"When we lived in the Soviet Union, colleagues from the West always envied us"
Vyacheslav Molodin — renowned scholar and author of several hundred scientific papers and one of the world's experts in the field of archeology and ancient history of Siberia. Archaeological Myths and Realities, causes the disappearance of cultures and unexplained findings — at a meeting in the wording of the conversation was interesting about these things.
Sensations will be many
— Vyacheslav Ivanovich, there still may be some revolutionary discoveries in archeology?
— Of course, they are. The most recent example — the opening in the Denisova Cave, made by my colleagues under the leadership of Derevianko. This revolutionary discovery of an entirely new population of human, Homo altaensis — well, who would have expected this? It provides a completely new way to evaluate the early history of man, his creation. And when you consider that we have a vast territory of Siberia is still a lot of white spots, we can expect many more such discoveries. For example, the taiga zone of Western Siberia has been actively studied only in the last century. Before there were occasional work, and systematic study began only when the steel to produce oil and gas. Archaeologists have been actively involved in the work, and the taiga zone of Western Siberia now appears entirely different light. It appears, from the Stone Age, it was actively populated area with bright original cultures are very different from those that are farther south. Therefore, I think that the prospects are, and areas where there may be unexpected for us to open, on the planet still missing.
— How can we explain such a variety of cultures?
— First, the nomadic way of life, and mobility. And secondly, I would not say that culture was a really incredible amount. Fires and disease — a very serious factor, because of which the ethnic situation has changed quite rapidly. For example, Miller's Academy in the 18th century led by a master's expedition to Siberia, which lasted for ten years. So, when he came with his troops from west to east, met the population speaking the language, but the population included only a few people. When he came back from the East to the West, they were gone — they were killed.
Puzzles of the past
— If the disease wiped out entire populations and their germs could survive in the fossil record. And how big is the risk of contracting some ancient virus during excavations?
— There is no risk. It's all scary, which replicates our TV. Those facilities that we work with, it can be called sterile. I can think of — in 2006, we found a crypt Pazyryk in Mongolia. And there first time in the Siberian archeology took samples for microbiological analysis — it did scientists SSC "Vector" and the Limnological Institute of Irkutsk. Our fellow microbiologists have not found anything quite dangerous either for us or for the man who died 2500 years ago. But on the basis of this analysis, it was possible to speak more specifically, what was at that time the climate. Interestingly, the order of 160 bacteria generally lived and give birth — they kept on ice, though it's 2500 years old. Therefore microbiology — one of several, which is sure to be cultivated in archeology.
— One of the most legendary and mythical objects — is, of course, "Princess" Ukok, which this year triumphantly returned to the Altai. How do you feel about the mythmaking around?
— It is unfortunate that there are legends that arise in favor of a political situation or conditions as to this so-called princess. This mummy found in 1993 by Natalia Polosmak, and, in our opinion, it is representative of the middle layer of the Pazyryk society. This is evidenced by the burial ceremony, the set of things, which to her was, and the way to prepare the body for burial. We can safely say that the woman was not of the ordinary members of society — their remains, we also found, but it is not the elite belonged. Princess christened it with a light hand of journalists, and now has reached the point of absurdity — it was reported that the mummy says that she said my name! I'd just like to learn from the masters of shamans, the language they speak to her. I know what language she spoke, but I wonder what they tell me.
Occasionally used the myth that all the ills of the Altai because "princess" excavated and taken away. Now we will have returned — they say that everything in the Altai improve. Well, God forbid, to be so. We agreed on everything and gladly gave the mummy in the Gorno-Altaisk — let it be stored there, even looking at her, the more that a stage in her study had been completed.
— And you have met during the excavation of the mysterious things which themselves look like something mythical? Perhaps confirmation of alien origin people?
— Unexplained very much, but, in my opinion, do not link it with the aliens. We know very little about what was happening on Earth in the past, but we're probably not alone in the universe, and we can not exclude that in the past someone has visited our planet. But there are mysterious things that are difficult to explain without the intervention of aliens.
For example, one of my discoveries of 1975. Working at the burial of the Bronze Age, we did not quite correct breakdown of excavated and accidentally found under birch magnificent European sword. This sword is much written, it is conventionally called "Sword of the Carolingian", although he later than Caroline. But nevertheless it is a great product made in Europe, on the island of Gotland, where did these swords. On the blade — the motto: "In the name of the Virgin Mary." So, the mystery: how the sword was in Western Siberia? This is the Middle Ages, and the westernmost finds such weapons were made in Europe. But here European weapons never experienced before, and it never is not found. So far this is the only such deal, but who and how to bring this sword here is a mystery.
— Vyacheslav Ivanovich, Russian science is feeling better and better. Do you have enough now archaeological expeditions funding?
— When we lived in the Soviet Union, colleagues from the West always envied us, because we knew that if there is a physical ability and desire, we always go to the field, because there was public funding. Who does not. Now the expedition budget is 70% of the grants. To get them, we have to write an application, and, of course, is already playing a role name. Therefore, the most difficult to account for young scientists. All the more so to organize the modern expedition easy. Requires the participation of geoscientists, geneticists. My expedition budget sufficient to carry out serious work for six months and involve about 30 people a month as workers. But not everyone can afford such conditions.
On the other hand, the situation was quite different with the excavations, which we conducted during the construction of the Boguchanskaya HPP. In such construction work customer — the company or the government — is obliged to fund archaeological excavations. If the fall in construction area monuments, they must dig, explore, or they will die. But the work goes on, and I think that before we can expect many more amazing discoveries.
Category: Archaeological discoveries