that such people could be used for the murder.

The aggressive policy of the emperor nobles were grouped around the bishop of Leon. To the opponents of Andrew joined Prince Gleb of Ryazan. The situation was comfortable — about Vladimir emperor there was no one
who could support him in a difficult moment, either to change the king. The scion of Yuri was in Novgorod, brothers Mike and Vsevolod — canceled warriors, allies of the emperor and the likely heirs were far away. The conspirators were not hurry, yet Bogolyubskii not called Misha and Vsevolod as the successors. Gleb Ryazan sent from Rostov boyars, promised military support. In komplot included nobles, courtiers, the chief governor Boris Zhidoslavich and even a spouse — Bulgarian. She cheated on his wife and feared punishment.

Bogolyubskii received alarming "signals", but long brushed off them, did not believe. Many great people do not believe until recently that others are able to act on a small, measuring with them in their categories. He knew that the Rostov-Suzdal nobles did not love, gossiping, but against the will of love can not be. Debate is one thing, killing the majestic Prince is quite another. Only by summer 1174 a terrible komplot was discovered. Honest servant could open revolt, which mature in the middle of the most senior officials. In the middle of the court were supporters komplota who warned villains because Boris Zhidoslavich and a number of traitors fled to the city of Ryazan. Only now, Andrew fully believe in the existence of komplota. He has taken some precautions — was to lock the door to the bedroom, put the blade near the bed.

The investigation revealed the name of the 1st of the conspirators — 1st of the boyars sons of Kuchka (brother of the first wife of Prince majestic). He commanded the execution of a traitor. But the prince had made a huge mistake — he got a betrayal of all the sons of Kuchka confirmation, but he did not touch them, they even stayed at the court. This prince signed a death warrant for himself. The conspirators decided to strike first, until the investigation did not reveal any new details. Was assembled squad of 20 people, it includes Yakima sons of Kuchka in-law sons of Kuchka Peter zhidovin Ephraim housekeeper Ossetians Anba etc.

On the night of 28 to 29 June 1174 the conspirators decided to destroy the majestic prince. To begin to overcome the horror they went into the cellar and got drunk. A few guards who were at the residence of the prince, known traitors like the big bosses and admitted them to discover without raising the alarm. They cut without noise. Crept to the bedroom of the prince, they knocked. "Who's there?" — Said Andrew. "Procopius" — replied to knock (naming the 1st of the beloved servants of the prince). "No, it's not Procopius" — said sir, well knowing the voice of their own trusted servants. Andrew began to find the sword, but his advance issued one of the conspirators — Anba. Murderers vyshybli door. A scramble in the pitch darkness. Prince was 63 years old, but it was a real fighter, he fought like a tiger caught in a trap. Overturned the first hitter, 1st of them was for the prince and wounded. I fought it for a long time, but it cut down and cut, he lost a lot of blood and fell.

Villains decided that he died, and again went to the wine cellar. At this time, the prince woke up, he had a really good health. Andrew was able to walk down the stairs and tried to hide. Assassins heard the noise and decided to see what was there. Not found the prince's body in the bedroom and came to a complete nightmare — if the prince will have time to pick up people, they will tear. Tossing caution, they had lit a candle and began to find the prince the blood trail. When they found the prince, he said a prayer, they have finished it. After that, the villains have walked through the palace, killing the faithful servants of the prince and began to ransack the treasury. For ordinary people opened the wine cellars and storerooms, that the traces of the murder of the general chaos.

The corpse of the murdered emperor was lying on the street. According to legend, the prince had the courage to take the body only Kuzmishchev Kiyanin, who came from Kiev Pechersk monk. He was threatened, but he did not flinch and led the killers to yield. Kill the prince led to the mess. In some places, devotees were killed Andrew. In some places of the villages were killed tiuns who robbed the people, crushing their yards. Third villages and people in Vladimir was furious murder of their beloved prince — massacre houses of the nobility. Assassin's wise not to have wait until their turn comes up, loaded the very long train prey left in Rostov on Don. They are there to condemn wonder in Rostov-on-Don on their side was not even the Bishop of Leon. It is your attitude to the murder showed very fine — 9 days the prince's body lay unburied. Mikula priest brought out of the temple of the Vladimir Icon of Our Lady Moms and arranged a procession. That sobered city dwellers riot evenly over. Russian priests organized people, and the funeral procession departed Bolubovo. They took the coffin with the body of the prince and carried him in her arms. Prince Andrew was taken to the city he built and placed in the Assumption Cathedral.

Specific killer majestic monarch was able after a while to punish brother Andrew — Vsevolod huge nest. Sons of Kuchka, poor wife and the others were executed merciless death. Murderers broke bones and hanged, and his wife, traitor drowned.

Sources:

Byzantium and Russia. Moscow, 1989.
Andriy Voronin NN Bogolyubskii. M., 2007.
Yuri Karpov Yuri Dolgoruky. Moscow, 2006.
Kostomarov NI Russian history in the lives of its most important figures. M., 2007.
Lemons YA Vladimir-Suzdal Rus: Essays on the socio-political history. — L., 1987.
BA Rybakov Birth of Russia. Moscow, 2003.
Tatischev VN Russian history (in 3 volumes). T. 2. Moscow, 2003.
Assumption F. I. History of the Byzantine Empire. In the 5 books. M. 2002.
Shambarov B. From Kiev to Moscow: the story of the prince of Russia. Moscow, 2010.

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