The Western powers and the Winter War

"Winter War" was in Moscow for a forced measure, which pursued the goal — to make the very best abilities defense of Leningrad areas, from land and sea.

Only impassable stupidity and stubbornness of the Finnish elite complicit in the brutal aspirations to make a "Greater Finland", due to land USSR, led to war. USSR made a tremendous amount of very relevant, from a strategic, economic points of view, the proposals. But all of them have rejected Helsinki.

Speculation about the small Finnish elite combat capability of the Red Army, also proved to be wrong, it is not only not retreating — the plan of the Finnish military commanders to wage an offensive war they had, and was able to overcome resistance, perfectly cooked Finnish army, protected fortifications "Mannerheim Line" . Finland was on the verge of defeat.

London and Paris

France and Britain were already at war with the Third Reich, so called. "Phoney war" because of active hostilities was not. Strategic judgments they could not allow themselves to gain the USSR on the Scandinavian Peninsula and the complete defeat of Finland.

Scandinavia was basically over control of the Baltic and North Seas, and steel and nickel ore Norway and Sweden. In London, believed that Hitler did not go on an operation to capture Norway. It was a very unsafe — Navy England stronger, purely from air capture — landing, fantastic. "Winter war"London gave a chance to the occupation of strategic areas — neutral Norway, is exacerbating the situation Berlin's. To get to the Finnish Expeditionary Force in France and the UK could only through the terrain of Norway. Exit to the Barents Sea, which was the Finns, was cut of the Red Army in the first days of the war. Allied landing in North Germany would be forced to go either to the immediate landing operation — when the Anglo-French forces already in Norway, ie the chance of winning was strong enough. Do not forget that the British fleet was much stronger than the Navy Reich. Either Berlin had to come to terms with the loss of the principal strategic fields of Scandinavia, immediately showing its military weakness.

Battle Plans

December 19, 1939 Mr. Supreme Allied Command of English at the suggestion of the chief of the General Staff General W. Ironside saw the possibility of sending international forces in Finland.

London and Paris are considered the possibility to strike from the North and the South.

During 1940, proposed to form an expeditionary force in mixed Anglo-French forces: 1) the troops of the first stage: 2.5 brigade of French Alpine shooters (8,500 people)., 2nd Battalion of the Foreign Legion of the French (2000 people)., 1 Polish Battalion ( 1000 people.), 1 British Guards Brigade (3500 people).; 1 English ski battalion (500 pers.), 2) forces the second line: 3 British Infantry Division (42,000 people).. In the upcoming number of expeditionary forces planned to ramp up to 100-150 thousand bayonets. Open a discussion the possibility of landing troops in Arkhangelsk, taking into account the superior forces of the British and French Navy.

In the South, were planning to bomb the Baku oilfields. Also send emissaries to inflame the Troubles in the North Caucasus.

All these plans would have led to a large-scale war with the Russian Union, Moscow would be practically forced to become a military ally of the Third Reich. And it is not the war Britain and France against the Soviet Union, just because of the fact that reddish army defeated the Finns and they were obliged to negotiate and sign a peace treaty.


Berlin led the ambiguous policy on the one hand supporting his actions a "partner" on the other hand was not averse to tighten the war, to intervene in the action itself.

Berlin was officially neutral in the war, even more friendly to Moscow. German diplomats were instructed to avoid the anti-Soviet statements and "justify" acts of the USSR, in connection with a "natural need" and "inevitable" redefine the borders, due to the need to protect Leningrad. In other words, in Berlin perfectly understood the inevitability of war, or the revision of borders diplomatic means. Berlin immediately appealed to Moscow to not being bombarded former company owned by Germans. Kremlin fulfilled the wishes of the "partners" — none of the factories for the production of cellulose-owned German business was not bombed. Already during the war, Berlin Finland refused to mediate in negotiations with the Russian Union of Finnish government and recommended to accept the proposals of the Kremlin. Reich Government has put pressure on Sweden, when she was beginning to lean towards the provision of a full-scale aid to Finland. In the midst of the Winter War, the Germans forbade to use its air space to haul in Finland Italian fighters supplied by the Finns "Fiats" were detained on the territory of the Reich.

Berlin was also interested in prolonging the "Winter War". So given Stockholm realize that not against the military transit through the countryside of Sweden, military goods to Finland. Germany secretly compensated for the Swedish military supplies to the army of Finland, and the amount of compensation reached 20-30% of the price of all military property Swedish kingdom! Reich himself was planning to invade Scandinavia — "to protect the Aryan Scandinavian peoples from potential aggression from France and Britain." And intervention in the war in London and Paris, on the side of Finland, Berlin would probably be very amused, Moscow, with its cyclopean resources , was tied to Berlin even stronger.

That, or the other — just two weeks after the "Winter War" need occupation of Norway open a discussion with the commander of Hitler's Reich Navy Admiral Raeder. Less than a month after the end of the Soviet-Finnish War, April 9, 1940, German troops landed in Denmark and Norway.

Foreign volunteers in Finland

In the Finnish army joined volunteers from 26 countries. The total number of equivalent full-fledged Division — about 14 thousand people. Most of the volunteers were from Sweden — about 8,700 people, Denmark — 800 Norway — 725, 400 — Hungary 300 — USA, were Italians, Canadians, Spaniards, Britons, Poles, Estonians. A significant part of the volunteers were citizens of these states of Finnish origin.

From the people of Sweden, Norway, Denmark, even formed a separate division — Group "Nordland", commanded a group of Swedish Major General E.Linder. According to Swedish law, its citizens can serve in other countries with their instrument and technique — is it possible to put the Swedes in Finland absolutely staffed with men and equipment air unit — Flygflottily F-19 (commanded by Maj. U.Bekhammar), which received the designation in the Finnish Air Force LeR-19 (19th Regiment).

If the volunteers joined the permanent part of the United Kingdom and France, came to the most real "crusade" "enlightened Europe" against "wild" Russia. Later — it embodied Hitler, only in a larger scale. You can say — it was the "field testing".

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