Who were our ancestors? On this question, it seemed, had long been an exhaustive answer. Response, involving gradual — of cut stone to the rocket, from generation to generation — people from developing ideas about the world, the gradual accumulation of knowledge …
Rooted in our view of the past ancestor Neolithic always presented in the form hairy detinushki that with the club at the ready, and scratching uhaya pursues the terrified and fleeing mammoth. It seemed that all his zhizneustremlenie reduced only to the prosaic food on their families.
But with the development of archeology, paleontology and other sciences unexpected discoveries fell down one after the other. Opening, forcing rethink our understanding of intelligence and technical capabilities, long gone into oblivion and peoples.
Appeared, ancient people well versed in astronomy, were canceled by engineers and metallurgists, possessed the secret of the human body, in his spare time hunting erected multi-ton stone computers. Where our ancestors came to this knowledge? Who were the teachers of the ancient Egyptians, Babylonians, Hindus, Chinese, Greeks? Born in the ancient times and coming to a decline in the Middle Ages, science was opened again by the Arabs, rebuilt in the Renaissance and developed the scientific world of today.
"… The world has a rectangular shape and extends from Iberia to India, and from Africa to Scythia. Its four sides are formed by high mountains, on which rests the firmament. The earth is a giant chest, and on the lid are all sea and country. Sky — a cover of the trunk, and the mountains — its walls. " Such a naive view of the world is set out in "Christian Topography," written h VI century. But over a thousand years before that, people were more accurate representation of the Earth. Pythagoras (VI century BC. Oe.) Taught at the school that the Earth is a sphere. Aristarchus of Samos (III century BC. Oe.) Believed that the Earth revolves around the Sun, and Eratosthenes, the librarian of Alexandria (III century BC. Oe.), Up to 30 km calculated the circumference of the planet.
Until the second half of the XIX century, scientists estimate the age of the Earth is several thousand years old, and the old books Brahmins determine the lifetime of the Earth and our universe is 4.3 billion years old, which is very close to the current estimate. The history of our science has Swan tides. Waves of development and progress, interspersed with periods of destruction and persecution. In 1000 a Dominican monk Giordano Bruno was burned alive na Square Fiori in Rome as a heretic. He argued that in space there are many suns, with planets orbiting them. But this brilliant conjecture attributed Bpuno and 400 years ahead of his time, was made 2,000 years before him. The ancient philosopher Anaximenes, who believed in the large number of inhabited worlds, said the disappointed Alexander the Great that he has won only one Earth, while in space, there are many such lands.
We are currently re-open the forgotten science. 350 years ago, Johannes Kepler pinpointed the cause of the tides — due to the attraction of the moon. I immediately became the target of harassment and persecution. But in the II century BC. e. Babylonian astronomer Seleucus spoke about the impact that the moon on the water of the oceans and seas. For 100 years BC Posidonius came to the correct conclusion that the tides are associated with the Moon around the Earth. For 2500 years BC. e. Chinese astronomers said his emperor, that the earth is floating in space. A 400 years ago, Galileo was condemned church authorities for such views. In the V century BC Diogenes Apollonsky argued that meteors move in space and out — "rarely falls to the ground. In XVIII century French Academy, through its pillars Lavoisier solemnly announced that the stones can not fall from the sky, because for them there is nothing to hold on to.
Amazing engineering and metallurgical knowledge of the ancients. Because of the political situation in the Middle East, the Suez Canal is almost not functioning. But not everyone knows that the channel — not new construction. Its construction was started by the Egyptian pharaohs for ages 6 and up. e. and continued by the Persian king Darius.
The Great Wall was built 22 centuries ago. Its 3 million workers were building for 40 years. Length of the wall about 2.5 thousand kilometers, height — 15 meters. The wall can safely drive a modern car. 5000 years ago, the Egyptian pharaoh Menes undertook ambitious engineering project to change the channel of the river Nile. This case is unprecedented in history. One of the seven wonders of the ancient world was the Lighthouse of Alexandria, a height of 135 meters. The lighthouse was built in the year 250 and up. e. and lasted about one and a half thousand years, until it was destroyed by an earthquake. It was erected in white marble on the island of Pharos. It was located on the tower of the movable mirror, reflecting light so that at night it can be seen from a distance of 400 kilometers. Day use sunlight, and at night the fire.
Our aerospace engineers have the predecessor of old Girona, with its jet engine. And our first CYBERNETICS preceded Daedalus with his machines and robots. Modern science has its roots in ancient times.
A surprising discovery was made in our years in Costa Rica. Here in the jungle have been found hundreds of perfectly round stone balls with sizes up to 2.5 meters. The largest weighing 16 tons. Some of the balls form geometric shapes, others point to the geographical directions. Mexico found the giant stone heads weighing up to 40 tons. They are stuck back in the stone base, as the Costa Rican spheres. Surrounding the stone quarries are located at a distance of 100 km. These heads were made over three thousand years ago.
The iron pillar in the courtyard of a mosque in Delhi weighs 6 tons and reaches a height of 7.5 meters. For 15 centuries, it is exposed to the tropical elements. Nevertheless, it is free of any speck of rust. Of such large monoliths are not oxidized iron in our time will not and does not know when it can be done.
Achievements of South American Indians in metallurgy as yet inexplicable. In Ecuador, found curly ornaments of pure platinum. To produce such a pattern, it should be melted first, and then create the desired shape. Melting platinum in Europe was first performed 200 years ago, at a temperature of about 2000 degrees Celsius. How (not with a lighted stick) many centuries ago, were able to reach such a temperature Indians?
In Canada, the Great Lakes, in the 50's were discovered copper mines, age after using radioisotope analysis was defined in 6000 years. North American Indians were hunters, fishermen, ranchers, by any traditions associated with the production of metals, they have never been noted. But more striking another. According to experts, there were produced 200 000 tonnes of pure metal. "Biography" all the available copper in North America is well known. When and where was mined, how much, where is now. All the figures are more or less agree. But these 200,000 tons as if evaporated. Who was this copper is mined and where she disappeared in such an incredible amount?
Tomb of the Emperor of China, Zhou Shu, who lived 1,700 years ago, has presented a new puzzle. Spectral analysis of the metal belt of the tomb shows that it consists of a combination of different metals, including aluminum. For the first time, pure aluminum was produced in 1825, and fusing it with other metals have learned much later. So that the decoration of the deceased ruler of the third century looks weird and does not fit in the scheme of our stereotyped ideas about the past.
The London Natural History Museum put a human skull. It was found in a cave in Northern Rhodesia and belonged to a man who lived 40,000 years ago. On the left side of the skull has a small round hole. Around him there is no divergent radial cracks that are normally present in the wound with cold steel. The rules of the skull was smashed. Skull soldiers killed with rifle bullets, have the same form. In Paleontological Museum in Moscow kept bison skull, lived hundreds of years ago. The front part has a round hole without radial cracks. It also looks like a bullet.
On astronomical knowledge of ancient heard many. But as they were received, from which came — no answer. How could the Sumerian astronomers calculate Earth year, up to 3 minutes, and the time of the Moon around the Earth more precisely? Who gave them the knowledge to determine the full cycle of treatment stars in the sky, amounting to 25 290 years? In one they kept the Berlin Museums Sumerian seal, which depicts the solar system. Ancient African tribes — Dogon — knew about the spiral shape of the galaxy, the dark about the second star in the Sirius system, which was opened recently with the help of modern optics. Dogon knew about the satellites of Jupiter, the rings of Saturn. In Brittany, were found wall cave drawings, which have been transcribed as prehistoric astronomical map. What is of practical interest for astronomy hunters Stone Age? Such drawings, found a large number of cards, and these findings require a revision of views on intellectual abilities of the late Ice Age.
For 25 centuries before the lunar expeditions Democritus said: "The markings on the moon — it's the shadow of high mountains and deep valleys." "That's the moon blocks the sun during a solar eclipse," — says Anaxagoras. He first realized that during lunar eclipses earth's shadow falls on the moon. Brahman ancient legend says that life on Earth is generated patriarchs, descended from the lens. Before Galileo, no one knew about sunspots. But for two thousand years before Chinese astronomers wrote these messages. Babylonian priests knew about the four largest moons of Jupiter discovered by telescope in 1610. They knew about the satellites of Saturn. But what they got this information? Heraclitus and Pythagoras students admitted each star center of the planetary system. Democritus believed that worlds are born and die. Only some of the worlds around stars are suitable for life.
So what is it — brilliant guesses or received an inheritance from someone? If it was only speculation, why would they be the same in different far distant countries? The ancient inhabitants of Britain were even more knowledgeable in astronomy than priests of Egypt and the Sumerians. Extremely high level of astronomy existed in ancient Mexico. Modern astronomical data determine the duration of the year as 365.2422 days, and the length of the lunar month as 29.53059 days. The ancient Maya, doing without chronometers and other precision instruments, got the same value with the difference in the fourth digit after the decimal point.
Assume that ancient people could have some idea of the endless depths of space, to understand the structure surrounding the solar system, we have something we can, because this knowledge could be obtained by simple visual observation and comparison. But there is evidence and what they were learning in the field, can not be easily human vision — of a microcosm. Moreover, the ancient scholars insisted on the unity of the buildings infinitely large and small.
The first who formulated the atomic theory was Democritus, assume 2500 years ago, that the basis of diversity of the world around us are the smallest indivisible elementary "building blocks" — atoms. "In reality, there is nothing but atoms and space," — said the scientist of antiquity. Another ancient Phoenician Moshus thinker, recognizing the Greek philosopher that fundamental idea, went further, advocating the idea and the divisibility of the atom itself. His version, as we have seen, of course, was closer to the truth. Leucippus, Epicurus, Lucretius also followed the atomic theory. The cornerstone of the theory of relativity is the thesis — "There is no center of infinity" — expressed in a poem by Lucretius' On the Nature of Things. " In "Emerald Tables of Hermes" — ancient document, referred to by historians in 2500 BC. e., — clearly traced the idea of unity of space and matter, the holy book of Indians described the birth of the world: "Like the mist, like a cloud of dust was the creation." But that said modern cosmogony: "Stage began with deposition of dust particles in the central equatorial plane packed clouds." This is self-explanatory.
Atomic structure of matter is mentioned in the ancient Brahmanical papyri. In one of them said, "Inside every atom contains enormous worlds as numerous as the dust around the sun." Just take it and even rewrites in modern atomic physics textbook.
Paying tribute to the genius and vision scientists of antiquity, still can not get rid of a tantalizing question: what led them to the idea of objects that are not visible to the human eye?
The ancient sages understood the dangers of the use of knowledge and destructive purposes. In one of the ancient Indian texts describe "thunderbolt", incinerate whole armies and leads to loss of hair and nails. English writer E. Thomas, in his book, "We are not the first," an excerpt from an old book "Drona Parva '. That's what it says: "It was released firestorm emitting radiance smokeless flame. A thick gloom suddenly covered the sky. The clouds swirled in the air, oozing blood. World, blasted the heat of this weapon, it seemed, was seized by a fever. "
Elsewhere explosion compared with the radiance of ten thousand suns. In India and now continue to find ancient radioactive skeletons of people and animals. In this case, the background radiation of the surrounding area was ten times less. Found in the Gobi desert place, covered with melted ancient sand. About 3500 years ago in a mysterious accident killed the Indian city of Mohenjo-Daro. On the rocks and buildings traces reflow. The disaster was instantaneous in a powerful explosion, accompanied by a blinding light. Destroyed the Indian city in many ways resembled the images of Hiroshima after the atomic bomb.
With India due another mystery. The ancient inhabitants of India used shestidesyatichnuyu unit system time. Day they were divided by 60 for the duration of fecal 24 modern minutes. Kala — 60 Wick for 24 seconds. Then came the other shares, up to the smallest — chestnut, which is one trehsotmillionnuyu of a second. For what the Indians might need such a tiny unit of time, and most importantly — how do they measure it? Now, we do know that the chestnut is comparable to the lifetime of some nuclear particles. And then?
Now tell about the extraordinary discovery, which can also be classified as a challenge to modern scientific ideas.
At the beginning of XVIII century in Turkey were found two strange maps dated 1513 and 1528 years and drawn from earlier sources and unknown Turkish admiral Piri Reis. In 1929, the director of the Istanbul Museum of American mapmakers gave them to study. Almost thirty analysis of the maps led to the sensation. Scientists noticed an interesting feature — all the cards had geographic data, but in a flat image were made not entirely accurate. Then moving the card to all geographic globe, they came to a complete surprise. It turned out that all the contours of continents and seas immediately matched. The coast of North and South America, Greenland, Antarctica, which in the XVI century, no one had any idea, completely overlapped.
Such an impression that the Piri Reis map was compiled using surveys were from a great height to which was viewed to spherical shape of the Earth. Were plotted on maps such details (underwater ridges of Antarctica, its coastal terrain), which managed to find only in the first 50 years of this century. In addition, it was found out that the old cards were even more accurate than in the years.
It only remains to add that the presently available modern map of Antarctica compiled using seismic methods and gravity, because all the continent, is 9-10 thousand years covered by thick ice shell thickness up to several kilometers.
Ancient Sanskrit texts are filled with stories about air travel in flying birds-Wiman. Hindu epic "Ramayana" describes Wyman as double-deck ship with round portholes and a dome. Judging by the impression to travel, this prehistoric ship could fly with the wind speed, hover, abruptly collapsed. There is mention of a fuel having a yellowish-white color. Folklore of all peoples contains strange stories of flying machines — "heavenly chariot" and "flying carpets." In one of his works monk Roger Bacon, who lived in the XIII century, left a strange comment: "… flying machines, both ancient and those that exist today." Both possibilities seem unlikely, although legends and fairy tales with air travel enough.
In the Chinese annals can search for the flight to the Moon. As it is impossible to believe, but even the ancient sources also indicate the date of the first moon landing astronaut from China — 2309 BC. e. He flew in space, where "he could not see the movement of the sun." Piquant moment, when you consider that just being on the surface of the Earth and feeling with her daily rotation, a person will experience a visual sensation of movement of the sun from the moment of sunrise to sunset. Although, as we well know, the visual effect is created by the rotation of the Earth around its axis. Only in space after leaving the ground, this effect disappears. Some researchers believe that in past ages the "gods" are often descended from space to earth, and that some people had been granted the privilege to visit them and to travel with them.
Like it or not — answer is not so simple. We know little about the level of the ancient science, do not know where it came to knowledge. If in ancient times were not burnt mercilessly valuable library, our knowledge about the lost civilizations would have looked very different. After the destruction of the VI century BC. e. Athens famous collection of books miraculously survived the extant poems of Homer. During the Egyptian campaign Caesar was burned unique Alexandrian library of hundreds of thousands of volumes and is both a university and research center. The number of books destroyed by the Inquisition in the Middle Ages, generally can not be determined. Forever lost to us invaluable knowledge of the ancient Maya, after the Spaniards in 1549, was burned by their library in Mexico City.
Not the best has been the fate of manuscripts and in Asia. In 213 BC. e. in China on the orders of Emperor died libraries. Countless books were destroyed or lost, and in other countries. Because of these tragedies, our distant past is a void that is filled with random and disjointed data. And who knows, whether hidden in the books of the dead the answers to the questions …