In some Western European languages (both old and modern) are known words with meaning "servant" or "slave", which are often similar to the words of the same language, designating the term "Slav". All of them, as well, like the words of the medieval Greek and Latin languages, signifying the Slavs. Here are some of them: Englishslave («slave»), Frenchesclave ("esklav"), GermanSklave («sklave"), Portugueseescravo («eskravo"), Italianschiavo («skiavo")etc.
Similar words for slaves, known in some Scandinavian, the Dutch, in Romanian, and even medieval Arabic. They are all, to some extent, similar to the self as the Slavs ("Slovenia", "Slavs", etc.) Some, between the names of the slaves and the ethnonym Slavs equated. What was the breeding ground for many atislavyanskih, in general, and anti-Russian, in particular, statements, theories, and much propaganda waves sometimes have purchased this scale mythologies. And — these views even seeped into academic science.
As has happened more than once, when some, not quite adequate ideas, fall in academic work and gain a foothold there, the idea of kinship words "Slav" and "slave", came to science, creating a series of "scientific" in the form, but it is questionable to Essentially, representations and statements. Next we deliberately as to consider this issue.
The essence of these ideas is that these words are related to the alleged name of the Slavs,"Due to the fact that in the Middle Ages, the Slavs have been subjected to massive slave trade, which led to the use of their name as the designation of the slaves'. This idea, in various ways, often repeated, her face hard. Sometimes, even claimed that the Western Europeans, in languages that have the words, straight, massively and regularly paid the Slavs into slavery. In general, the far-reaching conclusions, such as the fact that "Slavic slaves", while Western Europeans "their masters."
Moreover, in the XVIII-XIX centuries. in Western journalism persistently exaggerated idea that the word "Slav" comes from the Latin or Greek word meaning "servant." A start has put a French historian and publicist XVIII century. The controversy with this myth is found in the "Diary of a Writer," Fyodor Dostoyevsky.(Fyodor Dostoyevsky. Complete Works: in 30 vols 23. M., 1990, p. 63, 382.)
As for the idea of the origin of the word "Slav" from the name of slaves — at present, it is not considered a science, and has long been recognized failure, or even deliberately slavyanofobskoy.
But as they say Horseradish is not sweeter — for, as regards the origin of the names of European slaves in our name, it is, exactly, is the same idea, which is still often repeated by some authors.
Let's start from the beginning. What do we really know about these West words? First, they are all related — have a common basis, a common origin. And, in fact, well known for their source — the language from which they came. Birthplace of these words is Byzantium. It was there, in the middle ages, in so-called middle Greek (Greek medieval era) there was a word"???" (Read as "sklavos" — "slave"). Then — from Byzantium, from the Greek word gets to medieval Latin. There it takes the form«Sclavus» ("Sklavus"). And from the medieval Latin — the official, as well as the international legal, political, commercial and scientific language of Western Europe (which for many centuries was carried all the paperwork, and chronicles the Western world), this word is spreading in almost all European languages. Moreover, in different languages, it is in a different time (eg, in line withWebster dictionariesin English, it appears only in the XIV century, with Webster, gives etymological version of the Slavic slave trade. This is in XIV century, in England! Sic!) In many of the European languages, the word has survived to this day. Also, apparently, from the middle Greek, it goes into Romanian and Arabic. Although it is possible that here, as in the case of European languages — Latin acts as an intermediary.
Therefore, the direct appearance of these words in the Western European languages, for reasons supposedly abundant Slavic slave trade representatives of the Western European nations, is excluded. Since word has clearly seen and understandable story.And it appeared not in the West and in Byzantium.
However, we have only covered the story spread the word. And this is only part of the problem. The main question is, what is the history of its occurrence? As it appeared in the language of medieval Byzantium? From? What are its roots?
And these questions havetwo options. The first is a slightly modified version of the same version of "the medieval slave trade", many victims who allegedly were Slavs.
Byzantines called Slavssklaveny(?????????read Greek assklavenoi, u Num.?????????, sklavenos) And this word, in general, similar to the one that was the starting point for the Western "slaves." Moreover, from the Greek words that mean this time it was the Slavs, is the medieval LatinSclaveni. It is also, in various forms of writing used in the State, official language was Latin, to denote the Slavs. Sometimes with a «c» in the first letter, sometimes with «k», sometimes without — just«Slaveni». This word is also similar to that in Latin designated slaves. According to the version of the slave trade, it turns out that this is in the Byzantine Empire, in the early Middle Ages Slavs appeared in such large numbers as slaves that came even middle Greek word, derived from their ethnonym to refer to the concept of "slave." Which further (for us already traced the route) through the Latin were in different Western languages.
Well — words really like … But what is the second version of the occurrence of the word designating slaves in medieval Greek?
It looks as follows.The word "slave" in the middle Greek comes from the Greek verbskyleuo— Mean"Mine spoils of war", First person singular, the number of which looks likeskylao. This version, in particular, described here:F. Kluge, Etymologisches Worterbuch der deutschen Sprache. 2002, siehe Sklave. (Etymological Dictionary of the German Language, 2002, article "Sklave.") Similar version presented in the following sources: Kobler, Gerhard, Deutsches Etymologisches Worterbuch, 1995 (Etymological Dictionary of German G.Keblera, 1995) Here's an article from the dictionary with the letter S, Consider the word Sklave: «… zu gr. skyleuein, skylan, V. zu gr. skylon ».
Thus, it appears that the Greek word "sklav", "slave" — comes from the Greek word is, the original meaning of which was "taken in war", "captive in war." And, as you can see, in this case, in its origin, there is no connection with the ethnonym Slavs. In fact — it turns out that "Slavs" and all these many Western "sklavy" are only homonyms (words resonate.)
About Homonyms we say a little more. Examples of such consonant matches can cause a lot (both within the same language, and between words of different languages).
Compare, for example the Russian words"Key" ("stream source")and"Key" ("subject to open locks"), "Spit" ("woven hair")and"Spit" ("a tool for cutting grass"), the "land" ("soil")andLand (the name of our planet), "language" ("human speech")and"Language" ("mouth organ"). Of the more unusual can recall, for example, the Russian version of the name spokenDmitry — Diman, orDimon, and compare it with the word"Demon". Or to compare the Russian name North African country"Morocco"and Russian, the word"Confusion". Or, the German word«West» («West" — "West")and the Russian word"News" ("message, the news"). Another example — the English word«Chill» («chill" — "cold")and the name of the South American country"Chile". Another example — the German word«Konig» («Koenig" — "king")and the Russian word"Groom". All this is quite close (and sometimes, even, literally identical) sounding words, but at the same time, they have a different meaning, and is usually quite different origins. Such examples are, in fact, you can bring hundreds. This is quite common.
Thus, in medieval Byzantium, a new word associated with a verb meaning"Seize the spoils of war", which became known as the slaves of slaves. In this case, the old, more ancient word, which previously meant slaves — slaves for now do not use, because they began to call people who are more similar to the serfs attached to the land, and worked on it. But ordinary slaves were called this new word that fell from Greek into Latin, and from there into other languages. That's about it looks.
Which of the two versions of the origin of words — "slaves", should we choose as the most likely? Question is not idle. How to guide for making that decision? I think — we need to take a scientific analysis. And what is "scientific analysis"? It's justsearch and examination of the facts and compare them with other facts.Here's what to do to determine the adequacy of a hypothesis. Unfortunately, it seems that this simple and fundamental principle sometimes do not understand, or completely ignored by some authors.
So — what are the facts here? I think — may be suitable information on the history of medieval Byzantium, in which the word itself and emerged. And, in particular, its wars with the Slavs.More precisely correct to say — the history of the Slavic, Avar-Slavic and again purely Slavic conquest of Byzantium VI-IX centuries.In the first millennium AD, the Slavs almost captured former European provinces of the Eastern Roman Empire, they formed their own independent state. Some of which still exist. Here are the Roman and Byzantine provinces were captured Slavs:Dalmatia, Illyria, Panonia, Moesia, Dacia,and for the most part,Macedonia and Thrace. They are now and there are numerous South Slavic state — fromSloveniatoBulgaria.
Roman provinces in the second half of the first century AD tysyacheleniya almost completely conquered Slavs.
Furthermore, while the Slavs conquered much of the land within the boundaries of modernGreece— Including the cradle of ancient Greece, the peninsulaPeloponnesus. Which, since the Slavic conquest and to the XIX century, before the release of the Turkish Empire, and the formation of modern Greece, called Slavic nameMorey(Literally"Sea land", "land of the sea"). Also, Slavs conquered the islandCreteand some areas in Anatolia, in Asia Minor (now related to the Asian part of Turkey). There were even some Slavic colony in Syria. Some Slavic principalities were coming close to the capital of the Byzantine EmpireConstantinople — Constantinople. For example, the future of Bulgaria, or, one more thing — the principality whose center was the cityThessaloniki(Slavs calledSolon) It is very close to the boundaries of the city were coming from the south. According to romeyskoy (so called themselves Byzantines) chronicles, when the Slavs acquired land in Greece — Greeks themselves were afraid there seem. And it lasted for centuries. In particular, there is a mention of the Morea (Peloponnese). Traces of former Slavic presence in modern Greece are quite numerous place names of Slavic origin. For example, such as the name of the cityHair(Given in honor of the Slavic god Volos, or Veles), etc.
Generalizations about the early Slavs can be read here. About the beginning of the conquest of the Byzantine Empire — briefly here. And here — Review of wars that were Slavs and Byzantium as subjects of Avar Khaganate, and after their Khanate was destroyed. In more detail, for example, here.
Here, by the way, can lead one to the Byzantine text, which tells the neighboring Byzantine and Slavic tribes of ants, in the days before the European conquest of the Slavic empire. It is a workStrategy(OrStrategikon), Which is attributed to the emperorMauritius (539-602). It contains a very valuable and interesting information about the Slavs. Including their attitudes toward slavery and slaves.
Here is an excerpt from it:
"The tribes of the Slavs and the Ants live together, and their life is the same: they live freely, and do not allow anyone to be in bondage or subordinate. They are very much in their country, and they are very hardy, and easy to tolerate heat and cold, and the rain and the nakedness of the body, and poverty. To those who come to them and enjoyed their hospitality, they are gentle and friendly way, cordially greeted them and then escorted from place to place, protecting those who need it. If the guest is any harm caused by the owner, by his negligence — who entrusted him guest, raises war against it and finds a sacred duty to avenge the guest. Those who are in their captivity, they do not hold in slavery indefinitely, like other peoples, but limit their slaves a certain period, and then let them go, if they want some recompense for their land, or to allow them to live with them , but as a free people and friends. In this way they sniskivayut their love. "
(Readings on the history of the USSR. T. I / Comp. Lebedev and others, Moscow, 1940, p. 23 — 25)
Another, more modern version of the translation of the words of the relation of the Slavs to slavery:
"(…) As a freedom-loving, they are in no way inclined to either become slaves, nor obey, especially in their own land."
(Strategikon Mauritius, Vol. Ge. Vladimir Kuchma. SPb., 2004, p.189)
As you can see, the Byzantines clearly associated Slavic slaves, even in those times when they have just started to conquer Byzantium. And so what about the time when the Slavs occupied almost the entire European half.
Serbian map, which shows the area of settlement of the Slavs on the Balkan Peninsula in the IX century. Slavs on it collectively called the Serbs, it is special, not generally recognized the Serbian point of view. But the card itself is quite adequate.
Thus, if we take into account all the above facts, the version of the origin of srednegrecheskogo word "slave" from the name of the Slavs seems very strange and even improbable. Because — in fact, after the conquest of a substantial part of the Byzantine Empire, the Slavs were there not slaves, but on the contrary —Gentlemen. Or, in the worst case, just witting settlers, conquerors — in the land which they themselves Romans (Byzantines) were afraid to go.The word "slave" is happening in the name of the conquerors, and the winners — it is very strange.I am afraid that we will not find in the history of any similar example! It just does not happen, and can not be. For"Invaders" and "slave" — is the opposite of the words. What's more — if we look at the very Byzantium, in those parts, who continued to remain independent of the Slavs we find quite a number of Slavic origin activists who held a high position in society. Known Byzantine military and political leaders, religious hierarchy, dignitaries and just rich and noble people of Slavic origin. Including several emperors, who apparently had Slavic roots. To those, in particular, is, Maximilian. And according to the Orthodox tradition, even the great Justinian had Slavic blood (this, in particular, wrote Venelin, very detailed work that can be found in this collection: Antinormanizm).
So — as we can see,the idea of the origin of the names of the slaves in the Byzantine Empire from the name of the Slavs — the unit does not stand the test of practice.Thus, it appears that the word probably derives from the very verb meaning "to seize the spoils of war." And, accordingly, initially, as we mentioned, it meant "taken in war", "Prisoner." That, you see, in itself, quite logical.
But what about the word sklaveny that the Greeks called the Slavs? From which the Latin name of the Slavs? Why it is so similar to the prisoners' sklavosov "? Yes — it's true, the Greeks called "Slavs" and "prisoners" are very similar words. This is due to the peculiarities of the Greek pronunciation. Sound combination "ff", which begins for the medieval Slavic self Greeks are very uncomfortable and difficult to pronounce.
For us, this is quite an ordinary combination of sounds, but for the Greeks, it was difficult. This often happens in carriers of different languages. Try, for example, to say some long German word — most likely, you will find it quite readable for the Russian combination of sounds. Or, on the other hand, try to force the Germans to say, for example, the Russian word"Bird", "foal", "railroad", "dandy"— In response, you will hear a lot of sounds, the existence of which these words had no idea.
Same with the self-designation of the Slavs from the Greeks. And to make the word more pronounceable — Greeks inserted to the beginning, the "ff" sound "k". Which made him look like the very thing the Greek word associated in meaning with the spoils of war. So, apparently, from the beginning, it was just homonyms. Consonant words. And no more. Since its introduction.
It turns out, in fact, the English «slave», German «Sklave», Italian «schiavo» etc. On the one hand, and the Russian "Slavs", the Polish «slowianie», Croatian «slaveni», Kashubian «slowionie» etc. on the other hand — do not have to each otherNOrelationship. And "connected" no more than the name of a famous Spanish singer Julio Iglesias with a Russian swear words, the question on which the derivative is known to be very similar to the name. We will refrain from carrying out this form here, but we think that most readers are familiar with it.
Julio Iglesias (Julio Iglesias) name, which is not related to similar Russian swear words, and is, only, the Spanish version of the Latin name Julius (IULIUS) — which is carried in particular, the famous Roman general and consul, the predecessor of the Roman emperor, Julius Caesar (GAIUS IULIUS C? SAR).
So — both considered the Greek word actually very similar to each other. As well as their modern derivatives such as English «slave» («servant") is also really like the word «Slav» («Slav"). But we should understand that it is just funny quirks of nature, funny things related to language development. And no more. Repeat once again — homonyms is not a rare phenomenon in human languages. If the drive is more examples similar sounding words, you can remember the Russian word"One"("Unit") And the name of the Norse god'One'. Also very similar words that differ only in emphasis. Another obvious example — Mengrel (a type of Georgians) family"Gurtskaya", which is almost entirely in harmony with the feminine name of Polish origin"Górecki"—"Górecki". However, her name Gurtskaya not connected and has its own unique origin. Moreover, it does not bow, and does not change in delivery. And, as a man and a woman who looks the same: Diana Gurtskaya Tengiz Gurtskaya. And if you compare the same English and Russian — we can mention the following examples: the English word«Star»("Star" — "star") And Russian"Star"(A short form of the adjective"Old") Or English«Lip»("Limes"—"Lip") And Russian"Linden"(The name of the tree), or English«Dildo»("Dildo"— In one sense,"Dude, man") And the Russian word"Cornstalk"("A very tall, lanky man") — Very similar words, but which have no common ancestry. A few more fun examples: English«Shit»(Pronounced almost like"Shield", rough, dirty word, means"Shit") And Russian"Shield"("Manual arming for shock, round or rectangular plane"). Udmurt word"City"which also means"Shit", and the English word of Latin origin, almost already borrowed into Russian«City»("City"—"Big city" or "downtown"). Imagine what people who know the Udmurt language, visiting modern Moscow, read phrases likeMoscow City Bank City, City Halletc. How strange, to say the funny sounds in Russian, for example, the Arabic male nameNasrallah, I do not need and explain it. However, it just means"Nasir Allah (Allah's assistant)". And since we mentioned taboo vocabulary, I was reminded of an amusing example of the homonymous match between the Armenian and English languages. This Armenian word"Clear"(Expletive,"Penis") And the English word«Clear»("Clear" — "clean, clear ', from the Latin«Clarus»). Again, very similar in appearance and very different in the sense of the word. Further, as an illustration, we present a fragment of a page from the real Mongolian-Russian dictionary. We pursue the aim to insult the reader, it's a literary Mongolian words.
Page fragment Mongolian-Russian dictionary. Visible in the image words are not connected with the famous Russian swear words. While some time ago it was common hypothesis, namely, Mongolian origin, but at present, it is not considered as established that the word is original Slavic, dates back to the ancient Indo-European root, and has a common origin with the words' needles "and" tail. " However, the Mongols have a complete copy of the forms, which have, however, has its own value and origin.
In fact, this is a good example of some quirkiness and amazing coincidences in various foreign languages. Among which, apparently under the above similarities between the ethnonym Slavs and called slaves.
In this case, over the centuries, the similarity of the words caused a tremendous amount of really various insinuations, juggling, and sometimes directly antislavyanskih offensive attacks. Almost everyone who had any evil or hostile purposes against the Slavs in general, or of any specific groups, for example, Russian — usually have adopted a coincidence and tried to exploit it. From Napoleon and the British, to William and Hitler. Sometimes, too, the convergence of the word "Slavs" and "sklavusy" done, obviously, on the basis of folk etymology — human attempts to explain the external similarity of words. For example, in medieval Jewish tradition stated the origin of the Slavs from the "sons of Canaan," as this biblical character said: "A servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren"(VY Petrukhin ethnic and cultural history of Russia IX-XI centuries. Smolensk, Moscow, 1995. S. 35).And the most amazing thing is that, despite all the evidence that the identity of the word "Slav" and "slave" is questionable — this idea as the "truth" was leaked, even in "academia".
At the same time, in view of the ancient homonymous match, and the key role of the Slavs themselves in political processes at various times in Europe (including, in the medieval era), this is a coincidence, apparently, could be used for propaganda, in order to provide even antislavyanskih very early times. Perhaps since the Byzantium. At least — just to say that during the wars waged against Polabian Pomeranian Slavs and German emperors — one of the German writers of that time, namely,Adam of Brementried to draw parallels between Latin sclavus and Slavs. By the same reasoning, as we have said, resorted many subsequent authors, serving different antislavyanskie ambitions. But such attempts to equate antiquity — does not make it more reasonable. This homonyms. Coincidence of sound and spelling. Although, the duration and persistence of equating each other — sometimes really impressive. Many people, especially in the West, were working on it regularly and for long periods.
Now a few words about the academics. Some of them, including domestic, happened to make assertions about the relationship of these words. Sometimes it is very categorical. For example, take a quote AV Nazarenko:"There can be no doubt that a very large part of the slaves that came in the European markets in the IX. Was of Slavic origin. This was clearly stated, the very origin of the word "slave" in Western European languages: it. Sklave, French. esclave <Wed-Lat. sclavus "slave Slav '"(Nazarenko AV Ancient Russia on international routes: Interdisciplinary Essays on the cultural, commercial and political ties IX-XII centuries. — M. 2001., P. 95.)
However, whatever is said Nazarenko, and as if it is not explicitly postulated — as you and I have seen doubts in these words, in fact is, and very serious. More than that — to paraphrase, for fun, the very Nazarenko can state the following:"There can be no doubt that the origin of the word" slave "in Western European languages from the word" Slav "is questionable, as well as questionable and the fact that most of the slaves in the European market IX century was of Slavic origin."
But, as authors such as Nazarenko — we have to admit that they are not too serious concerns comprehensive analysis of the situation, and often limited to a loud and scathing statements. Whisks, often, by the way, spitting competition in themselves. And Nazarenko, in fact, is not the only author, from which you can hear such theses. As a rule, the authors appeal to different medieval evidence of the slave trade in the Slavic countries. Messages about what is really sometimes come from different sources.
For example, recall the statement of the Russian Prince, written in the Chronicle. We are talking about a phrase that explains the famous Svyatoslav in 969 his decision to move from Kiev to Pereyaslavets on the Danube. In the city, where, according to him, the good flock from different countries, including from Russia"Soon, wax, honey and servants'. From which it follows that the basic goods that Russia supplied in those years on the international market, wereSoon (fur), wax (very valuable at the time of bee products, used in shipbuilding, for the production of candles and other purposes), honey (apparently, intoxicating drink, honey wine)andservants (slaves). Some interpreters of this phrase often interpret it as a fact that these slaves were taken, almost from among themselves the subjects of the prince. That, of course, is nonsense. Just at the time of Svyatoslav — Russ always led various offensive and often victorious war, for example, a Finno-Ugric, with vyatichi, with the Bulgars, and of course with the Khazars. Including the famous defeat of the Khazars. These wars were a constant source of slaves, which Russia has exported to foreign markets. But not so, as it seems to some citizens of overly imaginative — that Svyatoslav almost on the streets of Russian cities grab bystanders and exported them for sale. Of course not — they were captured during the war prisoners. Reports of massive takeovers are in the same war, the Khazars are crystal clear. And so, by the way, not all of them were Slavs. More than that — probably just Slavs among the "servants" of Svyatoslav the minimum. Is that — distant ancestors of the Muscovites, vyatichi. The others — these were either residents of the Khazars, or Finno-Ugric peoples, or other Svyatoslav defeated enemies. On this issue, we can recommend the workIJ Froyanova,especially"Slavery and dannichestvo Eastern Slavs", by them convincingly argues that "servants" in Russia is called slaves foreigners bought or captured in battle.
There are other indications of the slave trade in the Slavic lands. In particular it is the Slavs. But they are completely different, there are also options for treatments. Some of this evidence is considered, for example, here.
Interestingly, the idea of the origin of Western words for the concept of "servant" of the ethnonym Slavs, at the time, took up the active supporters normanistskoy versions of the origin of the Russian state. They are trying to illustrate it, and even how they think, to "prove" their bizarre notions about the most ancient period of the history of our country and our people. More information about the normanistskom teachings and his blatant stupidities and inconsistencies, we plan to write a separate article. Here we confine ourselves to a statement of the fact that out of the mouth Normanists idea about the relationship of these words, sometimes sounds very dogmatic, and even aggressive form. As an example, I can give one Normanists recent words, uttered in a dispute with me, took place at one of the pages on LiveJournal. I quote the words of this man (he signed trolevym pseudonym, so you it will not.) Here is his statement:"(…) A huge mass of slaves, the Slavs, the Vikings are caught on the southern Baltic, is much easier to pass the German and Frankish lords, as well as forward to Cordoba. Clear why in Western Europe meant Slav slave … "and further, in the same spirit. But in this kind of, so to speak, the "reality" of modern Normanists believe, or how they themselves are sometimes called "real historians." Statements of such content (and sometimes more trenchant) out of their mouth are not uncommon. But, as is often the case with ideas Normanists, though they "correspond" to withinThe other way around!
This view of the southern Baltic Slavs — can be described as stupidity and complete ignorance. In fact, the Slavs and Pomeranian Polabian areas were very powerful and warlike people. They fought for centuries as the Germans — with the Saxons and Franks, and the Scandinavians — with the Danes, Swedes and Norwegians. Sometimes in conjunction with one of them — they fought against each other. Sometimes the opposite — fought back from broad coalitions, which, along with the Germans, and Scandinavians, were some of the Slavic tribes. Here, for example, that prishet on the western most of them, of WagramGelmoldinSlavic Chronicle:
"Aldenburg — is the same as in Slavic Stargard, meaning" old town ". Located, as they say in the land of Wagram, in the western part of the Baltic Sea, it is the limit of Slavia. The city, or province, was once inhabited bravest men of as, at the head of glory, had neighbors nations Danes and Saxons, and everything is always war and he first started or took them over from the other, they would get. "
When the Baltic Slavs were not at war with its neighbors, that were active in trade, and develop diplomatic ties. In particular, shared with brides — Scandinavian or German kings sent their daughters to the Slavic princes, and in return received Slavic kings daughters to their sons. Posts about this in the medieval sources on the Baltic Sea very much. This is in fact one of the main themes in diplomatic relations of the time. More information on the Baltic Slavs dynastic marriages here.
As for the war, robbery and capture prisoners — we are planning to write an article "Medieval Slavic pirates Baltic and the North Sea", which are going to talk about this much detail. Here's just say that, despite the fact that currently the most publicized medieval Norse pirates are — in fact, the Baltic Slavs were also very active in the military and predatory activities at sea — including against the most, too geroiziruemyh some, Scandinavians . Sometimes, on the contrary, the Slavs attacked someone together with the Scandinavian Vikings. And information about preserved, in fact, very much. In this text, we restrict ourselves to listing several facts.
First, the Baltic Slavs to refer to the"Wendy"(As they refer to the neighboring non-Slavic peoples)the attackers to England and Ireland, the Normans. Which, by the way stole from British cities and monasteries of many prisoners. Some of the famous, full of horror, English texts, telling Norman robbery VIII-IX centuries — the attackers than the Danes and Norwegians, right list Wendy! This was written back in the XIX century, a prominent Russian historianGideons.
ASaga of the Good Hakonereports of attacks on the Vikings-Wends Scandinavian lands (together c Danes). We quote:"The king then Hakon sailed east along the coast of Skåne and ravaged the country, took the ransom and tribute and killed the Vikings, where he found them just as the Danes and Wends".
Then — there are several texts German chroniclers, in which the Slavic pirates Rügen and the adjacent land — generally referred to as the most dangerous and bloodthirsty pirates Baltic. Especially, if you believe this German reportedly invincible and ruthless pirates were residents of the island of Rügen (in Slavonic Ruyan). It is reported, in particular,Adam of Bremen (Acts of the Archbishops of Hamburg Church), here is an excerpt of his work:
"(…) The three islands should be made of the islands that lie in front of the Slavic lands. The first of these — Fembre. It is located opposite of Wagram and as the island can be seen from Lalande Stargrada. The other is located in front of Wiltz. It is owned Ruyan, very brave Slavic tribe, without which, according to custom, not to take any public regulation. They are afraid because they are in close relations with the gods, or rather demons, paying tribute honoring more than others. Both of these islands are full of bloodthirsty pirates and robbers, who do not spare anyone from swimming by. All the prisoners that others usually sell, they usually kill (…) "
(Text adapted from the work of the Baltic A.G.Kuzmina Who "root"? M. 1993), There are also slightly different translations.
More evidence seen inGelmolda. In hisSlavic Chronicle, he writes:
"Rana, others called Rouen — is cruel people living in the heart of the sea and excessively devoted to idolatry. They excel among the Slavic peoples are the king and the famous shrine. Therefore, due to the special veneration of the sanctuary, they have the greatest respect and, in many imposing yoke themselves do not feel anyone's yoke, being available, because they are difficult to reach places. Tribes that they subordinate themselves weapons, they forced to pay tribute to the sanctuary. (…) Completely ignoring the benefits of agriculture, they are always ready to attack at sea, laying his only hope, and all the wealth of the ships. "
These same Slavic Venda systematically attacked Denmark and Sweden. Plundered the city, drove captives. In particular, in 1043, they captured and looted the Danish town of Ribe.
Here's a snippet of the article devoted to the Polish Slavic piracy in the Baltic Sea (Mariusz Zulawnik, PIRACTWO SLOWIANSKIE NA BALTYKU DO 1184 ROKU, 1999 TEKA HISTORYKA, 1999. — Zeszyt 16.-S.5-18.)"Pirates of the expedition organized for the capture of prey or slaves. The rich were valuable booty, because for them, these pirates can get a large ransom. The remaining captives were sold at auction. A large number of prisoners after each expedition led to the fact that the price of slaves in Slavic markets sharply declined. Otherwise things were, for example, in Denmark, where prices immediately go up. The reason for this was the lack of slaves, after the Slavic attacks. Prisoners captured in the clashes with the Poles, and sold either in Denmark or in Ruyan, and prisoners from the North (Danish) — mostly in the West and South Europe. For more valuable slaves, such as the rich, are treated better than the others, which are used, among other things, for heavy work, such as in the construction of ships. Above them are often abused. In Titmara we read was done to some of the hostages, "their anger transfer of the remaining Corsairs. The next morning, they cut off his nose and ears hands priest (…) and the rest of the hostages, and then threw them overboard into the bay (…). "
But the description of the effects of Slavic corsair expedition undertaken in 1136 under the leadership of the Pomeranian Prince Ratibor on Konunghale I (then a Danish city, now belongs to Sweden, is located on the border with Norway) from the same article:"(…) Did not keep their word Gentiles, took all the people, men, women and children, killed many, especially those who are weak, low-born and those who are hard to take away with him. They took all the money that was in the city. "
This is how the source is characterized by a situation caused by systematic Slavic pirate attacks on Denmark, shortly before the trips to Valdemar I Ruyan:"At this time the pirates unbelted from the borders of the Slavs already on Eidoru, all the villages in the east, residents left (…), lay in ruins from uncultivated land. Zealand, from the east to the south, a gaping void (…), to Fiona's nothing left except for a few people. "
One of the major reasons why the Ruyan had wars famous Danish kingValdemar I (1131-1182)was the fact that they are constantly ravaged his country, and the population en masse led away into captivity. It is the constant attacks by the pagans with Ruyany, forced Valdemar (incidentally, got its name in honor of Christian Russian prince Vladimir Monomakh, whose descendant through his mother he was) to start to work with them active war. (In alliance with another German Emperor). Specifically, before the second attack Valdemar — Ruyan on fire and sword almost half of Denmark, seized several towns and imposed a tribute to Danish province. Including the island of Lolland, and came to Roskilde (Roskilde — then the capital of Denmark). On the serious attacks"Wendy"Danish annals narrate in detail. Response campaigns Danes were successful for them. As a result of Rügen in 1168 was first baptized.
War with Slavic pagan pirates in the early XII century and led the famous Polish KingBoleslav Krivous (1085-1138). Who attacked their base region and the continent. In addition to the elimination of the robbers, he fought against the political independence of the Pomeranian lands. And also tried to Christianize them. A kind of, sort of "second front" against the Slavic pagan Baltic. More precisely, even a third, given that the South also fought with the Germans. But most interesting is that regular Slavic robberies in Scandinavia, including Denmark and Sweden continued even after Valdemar and Boleslav. And apart fromVahramandRuyanthey were actively involvedSea Coast Dwellers. Customs Slavic sea robbery in the southern Baltic coast very long suppressed. And, from time to time, with continued reports of devastating raids of the Slavs in the coastal areas of the Scandinavian countries. As a result of that, some parts of Sweden and Denmark are completely devastated and depopulated.
Moreover, the most famous pirate of the Baltic Sea — Klaus Störtebeker, whose name is associated weight legends and stories, according to one version was not born anywhere but on Ruegen — in the village with the intuitive and natural for the Russian name asRuskevitsa. By the way, this settlement, with only slightly modified the title, there are still there. Read more here. According to another version, he was born on the mainland in Wismar, but it is also a former Slavic land (a Slavic town called Vyshemir). Interestingly, in this era, Slavic last Rugen Germanize already active, however, the tradition of maritime piracy continues to live there! Fleets Störtebeker feared many major cities and even entire Baltic monarchs. Margretta, Queen of Denmark, after a series of defeats at the Störtebeker was forced to hire to war with himCrusaders. Incidentally, this may be a hint that his pirates still revered old faith Rügen …
Of course — the looting and robbery, capture towns and villages, stealing prisoners were engaged not only in the Baltic Slavs. Naturally, there were attacks on them — by the Scandinavians, and other residents of the Baltic Sea coast. Given, for example, during the war with the Slavs, even in the VIII-th century, destroyed the capital city obodritov Rerik and all its artisans were taken to his new capital Hedeby, and then there was a surge in the handicraft industry. Later, being baptized, are involved in"Crusade against the Slavs" (1147), but then a substantial part of their fleet was burned around Rügen and they went back home, nothing for pains. However, a little later, said Waldemar destroyed Arkona and other centers of Ruyan. So — Sometimes, of course, in different ways: the Scandinavians found themselves bits and Slavs also fell out be defeated.
But, you — presented on the basis of documentary evidence of the picture is very different from the above hysterical skandinavomanskogo quote my buddy, about the "Slavic slaves, who were caught in huge quantities Scandinavians." No, in the Baltic Sea have been living together for centuries, include, and frequent war, looting, and the world, and trade, and cooperation, and even weddings. And, in fact, often dreamed of Scandinavians, not to meet with the local Slavs, and if it met — quickly tried to carry them to his feet, according to the good for health. We give one more quote fromSlavic Chronicles, Gelmolda:
"For the most part of Denmark in their consists of the islands, which are surrounded on all sides by the sea of so danam hard to protect themselves from attacks by pirates, because here there are many capes, very convenient for the device Slavs refuge. Going away secretly, they attack from their ambushes on unwary, for Slavs very skilled in the device secret attacks. Therefore, until recently, this predatory practice was so widespread they have that completely ignoring the benefits of agriculture, they are always more ready to fight arms sent to sea attacks, his only hope, and all his wealth putting ships. (…)Danes attack they set at naught, however, even considered a treat for yourself to join with them in hand to hand combat ". (Emphasis the author.)
In my view, this passage speaks for itself.
Baltic Slavs almost disappeared until the mid 2nd millennium AD. And then, because they were absorbed and assimilated by the new European civilization that came to this land from the south, along with the Germans. His phrase is but a good indicator illustrates deeply ignorant and, to be honest, and just completely insane normanistskuyu faith. Real grounds for which there is absolutely no! The reality was much more interesting.
Here, too, probably, it is appropriate to say a few words about the trafficking. The slave trade has always belonged to one of the most lucrative trade. And in all the ancient or early medieval countries switched from pre-state societies to early forms of government — there Institute slaves. Where slaves could be as captives taken in the wars, and local residents (debtors, criminals, etc.) There is a phenomenon in the early Slavic states. Just maybe, some part of Slavic slaves could actually get on the international market for slaves. Moreover, given that the Slavs really were in those years the most numerous people in Europe (and still remain so) — the slaves, the Slavs by origin, in theory, could be a significant share among European captives. But, in fact, no exact data on this point, and all the assumptions about their numbers are totally speculative. And the idea — that the Slavs were the mass slaves in medieval Europe did not have any proof. And it is based, rather, on the hypothesis of the origin of the mentioned Western European words of self-Slavs. In fact, in various European sources, there are many references to slaves, and slaves quite different nationalities — Saxons and Alans, Goths, and Sarmatians, Greeks and Franks, the Angles and the Arabs. Among them are of course mention of slaves Slavs. But not only about them.
Not to be unfounded provide some real evidence of medieval sources of slaves who did not have anything to do with the Slavs.
The first example:Saga of Olaf Tryugvassone. One of the most famous sagas. Tells the story of life, perhaps the most popular hero of Norse epic — the first Christian kingNorwegian Olaf I (963-1000). According to this source, the young age itself Olaf and his mother, traveling by sea, captured by brigands "estam." After that, both of them are sold into slavery. Then Olaf several years living as a slave, and by chance encounters with his uncle — Sigurd knew him. Sigurd then serves as the Kievan prince Vladimir I. He buys the future king of Norway from slavery.
Here is an example of how the Scandinavians were sold into slavery, and no one was surprised. What's more — they were members of the upper layer of society! And they suddenly turned into slaves. By the way, the mother of Olaf was not found. It was only by chance, he returned to a free life.
As another example,we give a fairly well-known story of the Pope BedeGregory I, the Great (540-604). In saying:"When Gregory once said that myagkovolosye, blue-eyed boys, who are sold as slaves in Rome — the nationality of England, he said that they are not England, and the angels, and when he was told that they are from the plain of Dura, he decided that they should avert the wrath (Latin de iri) of God through evangelism, and sent the monk Augustine to England to spread the good news out there. "
As for those "myagkovolosyh boys with blue eyes" — can remind yourself of that, in line with the mores of the time, not too strict in Rome, they could be expected to take into account the unenviable …
We now give examples neckolko, taken from the following books:Collection of Slavs and Scandinavians, Per. with him. / Common. Ed. EA Melnikova — Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1986, chapter, which is called, 'Slaves'.
(Christian bishop from northern Germany) Ansgar bought Scandinavian and Slavic boys to train them assistants mission …
Rimbert, Ansgar's successor in the post of Archbishop of Hamburg-Bremen, talks about 870g.:
When he first arrived in the land of the Danes, he saw in one place, for the Pre-existing Christian community he built the church — a place of the covenant Sliazvih — set captured Christians, dragging in chains. Among them was a kind of nun who, seeing him in the distance, kneeling, bowing to him many times his head, so as to express their reverence for him and begging him to manifest compassion for her lot. And she said that he could see that she was a Christian with a strong voice to sing psalms. Bishop, seized with pity, with tears prayed to the Lord for help to her. And because of his prayers immediately broke the shackles on her neck, which she was constrained. But since it is not running right, grabbed it with ease guarding them heathens.
Then the holy bishop, driven by fear and love for her, began to offer guarding its various things the Gentiles as a ransom for her, but they did not want to agree to anything, if only he would not give them to his horse, which he rode. That he did not resist, but immediately jumped out of the saddle and gave the horse with all the trappings of the prisoner, giving the latter immediately after bought her freedom, and allowed her to go where she wanted. (Recall Slavs at that time had not yet were Christians, and described the prisoners, including this nun, apparently, were the inhabitants of Western Europe, captured during attacks the Vikings, and can be, among them were representatives of some local shlezvigskoy early Christian community, the presence of which is mentioned in the beginning of the passage. )
More examples of the same book:On the market in Mecklenburg in 1168 after a victorious campaign obodritov were for sale 700 Danes.
Marseille VI-VIII centuries. was an important staging post for the sale of slaves from England to the Mediterranean …
Such references can be found very, very much. Although there is, of course there are also references to the slave-Slavs. For example,when obodrity in XII century. were conquered by Henry the Lion and the "subject, they ran in crowds to the Sea Coast Dwellers and danam that they relentlessly sold the Poles, Serbs and Czechs"(Quote from the same book) This is a period when one of the sons of the deceased king obodritskogo Niklota sworn before Henry the Lion and incorporated their lands in the German state. Apparently then, some obodrity chose to leave their land. They are something, and suffered the fate described. And, interestingly, in this example, buyers of slaves Slavs, also speaking Slavs — representatives of the Slavic lands not exposed at the time such cataclysms.
There is in this book and a detailed description, taken from"Saga of the people of Laksdalya"how a merchant, who came from Russia to Scandinavia during the truce, there was selling slaves, including one very beautiful but dumb woman. In this case, nothing is reported about the nationality of those women. They could be anyone — Finno-ugorkami, Baltcom (if they were captured or bought in the northern areas of contemporary Russia, or eastern Baltic region), Saxon (if they were captured in northern Germany), Slavyanka (the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, or from Russia) , bulgarkami (of the Volga), Alanko, hazarkami (if they were captured in the south), etc. They could be and Scandinavian — purchased or seized during any war …
Interestingly, in our vzgyad, is also mentioned in the sources of the three contracts in the second half of IX. (840, 880, 888 years.) Between Venice and Frankish emperors, in which the Venetians were forced to commit themselves not to sell the slaves of the imperial lands. Which indicates that the lands of the Frankish state was the source of a significant number of slaves. Look here, writes about the already mentioned Nazarenko:"As long as these obligations appear in three consecutive documents, separated half a century, it becomes clear that the Frankish authorities probably could not stop the export of slaves to foreign markets; …" Nazarenko AV Ancient Russia on international routes: Interdisciplinary Essays on the cultural, commercial and political ties IX-XII centuries. — M. 2001. Head of Russia to the "way of the German in the Khazars," Pp. 95.What were the slaves? Probably the victim grabs all the same Vikings, and maybe the Slavs — such as during the border war with the Germans. Indeed, in line with the medieval sources, Slavs often went hiking on German soil, and took there, including the slaves.
And here is some information about the slave trade from the Scandinavians. Specifically, the Danes.Adam of Bremen, inThe Acts of the Archbishops of Hamburg church.states the following:
"Sami is a pirate who called there by the Vikings, and we askomannami, pay tribute to the Danish king (…) These pirates often abused liberty granted to them in respect of foreigners, turning it on its own. Until they do not trust each other, which, catching, immediately sell one another without mercy into slavery — whether his companions or barbarians. (…) They immediately sell those women who are dishonored. (…) There is no dan other forms of punishment, except death and slavery. "As is clear from this quote — often suppliers Scandinavian slaves themselves were Scandinavians.
And inSaga of Egiltells the story of how the main character during a raid on the Cours, came to him in captivity. And when the "heroic" escaped, then took with him several slaves Danes who were sitting in the pit Cours. It turns out that the Nordic slaves were fairly commonplace in the Curonian farms.
In those years, the slaves found themselves people of completely different tribes and peoples. But not all of them were Slavs. Moreover, if someone set out to gather evidence of different slaves to the Middle Ages and spread them on a national basis — I am almost sure that the Slavs were not the largest in the group. It does not matter, what about this is Nazarenko. It is not known that the slaves were brought to Cordova, and what exactly they were ethnicity. But here reported the looting of Seville, during the Arab people from the north on behalf of al-Rus — there! And the treasure of thousands of Arab coins, including Cordoba coinage, was once found on Ruegen.
You can also bring one well-known example of massive importation of slaves — populated southern part of Italy, in the racial aspect is quite different from the population of the north. Most southern Italians — is a racial type is identical to the population of North Africa and the Middle East. The same, incidentally, can be said of some parts of Greece, Spain and Turkey. It is sometimes argued that this is due to the fact that in the early Middle Ages in these regions massively imported slaves from the Arab areas, they are then brought to the "bouquet southern Italian blood" prominent North African component. You see, it is not known what about the Slavs, but that residents of the southern Mediterranean, in fact, seems to have indeed been subject to massive medieval slave trade.
Here we also want to expand on some medieval Arabic words:Saklab(Slave) andAl-Sakaliba? Aqalibah(Slavs). As you can see, in the medieval Arabic also existed homonymous this couple. The issue is, obviously, due to borrowing by the Arabs in the north, the Western Europeans, or the Greeks, the same Byzantine words similar to the ethnonym Slavs, as well as familiarity with the Slavs themselves, with which Arabs have faced in the wars against the Byzantine Empire, and in addition , while traveling and military expeditions to the Volga, in the Black Sea to Central Europe. So — this confusion passed also in medieval Arabic. Active in the Mediterranean trade, the Arabs did buy slaves from the western, northern and central Europe, which were taken to the European Mediterranean region (often Jewish) slave. And all of these prisoners, regardless of their nationality, they are followed by Latin-and Greek-speaking traders called "Saklab." Some authors try to promote the idea that, say, it were mainly the ones discussed above, Ziva and Baltic Slavs, conquered, and allegedly sold en masse by the Germans. However, this is not true. The fact that the ages of 8-10, which account for the flowering of Arab al-Sakaliba, Ziva and Baltic Slavs had not yet been conquered! First active attempts to win these lands began Charlemagne (late 8th century), which, for a time, managed to subdue their tribes, but they quickly freed and, until the 12th century, their state, mostly maintained their independence. And, at the same time, during the many wars with the Germans, they always went response campaigns. The final, their lands were included in the German Empire, until the end of the 13th century. In this case, there is no mention of the systematic and massive exportation German Slavs, even after their lands became part of the empire. Slavs there were just ordinary citizens. Although the capture of prisoners during the war, as with that, and on the other hand, message, of course. In general, in fact, Ziva Slavs, of course, could fall to the slave market, but the object of the trade they were no more than the Germans themselves, or neighboring Scandinavians — who also, as we have shown above is often taken as hostages and sold. Especially it concerns the Christian Germans, who were captured on land Slavs, and from the sea, the famous Norman (among whom were the "Wendy").
As for the fate of the captives, according to al-Muqaddasi (947-1000 gg.), A significant proportion of European slaves young age suffered savage operations of castration for future use as a eunuch in the harem, or for sexual pleasures. In Spanish and Frankish Lusene Verdun were forged whole "factory" castration of young slaves. The price of the castrated boy was almost 4 times higher than the usual man-servant.
However, interestingly, the Arab States, many of the northern slaves who apparently managed to avoid this fate, often rose to the highest levels of the social hierarchy. Back in 762, to the Baghdad court of the newly conquered Spain arrived Ambassador Abd Al-Rahman Fihri, nicknamed al-Saklab. Later centuries the Arab rulers of northern slaves formed an elite military units — personal guards, the most loyal guards. And some of them were very high positions in the state, sometimes in second place after the Sultan, and even the rules themselves are entire cities and states.
The following is information about the history of al-Sakaliba in the Caliphate of Cordoba (now Spain), published in the following book:S. Tsvetkov, Beginning of Russian history. M., 2011.
Of these slaves recruited guard Umayyads (one of the Muslim dynasties of Spain). Even at Emir al-Hakam (796-822 gg.) Existed in Cordoba 5000th bodymamalik(Formed from the European captives). And the Caliph Abd al-Rahman (912 — 961 years.) In Cordoba alone had 13,750 guardsmen "as-Sakaliba", all of them converted to Islam. These Muslim "Praetorians" were the best military groups in the Pyrenees. Sometimes they even led the Arab army. In an Arab chronicle appears Saklab, leader of troops of the Caliphate, which is 980, made a trip to Calabria and captured 12,000 prisoners. Another "Slav" named Naja (Salvation) led an army sent by Caliph against the Spanish Christian kingdoms of Leon. The fact that the name "Sakaliba" was not of a strictly ethnic significance is the fact that, in the XI century, when the caliph's guards got, for sure, mostly Franks and Lombards — these forces still continued to be called "Sakaliba" or, in Spanish, eslavos(Altamira-and-Krevea R. History of Spain. M., 1951. T. I. S. 96, 103, 184 — 190).
After the fall of the Umayyad dynasty (1031), "Sakaliba" seized power in a number of emirates, where they established their own dynasty. Basically "sakalibskie" principality located on the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula — in Almeria, Murcia, Tortosa, Valencia and the Balearic Islands. Only at the end of the XI century. Berber dynasty of the Almoravids, the newly united Muslim Spain, eliminated the emirates' Sakaliba. "
If any of these "as-Sakaliba" really Slavs? Probably. But, of course, not the only ones. Thus, with these Slavs in Arab history associated interesting events that gave rise to visible and the phenomenon itself, selected Arab warriors — people from Europe, who wore the "Slavic" name. It happened in the VII century:
Byzantine Emperor Justinian II to the war with invading the limits of his empire by the Arabs scored 30 000 soldiers from the Slavs, who settled earlier in his lands. Archon of the troops, called the Emperor "selective", was raised a Slavic chief named Nebula.
Adding to the Slav infantry romeyskoy cavalry, Justinian II in 692 moved with this army against the Arabs. In the Battle of the Asia Minor city of Sevastopol (modern Turkish Sulu-Saray) Arabs were defeated — it was their first defeat of the Romans. However, shortly Arab commander Muhammad win over Nebula, secretly sending him a quiver full of money. Together with their leader to the Arabs took over 20,000 Slavic warriors. Reinforced in this way, the Arabs again attacked the Romans and put them to flight. The descendants of these Slavs in VIII century took part in the Arab conquest of Iran and the Caucasus. According to Arab sources, thousands of Slavic soldiers died in these campaigns.
Maybe from now on the Arab rulers and the tradition appears to recruit elite units northerners, for which they use slaves, with a similar name to the Slavs, although a captive Saklab not always hide their real Slavs. Be that as it may, the phenomenon itself — northern slaves, pretty much in the history of medieval Arab States. And despite the fact that some of the books devoted to this subject are all the same question of a medieval Slavic slave trade (for example,D.E.Mishin, Sakaliba (Slavs) in the Islamic world in the early Middle Ages, M. 2002War) Nebula that have fallen to the Arabs, as well as their descendants, were free mercenaries, and among the northern slaves who really fell to the Arabs in Europe, in fact, could be what people want nationalities and Scandinavians, and the British and the Germans and Slavs and Balts and Finno-Ugric peoples, and Bulgars, Khazars, and others. All the people captured in the vast European and Mediterranean markets dovozili up.
In conclusion, our essay, we would like to point out that the arguments about the identity of the Slavs and slaves, which at times have been popular in the West, in addition to the purely "utilitarian" purposes related to the service antislavyanskih political and military ambitions, which occasionally showed some modes, in our think might be related to something else, and that we can be called the "objective circumstances that required explanation."
The point is that by the time these theories were written — in the XVIII-XIX centuries, almost all Slavs, for various historical reasons, have been deprived of their national and state independence. And for many of them, political subordination was of very severe forms. As such, the Balkan Slavs, guided by the Ottoman Empire. Turks are known to have ruled their lands, often in the Eastern fiercely. Thus, the position of the Balkan Slavs at the time could well be described as "slavery" or "yoke." Further, many Slavs in Central Europe — the land which had been part of various German principalities, duchies, stamps, etc. — To obey or the Holy Roman Empire or the Austro-Hungarian Empire (part of which later became an independent state in the latter, under Bismarck, formed the new German Reich on the basis of Prussia). Slavs in a substantial part of its territory, who were for a long time under the Germans to a specified period, either completely or very strongly Germanized. That, in general, too, from a certain point of view, can be described as "enslavement", the loss of national identity.
Then — another Slavic country is Poland. Which, as is well known, from the middle of XVIII century, a series of exposed sections, as a result, it has been completely eradicated from the map of Europe. This state is also quite easy to fall under the concept of "enslavement." Finally — is Russia, which in this period, of course, a strong and independent state. However, in regard to Russia, it was widely known about a very difficult period in its history — the brutal Mongol conquest and the subsequent two hundred and fifty years of Riga. And plus, and perhaps most importantly, Russia while significantly lagged behind the West in the liberalization of its internal structure and social relations. Many features of social development, which, in fact, in the West as not so long ago were widespread — such as autocracy, serfdom, lack of independent courts, a full arbitrary power, but which the West, though in modern times gradually refused — in Russia at that time were in their zenith, the maximum force. And by the way, often the West, in all this was a much more sophisticated than Russia. However, at the appointed time, he wants to be free, and the absence of this desire was seen there, apparently, as "slavery." Perhaps all of this is, in sum, and could come to some people who have written at that time about the history, the temptation to classify the Slavs, all together en masse to the "slaves." And to indicate the coincidence of the Byzantine and Latin terms, it could be regarded as an additional argument, another "proof" in favor of the idea. Apparently, many of the Western speeches spoken about slavery Slavs are without just such a framework — an attempt to explain any differences that Western leaders have seen between the West and the Slavs in those years, but objectively understand and analyze that, they are often simply unable to.
Of course, this approach, if it occurred, was far from the objectivity and relevance. Because, firstly, the new time and the early Middle Ages — is different epochs. They differ from each other very much. And the Slavs of modern times — this is not the beginning of the Middle Ages Slavs. As well as the West of modern times — this is not the Middle West, and thus, such an approach would be a real anachronism. Not appropriate time. For it to make any conclusions about the same age on the basis of a different era, separated from it by many centuries, is hardly justified.
Also, the idea of it, supposedly primordial slavery Slavs, in our opinion, is not justified because it does not account for many objective factors that make up the Slavic world. Many real circumstances faced Slavs who made their lives much more severe than the life of the Western Europeans. In this case, the Slavs, faced with these issues — such as, for example, the Mongolian, or the Turkish invasion, took their main brunt, will or will not, acting as a buffer between edakogo East and West. In fact, protecting the West, giving him the opportunity to develop in a relatively calm and free atmosphere. What is also not taken into account by Western writers, apparently through these theories, blamed the Slavs, in bondage. Although complex and difficult story, of course, is not a sufficient reason for the lack of desire for freedom. What do we, the Slavs, of course it must be remembered.
Here, we also remind them about a figure who was carried away by the idea that the Slavs is slaves. He repeated it so hard, that, apparently, little by little, and he began to believe it. Turned a self-hypnosis. As you know, it is very poorly finished, and his jaw is still lying around somewhere here in Moscow — gathering dust in one of the safes, whether in the Kremlin, or in the Lubyanka.
In this, perhaps you can stop in our description of this bizarre situation, which resulted in one of the key, the largest and most powerful, including in the military sense, the people of Europe — the Slavs declared slaves. I hope we were able to demonstrate to you that this is, in fact, is not such a "truth" that it would unconditionally trust.