Sunset era amphibious

Taganrog Aviation Scientific-Technical Complex (Beriev) them. Beriev — the world's large design office specializing in the development of amphibians. Meanwhile, global practice shows that the development direction hydroaviation is now unpromising unprofitable occupation in advance and can only be supported in a particular country. From an economic point of view is more suitable reorientation Beriev and its production plant — JSC "Taganrog Aviation" for the development and construction of the "ground" (not amphibians) special aircraft. This reorientation process has begun in the USSR, but was suspended in the post-Soviet period.

The origins of maritime aircraft

Taganrog Aviation Scientific-Technical Complex. Beriev traces its history back to 1934 when the Taganrog Aviation factory at number 31 was formed Central Design Bureau (CDB) maritime aircraft. The first task was to organize the production of sea close Scouting — flying boat MBR-2, developed in 1932 Beriev Aircraft Company (1903-1979). As a result, Beriev and was appointed as the main designer of the CDB. Previously, he worked as head of the brigade number 5 (sea planes) CDB aircraft factory at number 39. This office cooperated in 1933 and headed by SV Ilyushin.


After the war, under the Beriev for the Soviet Navy was developed brand new multi-purpose flying boat Be-6 that carried out the first flight in 1948 and produced in the factory number 86 in the years 1952-1957 (123 aircraft). But the main focus of the bureau has been the creation of a seaplane with a jet engine. In 1952 created the most experienced jet flying boat P-1, and by the end of the 50 managed to create the first-ever serial jet seaplane, received the title of the Be-10. In the years 1958-1961 by the number 86 was built 27 of these flying boats in the torpedo-bomber variant. At the Be-10 has 12 global high scores.



In 1967, an experienced factory number 49 was renamed to the Taganrog Machine Works (TMZ), and the serial number works 86 — to the Taganrog Mechanical Plant. Dmitrov. In 1968 Beriev retired and the new principal designer of TMZ was appointed by AK Konstantinov.

In October 1989, TMZ got the title of Taganrog Scientific-Technical Complex (Beriev), and in December of the same year, the plant was named after the founder — Beriev. In turn, Taganrog Mechanical Plant. Dimitrov was renamed Taganrog Aviation Production Enterprise to them. Dmitrov.

"The only real product Beriev in his specialization is the Be-200. But the huge number of people wishing to buy it is not viewed "

In the 70 years of R & D funding for hydroplanes in the USSR was very much reduced. While Taganrog machine-building plant was carried out R & D on anti-submarine aircraft carrier-based and land-based. In 1977, with the assistance of TMZ made the relay aircraft Tu-142MR, and in 1978 — the plane distant radar (AWACS) and the management of the A-50 (based on the Il-76). With all of this in the latter case, TMZ made prime contractor and integrator of the project (IL-76 were built in Tashkent, the main developer of radio complex for them with the radar "Bumblebee" was the NGO "Vega"). A total of 80 mechanically at the Taganrog plant them. Dimitrov released 25 A-50. In the Russian time TMZ has also started work on combat aircraft laser system under code A-60 (made two experimental aircraft based on IL-76).

But amphibious theme was not completely collapsed. In 1973, in the interests of the Soviet Navy began development of the new anti-submarine seaplane with jet engines to replace the Be-12. In 1986, vehicle, designated the A-40 "Albatross" made the first flight. This aircraft with the highest take-off weight of 90 tons was the biggest jet amphibian in the world. In 1995, as a result of the termination of municipal funding for tests A-40 were suspended, by the time the two have built a whole layout. Resume example program in a revised form and with the index of A-42 decided only in 2007.


Along with the development of the A-40 in the TMZ went on the creation of a similar concept, but more compact multipurpose amphibious aircraft A-200 with a takeoff weight of 40 tons. Its creation was planned to organize in the Irkutsk Aircraft Production Association (IAPA). In 1990 he was ready to conceptual design, but the first flight took place only layout in 1998. The aircraft was renamed the Be-200 and the post-Soviet period it became the basis for cooperation between the company and the company Taganrog "Irkut" made after the collapse of the Soviet Union on the basis of IAPA.


In 2006 was established by the municipal United Aircraft Company (UAC), bringing together all of the major companies within the industry, including the SPC "Irkut" and JSC "Tupolev". As a result, Beriev Aircraft Company. Beriev and "Tavia" (JSC "Taganrog Aviation") have been under the full control of the country, although in relation to the formal structure of the Beriev shareholders remained the same.

After the creation of UAC Alexey Fedorov, who gets up at the head of the company, has embodied its original intent and lobbied to postpone the creation of the Be-200 from Irkutsk to Taganrog. Relocation of production should be completed by 2013, for this purpose is planned izderzhat 4.8 billion rubles.

Now Beriev Aircraft Company. Beriev comes in the division of special aviation KLA, which in addition to hydroaviation will develop a strategic and far bombers "Tupolev" and the specific aircraft based on the Tu-214 and Il-76. Based on the basic values of the enterprise division selected "Tupolev" PSC. Yet, despite a minor role in the division Beriev Aircraft Company. Beriev, this bureau, together with its serial plant "Tavia" is defined competence center for the KLA gidroamfibiynoy aviation.

Beriev heads and "Tavia" Victor Kobzev previously held the position of Manager of CJSC "Beta-IR" — a joint venture IAPA, Beriev and "Tavia," made in 1990 for the implementation of the programs from the Be-200 (currently majority owned by the joint venture " Irkut ").

The main applets

The Be-200

The first customer of the Be-200 was the Ministry of Emergency Situations of the Russian Federation. In accordance with the agreement signed in January 1997, the Emergencies Ministry has ordered seven aircraft in the form of Be-200ES (can be used as search and rescue, fire-fighting and transport), the first of which was built in 2003. But realistically, by 2006, the ministry received only four production aircraft (serial numbers 101, 102, 201 and 202), and further, it seemed to have lost to the enthusiasm of the Be-200. Fifth built for the Russian Emergency Situations Ministry plane (serial number 203) in April 2008, the Ministry of Emergency Situations of Azerbaijan has been sold. Construction of other 2-car stalled, and the second aircraft (serial number 301), made the first flight to Irkutsk only in July 20
10. Seventh Be-200ES (serial number 302) is to be completed in 2011, with all this head-board 101 was withdrawn from service and sent to the 2008 Beriev Aircraft Company for repairs, where it remained to this day.

The situation with the internal purchase of the Be-200 has changed due to the huge number of forest fires on the territory of Russia in July and August last year due to the abnormally hot summer. At the end of the event, the Russian government decided to purchase eight more for Emergencies Be-200ES. Delivery of the first 2-planes from the reserve "Irkut" is expected in 2011, the remaining six will be built, "Tavia" and delivered with 2 batches of three aircraft in 2012 and 2013. With all the price of eight ordered vehicles — 12 billion rubles.

Immediately Russian side continues marketing the Be-200 on the world market, promoting it in a fire in the main version, but because of the highest rates the chances of contracting unlikely. Zabugornye countries prefer not to take the Be-200 in end use, and to take it out to solve pressing problems. In a different time planes MOE used to extinguish fires in Italy (2004-2005), Portugal (2006-2007), Indonesia (2006), Greece (2007), Israel (2010). The only buyer zabugornom Be-200 is still the Azerbaijani Emergency Situations Ministry, said the board has received 203 in 2008.

The Be-200

Offers Be-200 aircraft in the cargo, medical, administrative, passenger (Be-210), search and rescue (Be-200PS), ASW (Be-200P), patrol (Be-200MP, the Be-220) and other variants are also not found the customers.

In May 2010, the Indian Navy requested information (RfP) for the supply capacity of 6 Be-200. Divide plans to use them as patrol and search-and-rescue, expanding in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. In the tender, apparently, also perceive the role of aircraft Bombardier 415 and Dornier Seastar.

Aircraft based on the Be-200

For most modifications of the Be-200 (except that the fire version) amphibious appears incomprehensible dignity that only complicates and aggravates her car aerodynamics and weight properties. Because steel is completely logical to create projects Beriev Be-based 200 "ground" options to substitute "boat" ordinary fuselage (aircraft type). It is clear that the Beriev at the moment is working on with 2 "land" variations of the Be-200 — AWACS aircraft and control the Be-250 (a promising radar system, developed by the concern "Vega") and the Be-300 variants patrol and antisubmarine Be-300MP (fitted with a promising search and targeting system "Killer Whale" development of "Radar MMS"). "Killer Whale" is also proposed for the new patrol version of the Be-200 under the designation Be-200MP.


In 1978, under the leadership of Beriev Aircraft Company was created AWACS aircraft and control the A-50. In the puzzle Beriev Design Bureau included the integration and adaptation of complex military transport aircraft Il-76 to accommodate the radio complex "Bumblebee" development NGOs "Vega". In 1978-1983 years in Taganrog converted three layouts A-50 (product A). Batch creation of the A-50 was conducted in Tashkent with the installation of the radar complex in Taganrog from 1984 to 1990 (of built 25 production vehicles).

Since 1984 was the development of the modified A-50M aircraft with radar system "Bumblebee-2" and engines PS-90A-76, but in 1990 the work was stopped, and the layout has remained unfinished in Tashkent.

In 1997, "Rosvooruzhenie" (now Rosoboronexport) and the Israeli company IAI signed an agreement to develop and manage AWACS aircraft A-50I. The machine was installed Israeli IAI Phalcon radar system with radar EL/M-2075 phased array antennas. The client machine has performed in China, in 1997, ordered the four aircraft at the cost of one billion dollars. By 2000 the work on the first car was completed by conversion of the 1st series of the former A-50, but the United States claimed that Israel end the cooperation with China. In 2001, with the converted A-50I complex was dismantled Phalcon, a blank board in 2002, transferred to the PRC, which then served as a platform for creating your own aircraft AWACS KJ-2000.

The first real owner of the Russian-Israeli plane was India. In 2003, it signed an agreement at the cost of 1.1 billion dollars to supply Divide 3-A-50EI with IAI Phalcon radar system and engines PS-90A-76. According to him the first car planned to deliver in 2006, and the last — in 2009, but the agreement is implemented with severe delays. First plane was sent to Israel to Beriev to install radar system in January 2008 and handed over to the Indian Air Force in a complete form only in May 2009. Second Indians received in March 2010. Third board with Beriev was transferred to Israel in October 2010 and is expected to be delivered to the customer in 2011. In Divide want to project an option for three additional aircraft.

Meanwhile, a modernization of the front-line A-50 Russian Air Force. Beriev Aircraft Company. Beriev and concern "Vega" has successfully fulfilled the modification of A-50U with upgraded radio systems. In late 2009, signed an act of completion of the municipal joint testing of the machine. In 2010, completed the modernization of a variant of the A-50U first of the front-line A-50 Russian Air Force and began work on another board. Total Russian Air Force currently operate 12 aircraft A-50.

In parallel with the Beriev concern "Vega" is the creation and management of AWACS aircraft A-100 radar system of the latest generation, created to spoof the A-50. The platform for the newest machines must be the same IL-76TD, and in the long term — and to master in Voronezh IL-476. In August 2010, the CEO of the concern "Vega" Vladimir Verba said that "after three or four years, we get a new facility on the same media (IL-76)."

The Be-103

In the early 90's in Beriev started designing a light multipurpose six-seat piston amphibian aircraft Be-103. First flight took place on the newest cars in 1997. In addition to the Russian Federation the Be-103 from 2003 to 2008 was certified in the U.S., China, Brazil and the European Union. KnAAPO on them. Gagarin (AHC comes in "dry") was launched serial production line. It was believed that the Be-103 has excellent market prospects. But in fact, from 1997 to 2005 built only 10 experimental and production aircraft to Russian customers, and the three of them were broken. Another three vehicles were delivered in 2003 to the United States, from the time of their re-sold a couple of times.

Huge hopes were pinned to the promotion of the Be-103 in China. In 2003, an agreement to supply China 20 Be-103 with an option for another 10 cars. We also considered the organization of licensed production of the Be-103 in China (Huzhou), whose volume is estimated at more than 50 cars. But the Chinese towards the Be-103 had failed. Although in 2003-2007 built a KnAAPO all 20 Chinese aircraft orders and laid 10 on an option, the reality in China was delivered only two aircraft in the autumn of 2010, airlines China Flying Dragon Airlines from Tianjin. Other aircraft from taking the Chinese side, it seems, has refused, and the 18 Be-103 are conserved in the KnAAPO. With prices around the 1st million bucks and reveal the inflated crash Be-103 is clearly not competitive. By the time the true programm virtually stopped.

Ekranolyots and other projects

One of the most promising areas of Beriev Aircraft Company considers the creation of super-heavy amphibian — aerodynamic ground takeoff weight of 2,500 tons. Such studies began in the USSR in the 80s. At the moment, together with the Beriev TSAGI continues to develop this theme, what Kobzev once again said during Gidroaviasalon 2010. The advantage of aerodynamic ground should be the highest efficiency and high load bearing capacity. Their main purpose to behold the creators of transoceanic container traffic. Not useful for aerodynamic some special infrastructure, they can be operated by using the ability of existing seaports. For the project, according to Kobzev will need from 15 to 20 years and more than 10 billion dollars. But causes the huge uncertainties that such funds will be found, much less that the economic necessity has yet to be justified.

Immediately Beriev continues to promote stretching since the 90s a number of projects amphibious aircraft — four-piston light Be-101 (take-off weight of up to 1.5 tons), the twin-engine turboprop Be-112 (11 tons) and the Be-114 (22 tons) Corporate and Be-170. The possibility of bringing all of these programs to the practical implementation is unlikely.

Unpromising direction

Beriev Aircraft Company. Beriev is the world's only significant aircraft design, specializing in the field of hydro-aviation that promote their "unique competence" in this area. Meanwhile, of course, that the era amphibious out in the past. In large seaplanes remained only a very narrow niche of fire and rescue vehicles, and the real need for seaplanes even in this niche is in doubt. Light-engine seaplanes retains a certain value, but then the demand is met float variations ordinary "overland" small-engine cars, the benefit is likely to use easy substitution wheeled chassis on a float and back. The urgent need for specialized small-engine amphibious flying characteristics are worse than before, "overland" aircraft is missing and amphibians are at this point are low-volume exotic products for enthusiasts.

In light of this stubborn adherence Beriev amphibious condemns this company to a marginal position and leads to a waste of funds to advance projects unfeasible. It seems that there is no there will be no market demand for developed at the moment Beriev amphibian projects (Be-101, Be-112, Be-114, Be-170), not to speak openly about the fabulous effect craft projects. Samples revive plane A-40/42 also have no obvious significant prospects, and the idea of building the organization for the Russian Navy only a few copies of the languid and expensive A-42 looks very strange from an economic and operational point of view, and likely to be revised after state authorities impartial analysis.

The only real product Beriev in his specialization is the Be-200. But especially the number of applicants to buy it is not visible and even a pilot customer (Ministry of Emergency Situations) to summer fires in 2010 clearly showed no particular interest in this aircraft. Real prospects for the continued production of the Be-200 priemuschestvenno depend on how long the government will continue such acts of charity against the KLA and Beriev at the expense of taxpayers.

The futility of specialization gidrosamoletnoy OKB. Beriev yavna was already in the 70 th year, and the decision of management Russian aviation industry since about realigning offices to work on "special land" Aviation should be considered entirely justified. Projects amphibian A-40, Be-200 and Be-103 did not bring any utility or Beriev or state as a whole, becoming costly relapses clearly show futility of this topic. As a result, and at the moment, as you can see, the basic income Beriev is not the role of a production piece of Be-200, and the implementation of programs of A-50EI, A-50U, A-60, R & D on new AWACS aircraft and other special machines , works on the aircraft Tu-142, etc. Very cute look and designs of Be-250 and Be-300, the latter is able to become virtually the only variant of promising basic patrol and anti-submarine aircraft for the Russian Navy and for export.

Beriev Aircraft Company. Beriev can have long-term future but in this case, if the management of the KLA bring to its logical conclusion begun in Russian Taganrog time conversion complex at the creation of special purpose aircraft systems (absolutely concentrating it on the subject, including the transfer of relevant topics from other Russian KB). Of course, this claim directly and more than a rigid approach to the topic of promising work Beriev Aircraft Company, including the cessation of spreading resources too thinly on unrealistic gidroaviatsionnye projects.

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