Scientists have proposed the hypothesis that the warm currents in the oceans, paradoxically, lead to a decrease in air temperature above the surrounding coastal regions, according to a research article published in the journal Nature.
First hypothesis can explain why the east coast of the U.S. and Canada by an average of 7-8 degrees Celsius cooler than the coastal, including the Nordic countries of Western Europe. It is for this reason that the average temperature in New York is much lower temperatures in Porto (Portugal), despite the fact that the cities are in the same degree of northern latitude.
Despite the fact that for many years, scientists believed that the Gulf Stream is responsible for the introduction of warm air masses in western Europe, in recent years it has been shown that this effect is not more than 10% of the extra heat compared to the east coast North America.
In fact, the Gulf Stream, passing off the coast of the United States initially heats the air here, and that runs a chain of processes leading to the cooling of the American coast. Ocean heated air creates an area where cold subarctic rushing air masses.
Further due to the Coriolis effect, which arises due to the rotation of the Earth, these cold air masses move to the west, which leads to a decrease in temperature over the coast. This effect is known as Rossby waves and a wave of air masses of more than 1.5 thousand kilometers. The highs and lows of these waves, as shown by computer simulations, conducted by the authors publications, Professor Tapio Schneider (Tapio Schneider) from the California Institute of Technology, and his team Yohai Kaspi (Yohai Kaspi), are always on the same spot.
"The difference in temperatures in Europe and America, there is not because the warm Gulf Stream warms Europe, and because the Gulf Stream cools the northern territories of the United States" — the press service of the Institute words Kaspi.
According to the findings of scientists, the same effect is responsible for the difference in temperature on the eastern shore of the Pacific Ocean, for example, in California, and on the west coast in coastal Asian countries.
In mathematical experiments, the researchers demonstrated that the artificial acceleration of the rotation of the Earth is accompanied by a significant increase in the effect. Now, the authors intend to refine their model in order to accommodate the continents and other parameters that affect the weather, such as clouds.