As we tried to steal a victory
At dawn on May 1, 1945 at the command post of the commander of the 8th Guards Army, Colonel-General Chuikov arrived chief of the general staff of the ground forces of Germany, General of Infantry Hans Krebs. German General Chuikov passed the document on its capabilities, signed by Bormann, and the "political will" of Hitler. Krebs Chuikov immediately handed a letter to Stalin from the new Chancellor of Germany Goebbels. It read: "We report to the leader of the Russian people, which is now in 15 hours and 50 minutes of life left voluntarily Fuhrer. Based on its legitimate rights Fuhrer all the power in his will he left handed Doenitz, me and Bormann. Bormann I am authorized to communicate with the leader of the Russian people. This connection is needed for peace talks between the powers, which have the greatest loss. Goebbels. "
Greater detail later held talks and the ensuing developments in that day were not once described in memoirs and history books. They were depicted very little in the 10-ke Russian and zabugornyh films. It seems that the story of these last hours of the Battle of Berlin is exhausted. But their careful investigation leads to doubt whether all clear to us how in fact occurred agony of the Third Reich.
Why are these talks did not lead to the surrender of Germany on May 1? For some reason, a few hours after the arrival of the Krebs with a letter from Goebbels' creator letters, his wife, their children, as his envoy to Chuikov lost their lives? Where, without any trace of missing Bormann, Goebbels authorize "to establish a connection with the leader of the Russian people"? To try to find answers to these questions, we must point to a number of events occurring before 1 May 1945.
In search of a separate peace
Directing Krebs to Chuikov, Goebbels could recall about their own past attempts to start negotiations with the USSR on the world. A defeat of German forces at Kursk and the capitulation of Italy led him to think about the inevitability of the defeat of Germany. While in Hitler's headquarters in Rastenberge, Goebbels recorded September 10, 1943 in his diary the essence of their own reasoning for a separate peace: "We have before us is the problem to which side we must first turn — to the Russian or the Anglo-Americans. We recognize that it will be difficult to fight against those and other at once. " In a conversation with Hitler, Goebbels, Hitler said, "it is not necessary to do anything in relation to Stalin." According to Goebbels, Hitler, "said that while it is not necessary to do. Fuhrer said that it would be easier to agree with the British than with the Soviets. At the current time, believes the Fuhrer, the British are easier to recover."
March 22, 1945 Goebbels, Hitler again offered to "talk with a representative of the Union of Russian" and again was refused.
By this time reyhsministerstvo foreign affairs, headed by J. von Ribbentrop has repeatedly been trying to start separate negotiations with the Western powers. To this end, the Vatican has been focused reyhsministerstva State Secretary Weizsacker, in Switzerland — Advisor reyhsministerstva von Schmid, and in March 1945 in Stockholm was oriented employee Ribbentrop Hesse in Stockholm. All of these missions ended in failure, causing gloating Goebbels, hold cheap Ribbentrop and his ministry.
Then Goebbels mocked show in the Western press reports that the initiative comes from the peace negotiations of Heinrich Himmler. March 17 Goebbels wrote: "Just funny that in similar reports guarantor of peace on the part of Germany instead of Hitler called Himmler. Argued that a powerful clique of German Fuhrer's head offered as collateral. This, of course, not a word of truth."
Only a month later with excessive Goebbels realized his mistake. Then it turned out that Himmler had long led these negotiations through the chief of SS intelligence zabugornoy Shellenburga, who made contact with a representative of internationality Reddish Cross Count Bernadotte in Sweden. Immediately after General Wolfe Himmler negotiated in Switzerland with the control the U.S. Office of Strategic Services (the next CIA), Allen Dulles, and representatives of the British intelligence. In Hitler's leadership supporters of a separate peace with the Western powers were also Hermann Goering and Albert Speer.
Whose flag will be hoisted over the Reichstag?
In general, Goebbels admitted in his diary: time for a separate peace was lost. At this time, the agenda of the day or the question arose: who will take Berlin? From this almost everything depended on the balance of power in Europe and worldwide. The Western Allies, especially England, solved stubborn samples in order to prevent the strengthening of the positions of the USSR.
April 1, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill wrote to U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt: "The Russian army, of course, capture all of Austria and enter Vienna. If they take over as Berlin, it will not shape up if their very exaggerated idea as if they brought the major contribution to our common victory, and whether it can lead them to such a frame of mind that will cause severe and very significant difficulties in the future? Because I think that from a political point of view, we should move to Germany as far as possible to the east, and in this case would be Berlin in reach, we are, of course, have to take it. "
The British Prime Minister was conceived not only on considerations of prestige. In those days of the British commander of the armed forces in Europe Field Marshal Montgomery was a secret directive from Churchill: "Painstakingly collected German and lay down his weapon, so it just might give away the German soldiers, with whom we would have to work together if the coming of the Russian continued." Apparently, Churchill was ready to put together the Allied armies against the Nazi army to knock on his Red Army and knock it out of central Europe.
Another 29 March Goebbels wrote in his diary: "Montgomery's own statement singled out by the ability of the intention to make the way to the capital of the Reich". Goebbels once admitted: "Maybe corresponds to the truth, that, according to South American news agencies, the enemy seized the bridges over the treachery of Maine. Midst of our decision makers on the Western Front really have elements that want to get as quickly as possible to end the war in the west, and therefore, directly or indirectly, play into the hands of Eisenhower ".
Implementation plans of the Allies contributed to their secret talks with the leaders of the German administration, including Himmler. These negotiations have been the subject of correspondence between Stalin and Roosevelt, to which the Russian manager with good reason allies accused of bad faith.
These allegations were aimed Stalin to Roosevelt, although in his own message of April 3 Russian manager, said: "It is unclear … the silence of Britons who have provided for you to engage in correspondence on this nasty issue, while they themselves remain silent, although it is clear that the initiative in this story with the talks in Bern is owned by British". It was obvious that Stalin considered worthless pastime moralize Churchill, who showed extraordinary activity to weaken the position of the Soviet Union. At the same time, harsh words, addressed to the President of the United States had a purpose: Stalin gave to understand th
at breaking the alliance commitments in Europe, the United States pose a risk of execution of allied obligations undertaken in Yalta, USSR to participate in military operations against the land of the rising sun. After all, this Roosevelt sought from the Soviet Union since the end of 1941.
Stalin headed for its own purpose. United States broke off negotiations with the representatives of the German military command. In his own message, acquired in the Kremlin on April 13, Roosevelt thanking Stalin for "Sincere explanation of Russian point of view with regard to the Berne incident, which, at the moment seems to be faded and went away into the past without bringing any utility". Roosevelt expressed the hope that in the future "There should be mutual mistrust, and minor misunderstandings such disposition does not appear". He expressed confidence that the "When our army will establish a contact in Germany and join in coordinated absolutely coming, the Nazi army disintegrate".
But on the same day in Moscow, came news of the death of Roosevelt and Stalin sent a newcomer to U.S. President Truman "deepest condolences", estimating the deceased as the "greatest global politics."
Besides diplomatically Russian control measures perceived military efforts in order to disrupt the trial to steal the victory of our people. On that day, when Churchill sent a message to Roosevelt, April 1 to Stalin were caused by the commanders of the fronts G. K. Zhukov and Konev. According to the memoirs of Konev, General Shtemenko "read aloud the telegram, the creature which can be reduced to the subsequent Anglo-American command is preparing an operation to capture Berlin, putting the puzzle to capture him earlier Russian Army … The telegram ended up with that, all data plan the capture of Berlin earlier Russian Army Headquarters Allied regarded as completely real and prepare for its implementation is well under way. After Shtemenko read to the end of the telegram, Stalin turned to Zhukov and me: "So who's going to take Berlin, we or allies?" Konev said: "So it was: first the question I had to answer, and I said," Berlin will take and we'll take it before the Allies'.
Meanwhile, the resistance of the Germans on the Western Front is actually over. April 16, at the beginning of day the Berlin operation, Zhukov told Stalin that, based on the testimony of a prisoner of war, German troops were determined not to yield puzzle Russian and fight to the last man, even if they come out the rear Anglo-American forces. On hearing this message, Stalin turned to Antonov and Shtemenko, he said: "You have to answer to someone Zhukov, that he may be, is not all clear about the negotiations with the allies of Hitler." The telegram read: "Do not pay attention to the testimony of a German prisoner. Hitler weaves a network in Berlin to create divisions between the Russian and allies. This network is to be cut by the capture of Berlin by Russian troops. We can do it, and we'll create it".
Cutting the network that spiders wove Hitler
His coming to Berlin forces of the 1st Belorussian and 1st Ukrainian Front, which began on 16 April, has led to the fact that Russian troops on April 21, were in the suburbs of the capital of Germany.
At this time, the Nazi leaders made efforts in order to bring all forces to fight of the Red Army. April 22, Hitler accepted the General Jodl about the transfer of the newly formed 12th Army General Wenck and the 9th Army General Busse from the Western to the Eastern Front. These armies were to move to the southern suburbs of Berlin, joined there to attack the troops of the 1st Ukrainian Front.
Konev recalled: "Orders Hitler during this period, all of his efforts relieve Berlin, all cast on the subject orders — and Wenck and Busse, and the commander of the 3rd Army Henritsi and Schorner with his band of troops, and Grand Admiral Doenitz, which the idea had to break through to Berlin with sailors — all of this under the existing balance of forces lacked a real database. But at the same time, it would be incorrect to regard such tests as a deliberate nonsense. This is by our own actions (and its predecessor, and those which are already deployed in the battle for Berlin) made them not real. Hitler's plans would not have fallen themselves. They could fall solely as a result of our armed action. Specifically, the success of the Russian troops, obtained in hard fought battles for Berlin, every day or with each hour more stripped illusory last hopes, plans and orders of Hitler ".
Aware of the inevitability of the collapse of Hitler supporters took the time to agree with the Allies to surrender. April 23, Hitler's bunker received a telegram from Goering, who was on the Obersalzberg. Goering wrote his own Führer that, since he decided to stay in Berlin, he, Göring is ready to take "over the general management of the Reich." By this time, Göring decided to fly to Eisenhower, that surrender to the Anglo-American troops. After receiving the message of Goering, Hitler was furious and here Goering ordered removed from all his post. Goering was soon taken into custody, and Bormann had prepared a message of resignation from the post of managing Goering Luftwaffe because of the worsening of cardiac disease.
In his own memoirs, German armaments minister Albert Speer told of a conversation with Himmler, held near Hamburg after the arrest of Goering. According to Speer, Himmler did not attach any importance happened. It read: "At the moment, Goering would succeed. We have long agreed with him that I would be his prime minister. Even without Hitler, I'll do it (Hering) head of the country … Of course, I'll decide. I have come into contact with a number of persons who come into my office. "
Himmler was confident in the strength of their own position and his own indispensability. He said: "Europe will not be able to cope without me in the future. I will need as minister of militia. Rather I spend an hour with Eisenhower and he learns. They soon realize that they depend on me. According to another hopeless chaos awaits them."
April 21 Himmler, Hitler secretly negotiating with the director of the Swedish division of the Global Jewish Congress Norbert Masur, trying to make it through contact with Eisenhower, that surrender on the Western Front. In exchange Himmler agreed to release the prisoners of the Jews from a number of concentration camps. So it was agreed to release thousands of Jewish women from the Ravensbrück under the pretext of Polish origin.
April 23 Himmler met in Lübeck with Count Bernadotte of Sweden at the dealership. Schellenberg's memoirs, Himmler said the Count, "We, the Germans, is to declare themselves defeated, and I ask you to convey my words through the Swedish Government to General Eisenhower, that all of us could avoid the upcoming unnecessary bloodshed. For us, the Germans, and especially for me, it is impossible to surrender to Russian. Against them we will continue to fight until the German front seat snaps front of the Western powers. "
Schellenberg recalled: "Himmler said that it is entitled to take a decision on this issue, because Hitler's death — 2-3 business days. According to the latest as Hitler die in the fight, which he devoted his life — the fight against Bolshevism". At the same time, Himmler wrote a letter to the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Sweden Gunther Christians to refer the declaration to end the war Himmler Management Anglo-American forces and the governments of the USA and
In his own memoirs, BL Montgomery wrote that on April 27 he vyznat from the War Office in England about this offer Himmler. Field Marshal wrote: "Himmler claimed that Hitler was hopelessly ill, and he (Himmler) is in a position that allows him to take all power into their own hands ". Although Montgomery claimed that he "did not pay great attention to this report," he remarked further: "The continuing Russian coming was more insecure than the broken German. I knew that the Germans actually finished. Most significant and specific task was, that with all speed to move to the west and to break through to the Baltic Sea, and then make the flank, turned on east. This was the only way to keep the Russian in Schleswig-Holstein, and thus Makar — in Denmark ". So Makar, Himmler's willingness to capitulate in the west was entirely appropriate to the plans of Montgomery.
But the defeat of the Red Army, the main forces of the German troops in the Battle of Berlin, Berlin, environment, exit Russian troops to the Elbe testified about the failure of attempts to control some of the Western powers, and, at first, to minimize the importance of Churchill Russian success. April 25 Russian soldiers met with South American fighters in the boom on the river Elbe near Torgau on the Elbe River. These meetings turned into a colorful demonstration of solidarity of the anti-Hitler coalition. This event was marked by order of the Supreme Commander and fireworks in Moscow. Stalin, Churchill, and the new U.S. President Truman was timed in advance to this anticipated event of the their performance on the radio. These speeches, transmitted by radio April 27, 1945, showed the world the unity of the anti-Hitler coalition. These criteria leading figures in the western states, first, the United States decided not to escalate the matter to the Russian Union, seeking to ensure the role of the Red Army in the war against the land of the rising sun.
In his book of war memoirs "Crusade in Europe" General Dwight Eisenhower wrote that as the end of hostilities in Europe, "it's time to take on the second tasks. Worldwide Allied forces employed for the operation against the Eastern ally of the Axis powers. Our homeland was still officially at peace with the Japanese. " Eisenhower pointed out that in the United States with the hope of perceived "information," which states that "Generalissimo Stalin at Yalta Roosevelt read that within 3 months from the signing of the surrender day or reddish army entered the war with Japan." Because Americans are not only tried not to aggravate relations with the Soviet Union, and tried to speed up the surrender of Germany, that was faster start a three-month period before the Russian Union into the war against Japan. This position is influenced by South American governments in the long run, and the policies of England, though furtive Churchill's directive to Montgomery on German fighter and their guns were not canceled.
April 25, a day a meeting of Russian and American troops at the Elbe, the minister of foreign affairs of England Anthony Eden and the Municipal Secretary of Edward Stettinius said Winston Churchill and Truman offers Himmler. The British Prime Minister and the President of the United States regarded them as an attempt to drive a wedge between the allies. They said that the surrender is likely only to all 3-allies at once.
After a day or two, April 27 at the informal meeting of the British delegation, arrived in San Francisco for a role in the founding conference of the United Nations, Anthony Eden, seemingly by chance saw: "By the way … stokolmskih from sources we realized that Himmler made a proposal to Bernadotte unquestioning surrender of Germany to the Yankees and us. Obviously, we were told about this Russian".
Skillfully organized a "leak disk imaging" here was picked up by the media disk imaging. Present at this meeting, the Director of English news service in Washington, DC Jack Uinokavr relayed the news to Paul Rankin from Reuters, but asked not to indicate its source. Early in the morning on April 28 the news appeared in the English newspapers.
At 9:00 pm on April 28 broadcast of the BBC BBC Hitler Himmler vyznat negotiations with Count Bernadotte. According to the famous aviatrix Third Reich Hannah Reich, who had just flown in Berlin, Hitler "Flushed, and his face twisted beyond recognition". Reich, a propensity to utter longish monologues and sensual, then clearly outlined this rage Fuhrer. Hitler was furious yelling about low betrayal of the person he trusted most. He announced the withdrawal of Himmler all its ranks. Reich later than once repeated orders from Hitler, who gave them to her and Ritter von Greim, who had just appointed instead Goering chief of the Air Forces of Germany: immediately fly from Berlin to "Himmler's arrest as a traitor".
Run it was not easy: background Greim was wounded in the leg and moved around on crutches. Because even though he was put on board a light aircraft, it took Hannah Reich. Taking off on the street near the Brandenburg Gate under the Russian anti-aircraft artillery fire, Reich was able to escape from the besieged Berlin and sent the plane in Captivity, which housed the headquarters of the Doenitz.
At this time, as the creators wrote a biography of Himmler Roger Manvell and Heinrich Fraenkel, "Doenitz in captivity … and Himmler … shared power." According to Schwerin von Krosigk, which then was appointed Minister of Foreign Affairs in the last government of Germany, the two eventually agreed that "Will be properly recognized as a successor to serve Hitler, with Doenitz obviously figured that takes place Hitler, Himmler, and he will become Reichsführer."
Doenitz did not get the exact instructions from Berlin to arrest Himmler and Bormann only a vague order: "Immediate and savagely punish traitors". R. Manvell and H. Fraenkel emphasize: "Only Graham had clear orders to arrest Himmler, but he could not do it without the support of Doenitz, who all expect that Himmler was about to become the Fuhrer himself. There is no record of how Greim met with Doenitz that they had spoken to each the friend, what decision was made ". Of course one thing: Hitler's order was not executed.
In Berlin, a scapegoat was elected Himmler, Hermann Fegelein in the bunker. He tried to escape, was found in civilian clothes in his apartment in Berlin's who were about to take the Russian troops, and was brought into the hopper. The event that Fegelein was married to the sister of Eva Braun, did not help him out. April 28, he was shot in the garden of the Reich Chancellery.
In the evening on April 28, Hitler summoned to all the inhabitants of the bunker in which he lived the last days, and invited them all to commit suicide. In the night from 28 to 29 April, Hitler has registered its own marriage to Eva Braun. At the wedding ceremony, all were silent except Goebbels who tried to entertain the bride and groom and guests.
At 4:00 am on 29 April, Hitler assured them made personal and political will. In it, Hitler announced the own decision "to stay in Berlin and voluntarily accept death at a time when I am sure that the residence of the Fuehrer and Chancellor can not be retained longer."
Hitler appointed Grand Admiral Doenitz Reich President of Germany, the War Minister and Chief of the Navy. Chancellor of Germany was app
ointed J. Goebbels, and the Minister for Communications with the party — M. Borman. Commander in Chief of the Army became commander of Army Group "Center" Field Marshal Schemer. Hitler sought to "all Germans, all National Socialists, men and women and all the soldier of the armed forces, that they remained faithful to duty until his death newcomer obey the government and its president."
He also announced that the "Goering, Himmler and hidden negotiations with the enemy, who conducted without my knowledge and against my will, as their criminal attempt to capture the municipal authority, except disloyalty to me personally, and inflicted incalculable harm to the country and the people. "He was expelled from the Party of Hermann Goering and Heinrich Himmler, who was filming them with all municipal posts. At one point, Hitler wills, without naming Himmler and Goering by name, mentioned "Despicable creature", that undermined "resistance" to the enemy.
"Political Testament" Hitler was assured by 4 witnesses: Joseph Goebbels, Martin Bormann, General Wilhelm Burgdorf and General Hans Krebs. Three copies of the wills were oriented on April 29 Doenitz and Schorner with 3 couriers, who had to overcome the position of Russian troops.
April 30 at 14.25 the troops of the 3rd Shock Army of the 1st Belorussian Front had taken most of the Reichstag building. At 14.30 Weidling gave Hitler a free hand and allowed to attempt a breakthrough from Berlin. An hour later, Zhukov said that over the Reichstag scouts Sergeant M. Yegorov and Sgt MV Kantariya hoisted the banner of reddish. After 20 minutes, after which the actions of Hitler shot himself.
And yet, as he wrote Konev, "The Germans, already evident in these days are doomed to failure … stubbornly continued to fight using our every mistake. Overall, by the end of April 30, the position of the enemy Berlin group was doomed. It was almost dismembered into several isolated groups. Imperial Chancellery, of which the operation has been performed the defense of Berlin, after the loss of communication unit head command, was in the shelter for Bendershtrasse, lost telegraph and telephone communications remained with malfunctioning radio ".
War correspondent P. Troyanovskiy wrote on May 1 as the NIGHT MODE "on the site of Colonel Smolin suddenly appeared a German car with a huge snow-white flag on the radiator. Our soldiers have finished consuming. Machine from a German officer came out and said one word: "Surrender …" Its realized adopt and headquarters. The officer said that the newly appointed Chief of General Staff, General Krebs is ready to come to the Russian commanders that the terms of the surrender of the garrison of Berlin. Russian commanders agreed to the Krebs … "
Two military attache.
Of course, even before his own suicide, Hitler did not count on the military success, but his hopes to survive by diplomatically maneuvers. Maybe it sought to explain the resignation from the post of Chief of Staff of the German Army prominent military commander, practice and tank warfare theorist Heinz Guderian. March 28 instead of him was General of Infantry Hans Krebs. Although Goebbels did not read about the military talents Krebs, he was satisfied with this choice, calling it "Amazing person", which "Was our military attache in Moscow".
Krebs brilliantly read in Russian, and was personally acquainted with Russian military leaders during his work as an assistant military attache in Moscow right up to June 1941. In Berlin, knew very well about the signs to the episode of activity G. Krebs. Performing the duties of a military attache, G. Krebs was on the wires of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Land of the Rising Sun Matsuoka after the signing of the Soviet-Japanese Neutrality contract. Seeking to highlight the loyalty of the USSR, to assume the responsibilities under this agreement, Stalin and Molotov personally arrived at the station and were warmly greeted by Matsuoka. At the same time, Russian leaders have tried to show their commitment to respect and 1939 agreements signed between the USSR and Germany.
In the government telegram to Berlin Germany salting Schulenburg wrote April 13, 1941, that during the farewell ceremony, Stalin "loudly asked of me, and finding me, walked over, put his arm around my shoulders and said," We should be friends and you should now do everything for it! "Then Stalin turned to acting military attache Colonel Krebs, and for earlier making sure that it Teuton, he said:" We will remain friends with you anyway. "Commenting on the words of Stalin, Shullenburg wrote: "Stalin, of course, welcomed Colonel Krebs and me as Makar deliberately and consciously so caught everyone's attention countless public, was present at all of this."
It is possible that no service Krebs in different staffs of armies and army groups from 1941 to 1945., And his experience of military diplomat in the Soviet Union were first need running the Third Reich in the spring of 1945.
At this time, Goebbels began to teach the biographies of those who are in command of the Red Army has entered the land of Germany. March 16, 1945 Goebbels wrote: "The General Staff is to me a book with biographies and portraits of Russian generals and marshals. Of this book is easy to learn different information about what mistakes we have made in the past years. These marshals and generals, on average, only young, almost none of them no older than 50 years . They have provided the experience of revolutionary political activity, are convinced the Bolsheviks, very energetic people, and in their faces you can read that they are good people's starter. most of it in their own kids workers, shoemakers, small farmers, etc. In short I am obliged to do the nasty conclusion that the military leaders of the Union of Russian come from no longer poor strata of the people than our own ".
It may be that the enthusiasm of Goebbels to Russian marshals and generals has been called not only a desire to defile their own commanders. Judging by the content of his diary, Goebbels at that time was interested first things that took practical importance to Germany. It is possible that he wanted to find out the best of those with whom he wished to enter into negotiations.
Biography of Vasily Ivanovich Chuikov was entirely appropriate that the general concepts of Russian generals who ruled Goebbels of exploring their biographies. Born into a farming family in the village of Silver Ponds Venevsky district of Tula province (now the Capital Region) Marshal of the Russian Union of the future began his working life as a mechanic in Petrograd.
Having started military service in December 1917 in a training mine housing in Kronstadt, Chuikov then joined the Red Army. He graduated from the plainclothes war with 4 wounds and the positions of commander of an infantry regiment. Since May 1942 Chuikov — an active participant majestically Russian war. Under his command the fighting in Stalingrad, the eminent 62th (later the 8th Guards) Army. Then the troops "chuykovskoy" Army liberated the Right-Bank Ukraine, Belarus, took part in the brilliant Vistula-Oder operation.
It may be that Goebbels drew attention not only on the combat experience Chuikov, and his education, which enabled him to work in the diplomatic sphere. After his graduation studies at the Military Academy named after MV Frunze, as the academic courses of mechanization and motorization at the academy, Chuikov graduated from Faculty of Oriental Studies of the same academy. After a role in the liberation campaign in 1939 and the Soviet-Finnish War, Chuikov became a military attaché in China in 1940 and remained there unt
il the beginning of 1942, ie during the period of our active assistance to the country in its fight against Japanese aggression. So Chuykov gained diplomatic experience in the complex and delicate matters Far East.
Perhaps by sending a former military attache in Moscow General Hans Krebs at the command post to Chuikov, Goebbels knew that Russian Colonel-General had a good preparation for the conduct of international negotiations.
May 1, 1945 at the command Fri Chuikov
Learning from Chuikov of the arrival of H. Krebs, Zhukov ordered the Army General VD Sokolovsky come "to the command post Chuikov meeting with the German general." Zhukov immediately got on the phone with Stalin. Reacting to the report of the suicide of Hitler, Stalin said: "Got Game, the bastard. Pity it was not possible to take him alive." Stalin gave the order at once, "Tell Sokolovsky. No negotiations, not including unquestioning surrender, nor with Krebs or other Nazis did not behave. If nothing is extraordinary — not to call in the morning, I wish to relax slightly. Now have May Day parade . "
Zhukov said on the call Sokolovsky "about 5 o'clock in the morning." According to General of the Army, Krebs was referring to his lack of capacity to negotiate surrender. He also reported: "Tipo Krebs reaches truce in order to gather in Berlin Doenitz government. I think we should send them to hell if they currently do not agree to the unquestioning surrender."
According to Zhukov, he supported Sokolovsky, adding: "Tell him that if up to 10 hours will not be given consent Goebbels and Bormann on unquestioning surrender, we struck a blow such power that forever discourage their hunt to resist." Next Zhukov wrote: "At the appointed time, the response from Goebbels and Bormann was not followed. At 10 hours and 40 minutes of our troops opened heavy fire on special defense sector remains the center of town". From the memoirs Zhukov can come to a conclusion as if Krebs was a short visit, and Stalin forbade the general conduct any negotiations.
Meanwhile, a more complete description of negotiations with Krebs has 30 pages of the book of the Union of Russian Marshal Chuikov "The End of the Third Reich." Chuikov said that the negotiations were also witnessed writer Vsevolod Vishnevsky, poets Konstantin Simonov and Evgeny Dolmatovsky, composer Tikhon Khrennikov and Matthew Blanter. Negotiations shorthand. On the German side than Krebs, took part in the negotiations of the General Staff, Colonel von Dufving, carrying out negotiations on duty adjutant general, also a translator.
From the story Chuikov, supported by verbatim records, develops a slightly different recollection of the negotiations on his team Fri, than from the memoirs of Zhukov. In 1-x, Chuykov reported that the negotiations were almost 10 hours. In-2, Chuykov told about establishing a telephone connection between the German Reich Chancellery and command Fri 8th Guards Army. B-3's, during negotiations with Krebs Chuikov and Sokolovsky has repeatedly called some higher entity. And they would Zhukov or Stalin. Consequently, Stalin, at first saying, according to Zhukov, the inadmissibility of any negotiations, and then allowed them to continue and substantially participated in them.
The stumbling block in the negotiations was the reluctance of new leaders to surrender to the Reich without the consent of the Doenitz. For this reason were known. Roles in triuvmirate formed by Hitler, were not correctly identified. Appeal to Stalin was written by Goebbels Reich Chancellor, but he indicated that he was acting on behalf of Bormann. Opportunities Krebs were also signed Bormann. Doenitz was appointed as Reich President, in other words, a post that was abolished after the death of the last president of the Weimar Republic of Paul von Hindenburg, August 2, 1934 Commenting in his own memoirs, Hitler's last mission, the last German armaments minister Albert Speer called them "the most absurd of his career Municipal worker … He was unable to find a clear, as has happened in the last years of his life, who has higher authority: the Chancellor or his office, or the president. According shaped as letters probate Doenitz could not move the Chancellor or someone of Ministers even if it turned out that they are not suitable for the job. So an important part of at least some opportunities president was taken from him from the start. "
In addition, while in captivity Grand Admiral received impoverished information about what happened in the Reich Chancellery bunker in the last days. Just three hours after the suicide of Adolf Hitler and his wife on April 30 at 18.35 Bormann sent a radio message to Dönitz: "Instead of the former Reichsmarschall Goering Hitler proclaimed you as his own successor. For you sent written instructions. Immediately take measures necessary in this situation."
There were no reports of resignation from the life of Hitler's grand admiral has not received, and believed that the supreme power in Germany, as in the past belongs to the Führer. For this reason he sent to Berlin response, which expressed his devotion to Hitler. Doenitz wrote: "If the will of Destiny … I destined to rule the Reich as your successor, I will make every effort so that the ending of this war was worthy of the heroic struggle of the German people".
Hiding disk imaging on Hitler's suicide was caused by the fact that Goebbels, Himmler and Bormann were afraid that is in captivity, where he and Doenitz. Of course, that by hiding the death of Hitler, his successors believed that while Himmler believed Hitler alive, SS chief did not dare to seize power. And they took the time to publish "Political Testament" of Hitler, in accordance with which Himmler was expelled from the party and stripped of all authority. Most likely, they were afraid that the early publicity will only speed up the act of Himmler. Managing the all-powerful SS organization could declare transmitted radio message "Political Testament" Hitler's fake, they — apostate, and even murderers Hitler. Goebbels and Bormann hardly doubt that Himmler was able to put Doenitz under his control or even to declare himself the head of the Third Reich.
The position of Goebbels, Bormann and the other was very shaky.
The real power of the heirs of Hitler extended only to a few neighborhoods of Berlin. Leo Bezymenskii cited clear evidence of the area, which controlled the government of Joseph Goebbels: "From north to south the length of the empire was rovnenky score of 1650 meters — the bridge to Prince Veydendammbryukke-Albrecht-Strasse, from west to east — 1150 meters — from the Brandenburg Gate to the Schlossplatz square". Of course the German government, headed by Goebbels, represent only the appearance of such. Of the 17 members of the government, appointed by Hitler in Berlin, there were only three: Goebbels, Bormann and the new minister of propaganda Naumann. It explained the energetic zeal of the heirs of Hitler Doenitz and collect all the members of the government in Berlin, which is constantly read Krebs. The same is also due to their horror, that the initiative in guiding Germany can intercept Himmler.
To justify the legality of his position Goebbels and Bormann had only a "political will" of Hitler. Referring to it, Goebbels, Bormann and their supporters emphasized that only they are entitled to negotiate the surrender. Because the first people outside the bunker learned the content of the political testament of Hitler, became Russian generals and Stalin. S
tatements that Goebbels and Bormann preferred to negotiate with the Soviet Union is simple: have surrounded Russian troops had no choice but to capitulate to them. Paradoxical way, Goebbels, Bormann, and Krebs tried to use the general surrender in order to show their right to read on behalf of the whole of Germany, in other words, to confirm the legitimacy of their government's surrender.
Krebs read Chuikov and Sokolovsky "Full and valid surrender can be solved legitimate government. If Goebbels will not be agreed with you, then what happens? You have to choose the legitimate government of the Government traitor Himmler. The issue of the war is already a foregone conclusion. The result should be decided by the government designated the Fuhrer. "According to Chuikov, Krebs," worrying is practically screaming in Russian: "apostate and traitor Himmler could kill members of the new government! … Himmler thinks that German troops could still be a force against the East. He reported this to your allies. To us it is clear, all clear! "
Krebs, Goebbels and others believed, not without reason, that the Russian government was ready to accept the surrender of the government, which was trapped in Berlin, and thus end the war in a matter of hours. In the unlikely event military action could be delayed. With all of this Russian military leaders repeatedly stressed that all negotiations must be total surrender to the role of allies.
At the same time, Russian Union was disadvantageous for the seizure of power by Himmler, who had entered into separate negotiations with the undercover agents of Western powers. Because arrived at the command post Sokolovsky, referring to Zhukov, G. Krebs offered to the public, "Heinrich Himmler declared apostate to thwart his plans." Visibly brightening, Krebs said, "Very smart advice. This can be at the moment to do the same. Naturally, with the permission of Dr. Goebbels". Krebs asked for permission to send Colonel von Dufving to Goebbels.
Chuikov called the chief of staff and gave the order to ensure the transition of colonel and immediately associate our battalion on the front edge of the German battalion to establish a telephone connection with Goebbels Russian army command pt.
In the transition band of fire group, which were Dufving background, the German translator of Russian and signalmen, was betrayed by fire from the German side, although Colonel kept snow-white flag. Despite the fact that the commander of the Russian company signalers was mortally wounded, the relationship with the Reich Chancellery was installed. However, with the German side, the long-term relationship work. And yet, after the return of background Dufving Krebs was able to speak with Goebbels on the phone.
After lengthy negotiations, Krebs read Goebbels on the phone Russian terms of surrender:
"1. Capitulation of Berlin.
2. Surrendering everything to hand weapon.
3. Officers and soldiers, on a general basis, saves lives.
4. Provided assistance to the wounded.
5. Given the possibility of talks with allies on the radio ".
Goebbels claimed Krebs return to discuss with him all these conditions.
In parting, Krebs was told: "Your government will be given the opportunity to say that Hitler was dead, that Himmler — apostate and claim the three governments — the Soviet Union, the U.S. and the UK — a complete capitulation. We therefore Makar, and partly satisfy your request. Will we help to you in the development of government? No. But to give you a list of persons entitled to say that you do not want to build up as prisoners of war. We give you the right to make a statement after the surrender of the Union of civilization. Depends on their upcoming fate of your government ". Krebs was also told that after the surrender of Berlin Russian troops will give the Germans plane or car, and to establish radio contact with the Doenitz.
Krebs: "The list of persons in Berlin which we give will not be regarded as a list of prisoners of war? "
Answer: "This is ensured. Officers retain the title, medals, cool gun. We are giving the right to submit a list of members of the government, the right of communication with Doenitz. But all this after the surrender".
Krebs: "So, after the surrender of Russian radio will give a message about the death of Hitler, on a brand new government, and the betrayal of Himmler?" Received further evidence on this point, Krebs, according to Chuikov, "assured that he would try everything to agree rapidly. 13 hours 08 minutes. Krebs left".
According to Chuikov, after parting Krebs twice vorachivalsya "Already the stairs: first, he had forgotten gloves that put on the window sill with his cap, but, it's cap-wearing, but the gloves are not picked up. 2nd time Krebs returned under the pretext that the field has forgotten the bag, which he generally was not. He argued that it brought the documents from Goebbels and Bormann, though — I remember it well — took out the paper out of the side pocket ".
Chuykov behavior as explained Krebs: "As disgusted and behavior to be seen — the general hesitated to go back in the thick of it, or the first to surrender to the favorite. Maybe expect that we will declare it a prisoner of what he might be willing to agree to".
In the second half of May 1 in the Reich Chancellery bunker: versions available.
After the transition band of fire Krebs Russian generals were expecting a response from the Reich Chancellery. But the Germans were silent. Their silence is delayed.
Zhukov recalled: "In the 18 hours Sokolovsky reported that the German administration had sent its own truce. He said that Goebbels and Bormann rejected the demand of unquestioning surrender. In response to this, in 18 hours and 30 minutes with an indescribable force began the final assault on the central part of the town, where there was the Imperial Chancellery and sat down remnants of the Nazis ".
But there is no documentary evidence that the leaders of the new government in fact rejected the Russian terms of surrender. Designated envoy did not present any documents showing that he is acting on behalf of Goebbels or Bormann. Did not have any documents on the meeting of the government of Joseph Goebbels, at which it was decided to deprive Russian conditions.
In the evening on May 1 significant part of the population Hopper attempted to break out of the Russian encirclement. According to William Shirer, 500 to 600 residents of the bunker, many of whom were the SS men eventually were able to break through. They then found themselves in the Allied occupation zones. Some of them later claimed that the Generals Krebs and Burgdorf, the couple also Goebbels, did not join the breakout group, and committed suicide. Reported that before his suicide Magda Goebbels by Dr. slew of their own children. Borman, according to former obiteteley bunker. participants joined the breakthrough, but died on the way.
But no one was able to provide convincing evidence of how Krebs and Burgdorf committed suicide. Their bodies were never found.
Conflicting evidence about the death of Bormann on the way out of the bunker. As impressively substantiated Leo Bezymenskii in his book "In the wake of Martin Bormann," the statement chauffeur Erich Kempka Hitler in his book "I burned Hitler" refuted his own testimony at the Nuremberg trials of Bormann's death from an explosion Russian tank shell. Favorite "Hitler Youth" Arthur Axmann, which is referred W. Shearer, argued that Bormann took poison in the process of escaping. But his body was never found. Martin Bormann, who were engaged in the search for a significant
part of the twentieth century, disappeared without any trace.
There was a lot to tell about the suicide of Goebbels, his wife, also killing their babies, whose bodies were discovered. In his book H. R. Trevor-Roper, cited testimony aide Joseph Goebbels gauptsshturmfyurera SS Gunter Shvagermana. He claimed that in the evening on May 1 Goebbels called him and said: "Shvagerman! Happened greatest betrayal. Generals threw the Fuhrer. All is lost. I will die with my own wife and family … you will burn our bodies. Can you do it?"
According to Trevor-Roper, Shvagerman promised to do so. After that, the adjutant sent a chauffeur Goebbels and SS for gasoline. "Soon (it was half of the ninth pm) Goebbels and his wife went through the hopper. At the foot of the stairs, they passed Shvagermana and chauffeur Raha, who was standing with gasoline. They passed in silence, and climbed the stairs to the garden. Almost immediately two shots were heard. When Rah Shvagerman and went into the garden, they found two dead bodies on the ground. SS orderly who shot them, stood nearby. They obediently poured four cans of gasoline on the bodies, lit them and gone ".