Or when and why the missing non-Christian names / nicknames? What we are proud of, and that is a distinguishing feature of our, it's our name. When there were our names?
Collectors "Dictionary of Contemporary Russian surnames" IM Ganzhina writes:
"… Much of the modern Russian surnames formed from the names of the church calendar. These names, foreign language and foreign to RUSSIAN PEOPLE (emphasis added — ed.), Only in XIX-XX centuries. have become an active base for the creation of Russian names. But in the XVI-XVIII centuries. such names were few and formed, as a rule, from the secular, everyday choices canonical names, usually from long-form (Borisov, Yuriev, Andreev, Nefedov, Isaev, etc.). The bulk of surnames formed from Christian names, including the diminutive and pejorative forms (such Vanyushechkin, Ivanchikov, Vaskov), there was no earlier than the 2nd floor. XIX c., In the period of "ofamilivaniya" Russian peasants … "1
In one of his statey2 studying the Old Slavic names / nicknames in the hamlet Muromino Pereyaslavl-mill Old Ryazan Ryazan district, I came to a curious conclusion. In 1646, a total of 5 people in this small village and nearby village SIOMKIN written in an official document is not a Christian, the canonical name, and under the Old Church! Thus, in Kasari village where residents Muromino SIOMKIN and went to church in the census, compiled for 17 years before (1629) no longer been any old Russian CARRIER NAME. Yes, almost all the inhabitants of the three-member written form (with dedichestvom), but all were written under Christian names.
Meanwhile, "Dictionary" deadlock "onomasticon" Veselovsky replete with examples of the mass use of these names ONLY in the 2nd half of the XVI century.
What do the above facts? Why the middle of XVII century in the aforementioned villages, almost all non-Christian names / nicknames were almost completely eradicated from use without exception? What happened in the 2nd half of XVI — early XVII century?
Author of the first major work on Russian names and surnames, NM Puffins writes:
"In the XVII century. Russian names (I mean non-Christian, non-church) began to lose its importance of personal names … "3
I have great respect for a dead end. Because he was the first. For his enormous, enormous project to collect material. So the blind do not answer me a simple question: "Why?" Why suddenly the names began to lose its value? Needless because nothing ever happens. This is not blind chance or providence. So, must be a reason, there is some logic in all happens!
Fashion? Pardon me. It was not a XX century, when the person is so clear, that is free to choose whatever he wants. And then, even fashion is specific people and their tastes. The example of Peter:
"… A teacher from the village of scurvy S.N.Uvarova Ryazan region wrote that" of the 23 students who graduated in 1955, seven years, and was 17 Ning! Over the last two years of a newborn girl in the said village called or Tanyami or Nadyami. Exceptions are rare … "4
XVII century is — is archaic apologist! My question is simple, but I can not find an answer. But questions continue to grow like a snowball! Times were prichinnno-effect relationships in these events, so these events stood a particular person! Or, at least, to individuals. But who? Who? For ordinary curiosity, interest, and want to understand.
So, look for a start in the seventeenth century. Because it was then fade out of use of old, old Russian names.
VO Klyuchevskii writes:
"… Prior to the XVII century. Russian society was different integrity of its class composition. Lord and serf clearly understand things differently, to know for sure is not the same catechism to heaven, but they got their understanding of one and the same source, confirmed the same catechism and therefore understand each other, form a homogeneous moral ground.
Western influence to destroy that integrity. It does not penetrate deeply into the people, but in the upper classes of society … it gained its dominance. How to crack the glass unevenly heats up in its various parts, and Russian society is not equally imbued with western influence in all its layers, split.
Schism in the Russian Church in the XVII., Was a church reflects this moral dichotomy caused by Western influence in society. Then we have against each other two world outlooks, two hostile about concepts and feelings, the two camps … "5
But is that the case in the western influence? After all, the result of this influence was not the use of German or English proper names. Western influence only pushed trends, which by then had already happened in the Russian state.
And then, even in the census in 1646 (ie the beginning of the reign of Alexei Mikhailovich, the use of old Russian names / nicknames on official documents practically reduced to nothing. A to Peter's reforms were still far away.
So, what are the events? What are trends? Shoveled the entire XVII century, I have not found an answer to my question. The events of this century, rich, bright and, indeed, full of drama: hunger, Smoot, popular uprisings, the death of the old and the birth of a new royal dynasty. But, looking at the logical chain of events, studying their causes, we can not connect them to my main question: "Why is the middle of XVII century in the aforementioned villages, almost all non-Christian names / nicknames were almost completely eradicated from use without exception?"
Attempts to answer this simple question leads us to the conclusion that it is necessary to apply to the ordinary life, practice. Look in the manual NA Petrovsky:
"… Registration newborns held only the church, where the rite of baptism. Thus, baptism is not passed, no child, even if his parents were believers.
What are the names given then? In the Russian Orthodox Church was (and now is) a special book — calendars, or saints. In the calendars for each day of the month recorded the names of saints, which in this day honors the church. Priest before baptism offers several names that were listed in the calendar on the day of birth. This is usually the case and ended …
In any case, the child could be given only by a name that had in the calendar. There is no dissent was allowed … "6
So the first thing to do we start — calendar! Look for a start in the "Dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron":
"Church Calendar — Sc. list of saints venerated Orthodox Church, drawn up in the order of months and days of the year, which is timed celebration and honoring of each saint. Church calendar assigned to the liturgical use, and they are printed in the liturgical books — canon, akafistnike, Prayer at the end of them, and sometimes in the middle.
Final, uniform edition calendar printed in the church books, does not exist. Only one rule is observed without fail — every name recorded calendar should belong kanonizovannomu Church of Saints "7
For those who have never seen calendars, reproduced below is an excerpt from it:
"… February 1 (January 19). Venerable. Macarius the Great, Egypt. St.. Mark, the Abp. Ephesus. Venerable. Macarius the Faster Caves. Bl. Theodore, fool-for-Christ, Novgorod. Uncovering of the relics of St. Sava Storozhevsky, Zvenigorod. Venerable. Macarius the Roman, of Novgorod. St.. Arseny, Arch. Kerkirskogo. Venerable. Anthony Stylite Martkopi.
February 2 (January 20). Venerable. Euthymius the Great. Sts. Euphemia and Lawrence hermit recluse Caves. Martyrs. Inna, Pinny and Rima. Martyrs. Vassa, Eusebius Eutyches and Basilides.
February 3 (January 21). Venerable. Maxim App. Martyr. Neophyte. Martyrs. Eugene, Candida, Valerian and Aquila. Venerable. Maxim the Greek. MR. Agnes virgin. Martyr. Anastasia. Ktitorskoy and called "Joy" or "Consolation", Vatopedi icon of Our Lady of … "8
So, for those who had the good fortune to be born on February 2, from a choice of six names, of which 4 are hardly at all! It turns out that born on this day had to be called Euthymius or Lawrence!
So. Now our main question. Who and when was this menologion?
The answer to this question provides bibliographic dictionary "Literature of Ancient Rus'. Calendar emerged as excerpts from Russian Lives, form the basis of the fundamental work, "Lives of the Saints."
Great Lives of the Saints (Great Martyr) ("Lives" — Dr. Rus. — Read "Saints" — from the Greek. Month) — a set of 12 monthly books (Saints), a kind of encyclopedia of ancient spiritual manuscript book-XVI century. Including original and translated sites, mostly hagiographic and rhetorical, Church didactic speech and other writings of the Church Fathers. The first Russian menology were compiled and edited the Moscow Metropolitan St.. Macarius (1428-1563). Next, better known compilation owned by the Rostov Metropolitan St.. Dimitrov (1651-1709).
So that is that! I'm just not there looking. More precisely sought to answer the question not in the century! Meanwhile, the answer to my question may be 100 years earlier in the century XVI, ie during the time of Ivan the Terrible!
Great Martyr were created as a kind of multi-volume collection of "all books chetih", "chtomyh" in Russia (mainly the "saints", intended for the "inspirational" reading). Their composition, selected and approved by the church, was to regulate the annual "reading circle" for each day. There are three "finishing" fully completed the list of the Great Martyr, essentially three separate edition, or rather — three 12-volume set of books: Sophia, Assumption and Tsar (List name given to the place of their original storage). Assumption Great Martyr list — the only one of the three remaining in full force on the shelves of the Patriarchal Library. Exterior Great Martyr books soaked in grand style "second monumental." The dimensions of each 12-volume set of books are huge and are consistent with the name of "great" Saints, in contrast to the much smaller volume of domakarevskogo Saints. Each of the 12 books of the Great Martyr has between 1,500 and 2,000 sheets of large format (called "senna").
Formation of three stationery lists Great Martyr lasted about 25 years. Creating a set of Great Martyr St. Sophia in Novgorod was launched in 1529-30 years. and lasted for 12 years. Create a list of Great Martyr Sophia happened in Novgorod under archbishop Makarios house productions of "many different clerks' and scribes, to rewrite the work, alter them and taking new orders and reconcile them to the original Greek," from foreign and ancient proverbs translating into Russian language, "wrote In the preface to the Great Martyr Macarius. For the formation of the initial composition of the Great Martyr were brought materials for all subservient to Archbishop Makarios Novgorod and Pskov libraries. Work on the Assumption and Tsarskoye lists partially be continued in Novgorod (where copy text Sophia list), but by becoming the Metropolitan "All Russia", Makarios was able to involve the scribes, and scribes of different cities and monasteries from all over Russia, and the final form of books is apparently under his supervision in Moscow, in its metropolitan's scriptorium.
Preceded the creation of the Great Martyr great plotting, translation and editorial work, she was solid and very significant ideological and stylistic treatment of the material collected spotted so that the presentation in the Great Martyr was designed in the same solemn and pompous style "second monumental" .9
So now we can understand when it appeared the "Lives of the Saints." But why, for what purpose they were made Makarios? We've come close to the analysis of events in the middle of the XV century.
The Orthodox Church and paganism.
In XII-XIII centuries. churchmen complained that their churches are empty:
"If any dancer or musician, or comedian would call for games, a gathering of pagan, all GLAD THERE rush and spend having fun all day. If summoned to the church, you yawn, cheshemsya, sleepy stretch ourselves and respond: "Rainy, cool" or something to dissuade …
Merrymaking at no roof, no protection from the wind, but often the rain comes, the wind blows, a blizzard is blowing, but we treat all this gaiety, carried away by the spectacle, disastrous for our souls.
And in the church and a roof, and a pleasant atmosphere, but there people do not want to go '.10
Paganism continued to exist in the broad layers of the common people, reflecting popular culture, ideology and worldview. A new view of the world to form initially in the princes and Boyarsky SREDE.11
This is an important point. Christianity is largely initially loses paganism. Observation N.P.Pavlova-Sil'vanskii even in XV. Finnish tribes Vodskaya fifths (modern C-Petersburg Province) worshiped trees and stones, and brought them to the victim.
"Christianity in Rus implanted the" top "of the state authority" .12
His morality, his teachings, ceremonies it was quite alien to the primordial paganism Eastern Slavs. Between Christianity and paganism began centuries of struggle that led, eventually, to the so-called dualism — the synthesis of Christianity and paganism. Cardinal Ail in the early XV century. wrote to Rome:
"Russian to the extent brought together their Christianity with paganism, it was hard to tell that prevailed in the resulting mixture: Does Christianity, which took an early pagan or pagan, eradicate the Christian faith" .13
One of the defenders of Slavic paganism Jaroslav Dob in the XX century. expressed more emphatically:
"… Christianity — a very violent religion, uncompromising dissent," Do not come to bring peace, but a sword. For I am come to set a man against his father, and the daughter against her mother, a daughter-in-law her. And the enemies of man — his own household "(Matf.10) … And it shared! Sword and divided. And what could be worse than discord in the family? What could be worse than the civil war? Is it worth the god at least one such discord? And how many of them? "
And in the same context, he says:
"But whosoever shall deny me before men, I will disown him, I also before my Father which is in heaven." That is, in fact, it leads to the fact that it is better to renounce his father than me. Because otherwise to hell.
Paganism is less strict. It is more natural, more natural. There's a case, for example, drought quite acceptable to threaten with his fist at the sky and tell Svarog all you think about. Christianity, in contrast, for such a fair human "bogonedovolstvo" promises to hell and terrible agony.
Russian culture was crushed by Christianity. That Christianity has sent her on a narrow path, causing the often lauded itself. The further from the X century, the more it shows … "14
Will not focus on the language. Not the main point of this article. For us, the main thing — to find the motives that led to the fact that paganism in XV century. century has been declared a deadly war.
"Factory for the production of" saints
In 1542 Moscow became the Metropolitan Macarius, the former archbishop of Novgorod, associated with the princes Shumsky. Admirer and ardent supporter of Joseph of Volokolamsk, Macarius was not so much a theologian as a politician and church organizer. True, and when he was the Archbishop of Novgorod, and as the Moscow Metropolitan Macarius had to act to preach and prepare sermons. However, as a religious writer, it is significantly inferior to his eminent contemporaries — Maxim the Greek, Zinoviev Otenskomu, Ermolaev-Erasmus.
In pre-revolutionary literature, especially clerical, personality and activity Macarius highly idealized. He is credited with a positive moral influence on Ivan IV, Ivan initiative wedding in the kingdom, prompting the young king to the conquest of Kazan in Russia spread of culture and education. In fact, part Macarie "worldly matters" was not decisive: he had worked primarily as a religious figure. His initiative clearly felt in all major activities aimed at strengthening the Church. State the same power he supported as long as it is not encroaching on the prerogatives of the Church and privilegii.15
Macarius took the metropolitan department in a difficult time. Its predecessor, the Metropolitan Joasaph was with "great dishonor" been driven by the boyars: Metropolitan house was the great siege, threw stones at him. Fled Metropolitan could find no shelter at Trinity Court, nor even grand-ducal court. He was nearly killed. In the three years before the boyars deposed Metropolitan Daniel. Now both predecessor Makarios in exile.
Election of Metropolitan Macarius was arranged Shumsky, who wanted to have on the metropolitan department of their own, the Archbishop of Novgorod — the city has long been located for them. However, Macarius did not live up to expectations. At the center of his attention, he did not put the knights, and the interests of the church, knowing that to strengthen the position of the Russian Church to strengthen state power, shattered during boyar rule.
Makarevskaya era in the Church known intensity of catholicity life. We are particularly important Cathedrals mid XVI century (1547 and 1549's), which in historical science are called "Macarius."
They hesitated only one question — Glorification (ie canonization) RUSSIAN Saints.
In 1547 were kanonizovany (in brackets the year of death):
The great miracle worker Jonah, Metropolitan of All Russia (+ 1461);
Great John the Wonderworker, Archbishop of Novgorod (+ 1185);
Macarius the Great Wonderworker Kalyazinsky (+ 1483);
Great Wonderworker Pafnuty Borowski (+ 1477);
The new miracle worker faithful Alexander Nevsky (1263 +);
New Nikon Radonezh Wonderworker (+ 1426);
The new miracle worker Paul Komel'sk, Obnorsky (+ 1429);
The new miracle worker Michael Klopsky (+ 1456);
The new miracle worker Sava Storozhevsky (+ 1406);
New miracle workers Zosima (+ 1478) and Savvaty (+ 1435) Solovetsky;
The new miracle worker Dionysius Glushitsky (+ 1437);
The new miracle worker Alexander Svirsky (+ 1533).
It is no accident in this list in the first place was listed Moscow Metropolitan Jonah, whose name is associated de facto independence of the Russian Church of the Patriarchate of Constantinople.
Indicating where to party, that is, kanonizovany locally, at the Council were:
Maxim whacky new miracle worker (+ 1433) — to celebrate him in Moscow;
New miracle workers-believing children of Constantine and his Michael and Theodore of Murom (XII century.) — To celebrate them in Murom;
New miracle workers-believing Peter and Fevronia (+ 1228) — to celebrate them in Murom;
New Wonderworker St Arseny Tver (+ 1409);
New miracle workers Procopius (+ 1303) and John (+ 1494) fools for Christ's sake — to celebrate it on Ustyug July 8.
Some lists also named Novgorod bishops Euthymius, Jonah and Nikita.
Cathedral in 1547 marked the beginning FOLLOW canonization in. Ie up to this point all-Russian OFFICIAL Saints as would not exist.
The basis of the Conciliar decisions have been taken Makarios works, as "nearly two-thirds to 13 common saints are, on the one hand, the holy Novgorod, and the other — the saints, to which Macarius harbored private zeal.
17-year-old Tsar Ivan made his first steps on a church field and did not have sufficient knowledge and authority to use the church reform for political gain. Otherwise it is difficult to explain why the choir of the all-Russian saints canonized WAS NOT ONE OF THE PRINCES OF MOSCOW — direct descendants of the king. But this honor was awarded their worst enemies — Mikhail of Tver, who was killed in the Horde because of the machinations Daniłowiczowski Murom and some princes. This, however, is the explanation — east of Grozny policies aimed at conquest of Kazan. Moore went through the Russian army, and Michael of Kiev was celebrated as "martyr", dying from "godless Tatars."
The lists of new saints can find the name of Alexander Nevsky, but no name of Dmitry Donskoy? But for some reason, was canonized Novgorod prince Vsevolod Mstislavich, revered local saint in Pskov.
This King John IV to Council Stoglav 1551 shows how events unfolded on.
Prelates left for his diocese and became the "searching", "where are miracle workers glorify great signs and wonders." Then they arrived in the kingdom of the city of Moscow, and hosted the second council.
Unlike the first cathedral, the work of which survived several letters, proceedings of the Second Council is still unknown. Therefore, the list of saints kanonizovannyh at this Council, hypothetically restored. In the last century Kliuchevsky published a special edition of the Lives of the fragment of St. Jonah of Moscow, which provides a list of all the Russian saints venerated in Russia in the middle of the XVI century.
If you withdraw from the list of saints, kanonizovannyh earlier, will face the Saints, celebrated at the Cathedral in 1549:
Prelate Novgorod Niphon (+ 1156);
Saint James Rostov (+ 1391);
St. Stephen of Perm (+ 1396);
Faithful Vsevolod of Pskov (+ 1138);
Faithful Mikhail of Tver (+ 1318);
Reverend Abraham of Smolensk (+ early. XIII c.)
Martyrs John, Anthony and Eustathius of Lithuania (+ 1347);
Venerable Euthymius of Suzdal (+ 1405);
St. Gregory Pelshemsky (+ 1441);
Monk Savva Vishersky (+ 1460);
Euphrosyne of Pskov (+ 1481);
St. Ephraim Perekomsky (+ 1492).
Thus, in just a two-parent, the pantheon of all-Russian saints rose to 36 people at once! Until the end of a XVI century. another 25 were canonized svyatyh16. It turns out that almost all revered in Holy Russia were canonized Macario in the mid XVI century!
It was in the 50's and 60's. XVI century. appeared first all-Russian calendars, in which the congregation offered called Christian names mentioned!
In subsequent years, when Macarius kanonizovany were still some Russian saints. Topographically presented Veliky Novgorod, Pskov, Solovki, Vologda, Veliky Ustyug, Tver, Rostov, Moscow, Suzdal, Kalyazin, Moore, Mozhaisk, Smolensk, Perm, etc. Almost all native Russian land!
The middle of the XVI century. rightly be called the "new era of miracle workers," or, in more modern terms "factory for the production of saints."
What happened after that? In connection with the life of Macarius Councils are written, words of praise, the service and the icons of Russian saints. Many scribes to rewrite the manuscript. At this time, there are manuscripts that the surviving litters they are called — "The Book of the new miracle." Chants of new services have relied on the notes, the names given to infants novokanonizovannyh saints at baptism, in honor of their new churches were built, opening up their holy relics.
And how to react to all ordinary people? AI Klibanov writes:
"The mass fabrication of the saints in the middle of the XVI century. caused discontent in national average. Some questions about the sanctity of certain bishops and abbots, who were kept in people's memory as a peasant land invaders who oppressed population extortion, known for their riotous feasts … "17
If we put aside all the ideological underpinnings of the proposal, which was full so our entire history until the 90's., It opens a certain sense of this.
Those farmers simply did not believe would not believe in the sanctity of the people who in their eyes begging for money from them, got drunk and robbed.
Here you have a point! But the peasants were able to express their opposition and protest? Only a "blasphemy" and "assault and battery". Thus, in the Life of Macarius Kalyazin, canonized in 1547, tells of a peasant Nikiforov, hulivshem not only people (presumably monks and other clergy), but God himself, "Do not Lepa glagolashe tochiyu not per person, but also the god ". In the Life of Gregory and Kassian Avnezhskih one name, son Ivan, a whi … Arts Kovacs, it is vselshusya foul spirit, and not only will glagolyashe blasphemy against humans, but also the god and his saints, for theirs is also a custom raging tvoriti " 18. In 1574, the peasants burned Rostov parish Vazhsky Klonovsky monastery, with which they were perennial agrarian disputes. Farmers palace Argunovskaya parish acquired land in the Trinity-Sergius Monastery, return the land back to the monks was possible only after the death of Ivan the Terrible. In the 1577-1578 years. experienced devastating riots in Antony monastery in the Russian Podvinne where to restore order was sent from Moscow special "Sovereign messenger." The reason for the speeches was the drawing up of the Life … Anthony Siya! The monks — Life's, some of the speakers' kramoluyusche blasphemy against the Holy derzhnusha saith, "19 that is simply did not believe in miracles and sanctity Anthony.
Stoglavy Cathedral 1551
In 1551, at the initiative of Makarios was called the Cathedral, which is the science of history known as the "Stoglavy." He worked primarily on issues of various "disorganization" and orderly Christian life: the measures to strengthen the discipline of the clergy, the unification ceremonies, the morale of priests. In fact, the council was held Stoglav All-Russian Church reform.
Council did not accidentally coincided with the judicial, financial and military reforms of Ivan IV, designed to facilitate the centralization of the Russian state, the strengthening of the state apparatus. Goals penetration of state authority in church affairs was to serve the reform of the church.
A hundred chapters, which the church hierarchy expressed their mandates congregation emphasizes zero tolerance of the Russian Orthodox Church to the ancient Slavic traditions.
Sin were found cutting the beard, washing in a bath of men to women in a single game while gambling ("seed"), witchcraft. Among the sinful practices Cathedral also took the game to a variety of musical instruments, and communicating with foreigners … chess, widespread in Russia! (In this case, after '33, Ivan IV died just over a chessboard!)
Russian people, said the Hundred Chapters, "around the iniquity oskvernyahomsya, custom evil didst pick from them, and this for the sake of God punishing us for any crime."
"… In the secular weddings and play glumitvortsy arganiki and smehotvortsy and Guselnikov and demons sing songs, and how to go venchatsya church, a priest with a cross will be, and before him, with all those games demons prowl, and priestess to them about it is not forbidden and do not prevent … About zapreschati Prohibited GREAT … "
Cathedral forbidden under pain of damnation "tregubnuyu Hallelujah" and troeperstnoe sign and introduced nationwide dvoeperstie. Curiously, exactly 100 years later, the Patriarch Nikon also under pain of anathema make Orthodox troeperstnomu're back to the sign! But the Old Believers, defending their right, it is referred to the decisions Stoglav Cathedral. And how could the laity to understand?
Cathedral urged monks settle all kinds of brew, and "not pyanstvennym drink, that is to say drunken and hot wine." An exception was made only for a few overseas in Russia "fryazskih" wines. From allowed to keep in the monastic cloisters, but drink only "to the glory of God, and not in piyanstvo." Funny, is not it?
That last decision, as do many other decisions Stoglavy remained empty declaration. Englishman Richard Chancellor, who visited Russia in the 50's. XVI centuries., Described Russian monks:
"As for debauchery and drunkenness, not in the world is like, and for extortion are the most disgusting people in the sun '.20
So. Council in 1551 officially declared war on the old Russian custom.
Metropolitan Makarios led the Russian Orthodox Church for 20 years. New Year's Eve, December 31, 1563, at the age of 80 years dies.
Not many people know what role could play in Russian history, this religious figure. In 1556, Ivan the Terrible Kazan wrote Archbishop Guria:
"O God, as it were, was happy Russian land, if rulers were such as Bishop Makarios yes you are."
The hidden meaning of the king's message is more understandable in the years oprichnina, when one after another on the metropolitan department replaced hierarchy.
Clearer on this point expressed Skrynnikov:
"Fortunately for the church (XVI c.), And the Metropolitan Macarius, and powerful temporary worker — Former Novgorodian Sylvester had enough share of indifference to matters relating to foreign rites" .21
Metropolitan Makarios was no different this intolerance as Patriarch Nikon 100 years later. He did not have a strong will, like Nikon, So, just because an elderly Macarius political flexibility and natural senility (age) did not give the split of the church. That Macarius for ALL the reign of Ivan the Terrible is the only metropolitan, who "died in office" and even earned the affectionate words of the king!
And what next? Went further reshuffle in the Moscow metropolitan department: 2, the heads of the Russian Church visited Athanasius and Philip (Kolychev). Metropolitans engaged primarily those that tried to reason with Ivan the Terrible oprichnina executions. And then all eyes were on the institution of the patriarchate. Heavy reign Godunov Smoot, numerous war and the first years of the new royal dynasty moved the general church issues raised Macarius, to second place.
Macarius PREPARED Russian churchwide reform aimed at eliminating the Slavic "old times." But its implementation was spread over a 100 years and was completed only more vigorous and uncompromising Patriarch Nikon. That's it, the Metropolitan of Moscow epoch of Ivan the Terrible, can be considered as a man who decided to do away with the Slavic antiquity.
Events of the mid XVII century ONLY secured and Contents of the processes that were started 100 years ago by Metropolitan Macarius. He was unable to complete his beginnings, but the principles and guidance set out by him and his time were the basis of the final destruction of the Old Slavonic identity in the face of ancient paganism.
Since most of the Slavic names and nicknames are not recognized by the Orthodox Church, they can expect a sad fate. In the 2nd half of the XVI century. Because of the numerous examples of canonized saints, and various church leaders, their names will become the basis for church calendars, which appear as excerpts from the lives of the "Great Lives of Saints."
Performing solutions Stoglav cathedral in 1551, urban and rural priests already in the 2nd floor. XVI century. Strengthen control over the laity. It was the end of XVI century non-Christian names, and it was under the influence of the policy of Metropolitan Macarius, are beginning to fade from use. This process was completed only by the middle of the next century.
It may be objected: Not available. Need facts, figures and above. They are. Very interesting. Forthcoming article "Ryazan old Russian names and nicknames in the context. XVI and the 1st third of the XVII century. ", Based on the data and census books scribe Okologorodnego Old Ryazan and the Ryazan-mills Pereyaslavl County. But this is a separate issue.
1 Ganzhina IM Dictionary of Contemporary Russian surnames. — Moscow LLC "Publishing AST": "Firm" Publisher AST "2001. C. 5.
2 Some issues in the study of the history of peasant families in the XVII century.
3 Puffins NM Personal dictionary of ancient proper names / / Notes Department of Russian and Slavic archeology archaeographic Imperial Russian society. T. VI. Saint Petersburg, 1903. S. 76.
4 Peter N. Dictionary of Russian personal names. Moscow: Russian dictionaries, AST, 2000. C. 9.
5 Klyuchevskii VO Western influence in Russia after Peter. 1st lecture. / / Unpublished works. Pergamon Press, 1993. Pp. 13-14.
6 Peter. C. 7.
7 Dictionary of Brockhaus-Efron. / / Http://www.booksite.ru/fulltext/bro/kga/brokefr/4/4254.htm
8 of the Gospel. Orthodox calendar. / / Http://ww.cofe.ru/blagovest/calendar/2.asp
9 NF Droblenkova. / / Http://www.fortunecity.com/campus/mandela/407/Slovar/VMCh.htm / / Sokolova LV Literature of Ancient Rus. Bibliographical Dictionary. 1996.
10 BA Rybakov Initial centuries of Russian history / / Christianity and Russia: Sat. articles. Series "Soviet religion." N 2. Pergamon Press, 1988. C. 28.
Sukhov 11 AD The introduction of Christianity in Russia. Moscow, Institute of Philosophy of the USSR., Thought, 1987. S. 267.
12 A. Schmemann historical path of orthodoxy. YMCA-PRESS, Paris, 1985, s.342.
13 Smirnov Jagiello-Jacob-and Vladislav first reunion of Lithuania and Poland. Odessa, 1868, p. 161. The same dualism writes Fr. Florovsky in his book "Ways of Russian Theology", Paris, 1937, p. 2-3: "Paganism is not dead and has not been exhausted immediately. In the dim depths of people's subconscious, as in some historical underground, continued its already hidden, life, now ambiguous and dvoevernaya … "
14 What is Christianity bad? / / Http://paganism.chat.ru/xian-bad.htm
15 Russian Orthodoxy: milestones / Research. Ed. A.I.Klibanov. Moscow, Politizdat, 1989. Pp. 110-111.
16 A. It is estimated Klibanova the 2nd floor. XVI century. was canonized 86 saints / / Russian Orthodoxy. S. 114.
17 Russian Orthodox. S. 115.
18 V. Koretsky The struggle of the peasants with the monasteries in Russia XVI-early. XVII. / / Problems of the History of Religion and Atheism. Moscow, 1958. T. 6. S. 190.
19 Koretsky. S. 175.
20 British travelers in Muscovy in the XVI century. Moscow-Leningrad, 1938. Pp. 65-66.
21 Skrynnikov RG State and Church in Russia XIV-XVI centuries. Novosibirsk, Nauka, Sib. Branch, 1991. Pp. 231-232.
MB Olenev 17-20.05.2001, the