The end of planet X, but not Nemesis

Nearly a century of attempts to find a distant "Planet X» can be terminated, and 25 years in search of a hypothetical Nemesis companion star, the Sun goes on. As shown by the Italian physicist, if "Planet X» exists, it must be either very small or very far away and unable to cope with the tasks for which it was invented solutions astronomers.
The author of the original work by Lorenzo Iorio found a significant error in their work, the rectification of which returned the Nemesis to be present in the Oort cloud (see specification). The following text corresponds to the corrections.

Significant refinement

Barely a day after the first report, Lorenzo Iorio found an error in his calculations. Fixing it dramatically altered the result in terms of Nemesis — it may be in the Oort cloud. Place "Planet X» on the border of the Kuiper belt is still there.

Accounting for the tidal nature of acceleration, which have a hypothetical "Planet X» or star-companion of the Sun's nemesis, significantly changed the restrictions on the distances to these planets. Bugfix still leaves no chance to find any decent "Planet X» on the border of the Kuiper belt — around 75-80 astronomical units (about 11-12 billion km) from the Sun.

But for the Nemesis has a place — in the form of brown dwarfs, it can be at a distance of about 4-5 thousand astronomical units (600-750 billion km) from the Sun, and in the form of a red dwarf mass up to half of the mass of the sun — up to 9000 as well. is. Thus, the Nemesis may well move in the Oort cloud, and no significant effect on the motion of the inner planets of the solar system. There could be even fit a second sun, but a normal star, we would have certainly noticed.

Lorenzo Iorio Italian nuclear physicist, author, and realized that his calculations appropriate to use only that part of the attraction of the external body, which varies in space from point to point, and not the average acceleration acting on the inner regions of the solar system. This variable is part of the space is called tidal and depends on the distance to the outside of the body, as the inverse cube of this value, and not the inverse square, the average acceleration. For this reason, the dependence of the minimum distance that can silently hide an external body, the mass of the latter is not a square-root, and cubic-root.

Thus, the restrictions had substantially revised. Thus, the body with the mass of Mars, says Iorio, can not move closer than 60 astronomical units of Earth — 130 AU of Jupiter — about 900 AU of the Sun — 9000 AU. Limits for brown and red dwarf given above. This is much less than before, especially for more massive bodies. However, these restrictions are the best that are available on today (a little less accurate obtained from analysis of the pulse arrival time distant pulsars).

Since Iorio obduplilsya again, using an incorrect expression for the tidal acceleration, the actual value of the preceding paragraph shall be increased by about a quarter. Certainly in the next iteration of Iorio and correct this mistake — the more so that the imposed restrictions because they will benefit.

Accounting tides left a chance to find a Nemesis, but no room "Planet X»

Accounting for the tidal nature of acceleration, which have a hypothetical "Planet X» or star-companion of the Sun's nemesis, significantly changed the restrictions on the distances to these planets. Bugfix still leaves no chance to find any decent "Planet X» on the border of the Kuiper belt — around 75-80 astronomical units (about 11-12 billion km) from the Sun.

But for the Nemesis has a place — in the form of brown dwarfs, it can be at a distance of about 4-5 thousand astronomical units (600-750 billion km) from the Sun, and in the form of a red dwarf mass up to half of the mass of the sun — up to 9000 as well. is. Thus, the Nemesis may well move in the Oort cloud, and no significant effect on the motion of the inner planets of the solar system. There could be even fit a second sun, but a normal star, we would have certainly noticed.

Lorenzo Iorio Italian nuclear physicist, author, and realized that his calculations appropriate to use only that part of the attraction of the external body, which varies in space from point to point, and not the average acceleration acting on the inner regions of the solar system. This variable is part of the space is called tidal and depends on the distance to the outside of the body, as the inverse cube of this value, and not the inverse square, the average acceleration. For this reason, the dependence of the minimum distance that can silently hide an external body, the mass of the latter is not a square-root, and cubic-root.

Thus, the restrictions had substantially revised. Thus, the body with the mass of Mars, says Iorio, can not move closer than 60 astronomical units of Earth — 130 AU of Jupiter — about 900 AU of the Sun — 9000 AU. Limits for brown and red dwarf given above. This is much less than before, especially for more massive bodies. However, these restrictions are the best that are available on today (a little less accurate obtained from analysis of the pulse arrival time distant pulsars).

Since Iorio obduplilsya again, using an incorrect expression for the tidal acceleration, the actual value of the preceding paragraph shall be increased by about a quarter. Certainly in the next iteration of Iorio and correct this mistake — the more so that the imposed restrictions because they will benefit.

The discovery of Neptune in 1846 was a triumph of celestial mechanics. Employees of the Berlin Observatory, Johann Galle and Heinrich d'Arre took only two observation of the night to find a moving object only in the degree of the place, had predicted the French mathematician Urbain Le Verrier.

Verrier made his prediction, studying unexplained deviation movement of another planet, Uranus, from the calculated trajectory. As an Englishman, John Adams a couple of years earlier, Leverrier suggested that differences in the calculations is the effect of another planet, located further away from the Sun. But unlike Adams Verrier made much more accurate prediction, astronomers have shown quite convincing. They have them checked and discovered Neptune.

Later, there were also other unexplained variations, and in the early XX century, American astronomer, discoverer of the "canals on Mars," Percival Lowell, began a large-scale program for searching another undiscovered planet, which 15 years later became Pluto.

True, Pluto, in general, was discovered by chance — just not where it was supposed to be hypothetical "Planet X", and its tiny mass was unable to explain the observed deviations. This explanation had to wait until the end of the XX century, when the spacecraft "Voyager 2" adjusted estimate of the mass of Neptune, flying around this celestial body.

This, however, did not stop the flow of wanting to find the next "Planet X», whose name until 2006, when Pluto was stripped of its planetary status, it was perceived as a Roman numeral, discussing the "tenth planet". The search for Planet X were many astronomers in several different methods, all the more so that the hypothesis of the existence of such a body could explain some of the features of many small planets found in the so-called Kuiper Belt beyond Neptune.

History nemesis — a hypothetical star — companion of the Sun in its motion around the center of the galaxy — much shorter. Seriously speak about it only in the early 80-ies of the last century, when Jack Sepkoski and David Raup found strange periodicity of global extinction events. According to their calculations, in the last quarter of a billion years, every 26 million years of the Earth's life happens all sorts of trouble.

In less than a year, two teams of astronomers have proposed an explanation.

Small star on the long elongated orbit around the Sun could each time returning to our star, the tidiness of motion of comets in the so-called Oort cloud, sending some of them to the interior of the solar system.

Some of these comets may well have come down on the heads of terrestrial dinosaurs or ancient inhabitants of the seas and oceans.

The Kuiper belt and Oort cloud

Kuiper belt, Edgeworth-Kuiper or call annular accumulation of small bodies in the solar system at the border of the orbit of Neptune. In essence, this is the second asteroid belt, but it is much more extended (extends to 50-60 AU) and richer sites (though, until they know less than in the main asteroid belt). The distribution of trans-Neptunian objects rather abruptly terminates at a distance of 56 AU. Some scientists believe this is an indication of the presence of very massive planets moving in resonance with the bodies at a distance of 56 AU — Its attraction can "sweep" of the body of this smaller area.

In addition, the bodies themselves forming the Kuiper belt is likely to look longer at the stone asteroids and comets on the ice of the frozen — as water and carbon dioxide, and hydrocarbons. At that distance, these objects simply do not show cometary activity, as the sun's heat is not enough to melt the ice.

Oort cloud, or epic-called hypothetical Oort approximately spherical shell around the solar system, consisting of small bodies moving at medium distances from tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands of astronomical units. The first idea of external cloud comets expressed Estonian astronomer Ernst Julius Opik in the early 1930s, after two decades, it is stated Dutch astronomer Jan Hendrik Oort.

It is believed that the Oort cloud is a reservoir of long-period comets that occasionally come into the inner solar system, becoming a highly visible light (the most striking recent example — Comet Hale-Bopp, who visited the sky in the second half of the 1990s).

In fact, in the modern view, comets, the Oort cloud comets originated near the Kuiper belt. Birthplace of comets from the Oort cloud — between the orbits of the giant planets from Jupiter to Neptune. And these same giant body, according to the results of computer simulations in the first millions of years pushed all local comet elongated orbit with a so-called "slingshot effect" of such gravity assist in the gravitational field of the planets, which are now dispersed interplanetary spacecraft.

By elongated trajectories most comets of the Oort cloud move so far, for the hundreds of thousands of years of its orbital period of only some decades looking into the inner regions of the solar system, to see them — a great success. And just some of the blocks of ice, hitting a resonance with Jupiter, the sun returned and sat on the short-period orbit, which also can easily be blown away by the attraction of the same planet.

The fate of comets in the Kuiper belt, where there are no large planets, not so dramatic. For the most part, they stayed in the same place where he was born, for the same rare exceptions, that they are in resonance with Jupiter. And although its gravity can easily switch the comet from one category to another (first called into the inner regions, and then sent to the external), most residents of the two cometary reservoirs preserved the memory of their homeland — including in the chemical composition.

From the period it was easy to calculate the size of the orbit of a hypothetical Nemesis -100,000 times astronomical units (AE), that is the average distance from the Earth to the Sun, about halfway to the nearest star. The star that we have not noticed, it must be either a red dwarf — a "real", but very low mass star is several times smaller than the Sun, or a brown dwarf, or brown — a "star-loser" weight which was not enough to begin nuclear reactions.

The search for "Planet X» is currently held — in fact, they joined the program in the detection of other dwarf planets, which are beyond the orbit of Neptune to be done. But with nemesis difficult — it may well be in for a long time star catalog, but recognition as a companion hard: as it moves along with the sun, the speed of its movement across the sky will be very small, and the way it is — for the expeditious movement of faint objects — seek our nearest stellar neighbors.

Search hypothetical "planet in X», capable to restore order in the Kuiper Belt, and should not, says Lorenzo Iorio of Pisa branch of the National Institute of Nuclear Physics, Italy. With the latest version of the Italian scientist, famous for its fertility, and total disregard of the errors can be found in the archive of electronic preprints Cornell.

Projections that Iorio made for those who are still hoping to find a large planet beyond the orbit of Neptune, are highly pessimistic (adjusted to 26%, see specification). The minimum distance at which may be the "second Mars" — 75-80 astronomical units, "second Earth" — 160 a. is, "the second Jupiter" — a little over a thousand. is.

But the brown, and even red dwarf may well move inside the Oort cloud — restrictions on the minimum distance to vary from 4-5 to 10,000 astronomical units, which is within the cloud.

Scientists have conducted a fairly simple calculation to figure out how to have changed in the last 100 years, various parameters of the orbit of the inner planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars), if on the inner solar system operated constant additional tidal force. Consider it at a constant interval of time possible, because a distant object for 100 years does not move much.

After some deliberation, the Italian decided to stay at one of the observed value — rate-perihelion, that is the point closest to the Sun's orbit.

Perihelion of Mercury at the time played a key role in convincing the physicists are correct Einstein's general relativity, which managed to accurately calculate the observed value. The speed of rotation of the perihelion of the planets, interesting from the point of view of the possibility to impose any further restrictions on the parameters of the "generalized" relativistic theories, was engaged to Russian Elena drinking celestial mechanic, who spent a great job of determining these quantities from the observations of all kinds. That the results of drinking and used Iorio.

Because within the error did not notice any deviation from the results of the calculations do not take into account additional acceleration, easy to assess how it should be. Get tiny, about 10-15 m / s2 upper bounds for the acceleration in the plane of the orbit of the Earth and other planets. Rate acceleration in the direction perpendicular to the plane failed 30 times worse, such a force has little effect on the rotation of the perihelion. But in any case, the estimation of acceleration in 3 * 10-14 m / s2 — The value is very small. According to the author, these restrictions are a thousand times better than what existed before.

In essence, the result Iorio means "funeral", "Planet X» — but not the stars of Nemesis.

Even if relatively massive bodies exist, they are not able to provide the action on the Kuiper Belt, where the move is not the trans-Neptunian comets, not asteroids, which are attributed to them. They are too far away and very small in mass. But some nemesis may well be a troublemaker in the Oort cloud, where the "reservoir" of long-period comets.

Detect such objects can be in their infrared radiation — in the near-infrared region in the case of Nemesis and FIR in the case of "Planet X». In the near future in space have to go several orbiting observatories, which among other things will be engaged and these searches.

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