Anti-tank guided missile (ATGM) are an effective tool in the fight against tanks, own long-range shooting and have small dimensions and weight. ATGM in totality with a launcher and special equipment has been called an anti-missile system (ATRA). Antitank missile system — one of the more challenging on the technical level and high-tech armament.
The adoption of the new standard is based on the results of the municipal tests (GI), by which to check its compliance with the requirements of tactical and combat features, technical specifications (TTP). These tests are organized by the customer, who is responsible for their conduct. Occurred inadequate assessment of the level of protection zabugornoy armored vehicles and combat features Russian anti-tank systems in the formation of TTP, and deficiencies of programs and techniques underlying the GI service in Russian and Russian anti-tank with the times ineffective tandem warheads (TBCH).
With regard to the conditions of the sixth-generation wars abroad are working to build the latest generation of the tank, which holds the highest firepower and protection features, is able to counteract all kinds of modern and promising anti-tank weapons.
With all of this should be considered a multi-level protection principle zabugornoy armor that provides discovery and settlement of Russian missile systems in different areas of attack. For this reason, to create highly efficient anti-tank systems to defeat modern armored vehicles and promising. In this case, the level of methods and programs for the GOP must provide verification of combat features new high-performance universal LAW made in the GPV-2020.
By shortcomings taken into service with anti-tank TBCH newspaper "NVO" repeatedly addressed in the past 12 years ("HBO» № 31, 1999; № 13, 2008; № 45, 2011, and others). The article notes that the adopted simulators for testing tandem warhead designs are not analogs of reactive armor (ERA) installed on zabugornyh tanks. In other words, the test was adopted by the tandem warhead RS, installed by another Russian tanks, which is less effective than zabugornom swatches. Finally got a number of the armament ATGM with ineffective TBCH. But this is just one of the reasons of unsatisfactory performance ATGM with TBCH. The second reason — the fuzzy rules GI, allowing to accept service on ATRA rigged results of the tests with the complicity of Grau. But let us all over from the beginning.
Mind — are most important
The publications 'NVO' focuses on the technical shortcomings of anti-tank with TBCH. But behind the scenes were the moral affairs between senior commanders, their honesty, intolerance of injustice in decision-making process of the creation of the anti-tank systems.
Command of the test site (w / h 21374) More Russian Defense Ministry, with extensive experience in evaluating traits taken into service ATRA, allowed me together with officers landfill be further tested TBCH armor-piercing missiles 9M128 ("Zenith"), 9M119M ("Invar") in the criteria Use blocks DZ length 400-500 mm, mounted on tanks zabugornyh M48A3, M60A1. Recall that the 9M128 missiles and 9M119M entered service with the Russian units DZ (CDD-1) with a length of 250 mm, which when fired is not always overcome a tandem warhead and, if positive, treated uncountable experiences that have not had an impact on decision Commission GI solutions. Thus was formed a juggling test results.
One of the criterion of testing with the introduction of LD blocks 500 mm long ban was making all of the deliverables. Command in the / h 21374 in case of a positive test result feared a sharp reaction Grau — right up to the punishment of officials involved in organizing the evaluation of combat options not so long ago adopted for service ATGM "Zenith" and "Invar". Hidden from the eyes of Grau tests were run in fixed criteria: TBCH placed at an angle of 60 degrees from the normal to the top surface of the DMZ. The length of the container is 500 mm, which fit into eight pieces of reactive armor (EDZ) 4C22 so as to perform the undermining of all the parts. The total weight of explosives eight EDZ 4C22 was 2 kg. The point of contact TBCH was in the top half of the container ("HBO» № 4, 2011). Tested variants hanging DZ (hurlled thickness of the metal plate 3 mm) and an integrated RS (the plate thickness — 15 mm). After the bombings TBCH got stunning results. Broneprobivaemost TBCH missiles 9M128 ("Zenith") and 9M119M ("Invar") after interaction with an integrated RS decreased by 70%, and with hanging DZ — 50%. These tests confirmed the high efficiency zabugornoy DZ due to its great length in the plane of interaction. In all this there was the problem — how to bring the acquired control Grau "underground" and reach the official results of similar tests. It must be emphasized that any attempt for conducting similar tests would be locked Grau, which was confirmed in the coming. But should make any moves.
Supporting business affairs with employees 3 Central Scientific Research Institute (w / h 42261), responsible for the combat effectiveness of the adopted anti-tank systems, "Zenith", "Invar", after a while I told them the test results. The situation was very complex: on the one hand, / h 42261 participated in the development of tactical and technical requirements (TTT) and TTP for the creation of these samples, and on the other — it turned out that the documents were made severe errors, which are a prerequisite for satisfactory performance of defeat M1 tanks, the M1A1. Despite the fact that the management department / h promised to report back on the GRAU omissions occurring in the justification of the characteristics of the simulator zabugornoy DZ, it took the position of delays and promises.
In the end, my friend Colonel Leo SAVKIN led me to the deputy commander of the missile troops and artillery of the Army Lieutenant General Yuri Shumilihinu. He intently listened to my message and called the head of the control Grau Major General Gennady Lud, who was responsible for the anti-tank systems. Yuri Shumilihin said that it has grounds to vary the effectiveness of not so long ago adopted for service ATGM "Zenith" and "Invar". Because you need to carry out further tests in the criteria DZ installed on tanks M60A1, M48A3. Gennady Luda promised to investigate and give an answer in a week.
A week passed. And there I was in the office of Shumilihina. Phone is switched on sonorous relationship. Luda was very evasive answers that at the current time on the range with no anti-tank TBCH and conduct similar tests inappropriate. It is believed that earlier phone conversation Luda discussed the situation with staff / h 42261 and gave the answer, rejecting additional tests with tandem warhead missile systems. Luda took advantage of ordering control value when ordering ATRA. In this situation, the work style of management was the fact that the errors made in the design and implementation of municipal trials, the customer tried to smooth out and hide. Because the true time is armed with lots of unfinished ATGM: 9M128, 9M113M, 9M131, 9M119M, 9M133, 9M123, 9M117M and others with low efficiency defeat the more sheltered areas of modern zabugornyh tanks.
Unfortunately, the activities of the chief ordering management, hiding severe errors when designing anti-tank and is considered the main task of his own self-preservation mentality, has served as a prerequisite for the creation of the failure of high-performance anti-tank systems.
The onset of the early 90-ies of the destruction of Russian Union has played for the benefit of the generals who tried to hide the shortcomings of Russia
n anti-tank with the ability to overcome TBCH DZ installed on zabugornyh tanks ("HBO» № 45, 2011).
Instead of the absurdity of the scientific validity
In the past year, the military-theoretical journal "Military Thought» (№ 7) posted an article employee testing ground Grau Colonel Raphael Davlieva "Improving the assessment of the effectiveness of tandem shaped-charge warhead," in which an attempt to improve the management of obsolete documents containing severe methodological errors. Pressure, as an employee of the landfill, has been constrained in the choice of definitions and assessments in the formation of the final conclusions. In general, the article is devoted to Raphael Davlieva lower armor penetration TBCH after interaction with dynamic protection. Unanswered questions are not answered in the article. How were covered with the negative results of the GOP to overcome DZ TBCH 9M128 missiles, 9M119M, 9M113M, 9M117M in adopting them on board? Why lasts sinful practice tests TBCH by Russian ERA, which does not reflect the essence of the design zabugornoy reactive armor?
Checking TBCH armor piercing anti-tank in the GOP is shooting and stationary tests in accordance with the "Guidelines for experimental evaluation of the effectiveness of overcoming reactive armor and armor penetration characteristics zabronevogo act anti-tank combat units on the steps of the municipal preparatory and testing", developed in 1986 by members of a / h 42261 TSNIIHM, Steel Research Institute, Central Research Institute of Tochmash in / h 21374.
Fig. 1. Accommodation units are suspended DZ (CDD-1) on an armor and anti-tank organization starts with TBCH at the highest range on the vertically mounted prepyadstviya: a) placing the CDD-1 on the armor plates, b) scheme of the shooting.
Pressure test misses a fundamental point of GI 9M128 missile, when fired at 9M119M bottlenecking, kitted DMZ. For these missiles shooting conducted by bronepregradam, which were installed 6 CDD-1 (three blocks in 2-row). With all this distance between the missile and the delay beginning with DZ was 100 m is important to note that these missiles during the GOP have not been tested on such a fundamental parameter as overcoming the DMZ when fired at the highest range. According to estimates programmke GI armor penetration TBCH allocated to 25 9M128 missiles and 9M119M. With all this TBCH missiles 9M128 5 times not broke barriers with the DMZ. Acted as commission, headed by holding the GOP? The act on the results of these experiments GI assigned to uncountable. So makarom a spell assignment of these experiments with a negative result to uncountable, 9M128 missile "Zenit" has withstood the GOP and was put into service. In this case, the Commission has not used his GI right to GOST 15.210-78 At the termination of tests to identify the circumstances of non-compliance TTZ to overcome the DA at the shooting. Termination of the test must be registered act which signed by the members of the committee and sent to the Grau and size.
The history of the adoption on arms 9M128 missile was contagious, as a result of fraud followed by each subsequent fraud. With the help of such deceptive practices was adopted by not only the 9M128 missile, and others — 9M119M, 9M113M, 9M117M. One can guess that the Commission on the GOP could not take such decisions without the knowledge of Grau.
In 1993, in the end the customer comes insight that the test conditions for the acts TBCH delay beginning with DA at the shooting range at 100 m did not reveal the results of the many features of lower armor penetration. For this reason, during the GOP firing rocket 9M117M already underway at maximum range of 5 km.
Organization of shooting at the highest range is shown in Fig. 1, which is located on the armor plate hanging DZ, which corresponds to module installation BDZ-1 ("HBO» № 45, 2011) on the T-72. Recall that in the frontal body parts (LBK) T-72 is located 28 blocks BDZ-1 (seven blocks in 4 rows). But getting a reliable anti-tank at a range of 4-5 km bronepregrade was set at 56 units in CDD-1. On LBK zabugornyh tank was located on seven blocks DZ greater length in the 2-series. And then there is an old Russian ERA, which has never imitated characteristics zabugornoy DMZ.
When shooting at the highest range reveal more stupidity, which is in agreement with the TTP tandem warhead to penetrate bronepregrady, kitted DZ when firing at maximum range with an integration 0.9 and stationary tests — also 0.9. In other words, by launching 10 rockets at prepyadstviya with DZ must be nine penetrations. The same applies to stationary tests when TBCH bronepregrady positioned relative to the DMZ at the point "A" (Fig. 2), and it is undermining. But because of the dispersal of missiles by firing it turned out that by breaking through TTZ bronepregrad with DZ tandem warheads are made. The creators and producers of the above methods do not take into account the TTP that has guided weapon dispersion and missiles by firing TBCH fall at different points across the surface of the blocks DMZ. Based on the analysis of the "Act GOP antitank guided missile 9M117M, Part 3, Vol. 1, v / ch 21374, 1993, "Raphael Pressure set, for example, to launch 9M117M when shooting at a distance of 5 km relative frequency of penetration bronepregrady, curb DZ, was 0.56, not 0.9.
The more presentable point "A" during the stationary test? At this point, there are the right conditions to overcome the RS tandem warhead. Favourites charge (5) placed inside the head section of the missile, the explosion completely destroys it, and part of the follow instrument compartment behind it. In such a situation fluttering from the blast shards EDZ (1, 2) and BDZ-1 (1) does not apply to the OZ (8) and a channel for the passage of a cumulative jet (7), which provides normal operation of the main shaped charge on the "naked" armor.
Positive assessment of Article Raphael Davlieva deserve the results of its experimental research capabilities of favorite initiating charges, owning armor penetration of 110-150 mm, in the areas of dynamic protection AB, BC, CD (see Fig. 2). In this case, the bombings were carried out LZ, which were established based on the focal length of the above areas. On the section AB jet stream LZ (5) passes through two elements DZ (1, 2). In this case, the OZ removed from the explosive effects of DZ and lowering the armor penetration is small. On the section between points "B" and "C" jet stream LZ knock-ons in the top EDZ (1), which is transmitted EDZ (2). In this position, DZ affect the basic charge (8) through a forward sustainer engine (6), which reduces the armor HP.
And, in the end, the plot proved irresistible for CD LZ 9M128 missiles, 9M119M, 9M113M, 9M117M. With all this the main reason lies in the unresolved DZ design TBCH. It is clear that the missiles because of weight and size restrictions LZ is 110-150 mm armor. But not all parts of the cumulative jet LZ able to detonate explosives in the EDZ. Only part of this jet Favourites length of about 30 mm causes detonation. After the reaction, the cumulative jets from the upper and side part of the container (I) and EDZ (1) also with a side portion further container (II) Favourites its part be expended on overcoming all the above-bottlenecking. The rest of the least high-speed part of the cumulative jet LZ is not able to initiate the detonation of explosives in the EDZ (3, 4). These criteria OZ jet stream, providing a detonation in the EDZ (3, 4), loses up to 70% armor penetration.
It must be emphasized that in the experiments we used LZ 9M133 ATGM "Kornet" with armor penetration of 200 mm, which are in all the experiments have provided the initiation of EDZ blocks (I, II).
Information for consideration
The title of Raphael Davl
ieva "Improving the assessment of the effectiveness of tandem HEAT warheads" does not match the content of the material presented. In essence, the article deals with evaluation of armor penetration TBCH with assistance from bottlenecking, Fully DMZ. At the current time there is a "comprehensive evaluation method warhead missile systems in view of overcoming the dynamic protection", made by employees TSNIITM, TSNIIHM in / h 42261 in 1984. Of course, this technique needs work.
Raphael Pressure conducted a study of the sinful practice test for obsolete TBCH governing documents of the past century. On lowering article properties affected are two reasons. First reason is that the editors of the journal "Military Thought" by reducing the amount of material that allowed the illustrative material inconsistency with the text of the article. For example, the names of Figures 1 and 3 do not correspond to their contents, etc. The second reason — Pressure is not used a series of papers on the issues raised in the article, which did not allow him to make a more profound conclusions. So, without worrying about the remaining work featured in magazines: "Ammunition», № 4, 1991; № 8, 1992; № 1 and № 2, 1996, "Bulletin of the armored vehicles» № 5, 1990; № 1, 1991; № 11 , 1991, "Issues of defense equipment", a series of V, Issue 3 (147), 1991, Issue 3 (152), 1992, etc.
Summing up the results of overcoming DZ tandem warhead missile systems based on Davlieva Raphael and others, it may be noted the subsequent:
— Development and testing TBCH ATGM so far lasted for Russian units CDD-1, CDD-2, which are not analogous to zabugornoy DZ ("HBO» № 31, 1999; № 29, 2001; № 8, 2003; № 13, 2008; № 45, 2011) ;
— 9M128 ATGM ("Zenith"), 9M119M ("Invar") 9M113M ("Contest-M"), 9M117M ("Arkan") when shooting at the highest range overcome hinged DZ with a probability of less than 0.56, which dramatically reduces the possibility of destruction of obsolete tanks zabugornyh M1, M1A1, filled with DZ ("HBO» № 24, 2002);
— Russian TBCH 9M123 ATGM ("Chrysanthemum"), 9M133 ("Cornet") 9A4172K ("Vortex-M"), 9M120D ("Attack") and others overcome foreign DZ container with a length of 400-500 mm, with a probability of 0, 5 ("HBO» № 29, 2001), but, in spite of the higher armor of the main charge will amaze modern zabugornye tanks firing at their head-bands with a probability of less than 0.1-0.3;
— All taken by the Russian anti-tank weapons with TBCH not overcome the tandem DZ zabugornyh tanks;
— Sophisticated armor package prepyadstvy simulating head-pieces of protection is not currently reflect the development of protection zabugornyh tanks, past upgrades.
Fig. 2. Lots of favorite reduce the possibility of initiating charges TBCH ATGM: I, II — blocks hanging DZ (CDD-1), 1, 2, 3, 4 — elements DZ (EDZ), point A — determine the conditions of stationary test TBCH; sections AB, BC , CD — in which a decrease was observed initiating opportunities LZ 5 — charge of favorites, 6 — sustainer engine, 7 — channel for the passage of a cumulative jet of the main charge, 8 — the main charge, 9 — armored plate. Note: in contact with a point "A" is a diagram for stationary 9M119M rocket blasting.
The experimental results have allowed me ("HBO» № 31, 1999) to establish that the length of the blocks zabugornyh DZ 400-500 mm Russian TBCH will not overcome them in contact with the upper half of the container DZ because of him being in the main area of exploding EDZ the charge will be destroyed before the start of the operation. On what the chief and the chief designer of the MSC said Nicholas Guscin ("HBO» № 44, 1999): "Michael Rastopshin all builds his argument by considering only the extreme conditions:
— When entering the tank, it is exclusively in the forehead;
— If hit in the DMZ, it is only in the area unfavorable for warhead. "
It should be remembered that, in accordance with the TTZ municipal certainly tests conducted by head-shooting simulators protection of tanks, equipment DMZ. It is appropriate to see what TBCH ATGM "Chrysanthemum" has a low chance of overcoming the actual design zabugornoy DMZ. TBCH the rocket perfectly overcomes the DMZ only Russian tanks.
At the same time we can not pass without going through the field of research covered in the article, Raphael Davlieva. Usually considered an old and very inefficient ATRA and unpromising media. An example might be a rocket 9M117M, part of the shots ZUBK10M, ZUBK10M-1 ZUBK10M-2 ZUBK10M-3, which are used for shooting (starts) out of old cannons 100 mm smoothbore tank gun MT-12 (guided weapons "Brass Knuckles "), and 100-mm rifled gun D10-T2 T-55 tank (CHC" Bastion "), 100-mm rifled gun 2A70 BMP-3, 115-mm smoothbore gun U5TS of the T-62 (CHC" Shexna ").
A very ancient rocket 9M128 used in the shooting of 125-mm guns, tanks T-64, T-80B, and was intended to engage tanks M1. And, in the end, the shot ZUBK20 with ineffective anti-tank 9M119M which is fired from a 125mm cannon tanks T-72, T-80, T-90 was supposed to destroy tanks M1, M1A1. But as a result of modernization, these tanks are virtually absent in the armed forces. The possibility of destruction of these missiles modern M1A2 tank by firing in a head-protected areas is 0.08.
Grau and 3TSNII MoD's time to pay attention to new and upgraded zabugornye tanks to destroy missiles that require new and appropriate ways of testing them.
In reference books and textbooks in relation to anti-tank with TBCH argued that they provide, or the overcoming of DZ, or defeat a modern and promising tanks filled with DZ (see Cannon Russia. — Moscow, Publishing House "Military Parade", 2000). But the exposed experimental data indicate that working. The question is, who deceive? Our military who are reported stocked with modern instrument.
ATRA was accompanied by the creation of a set of guidelines that the true time hopelessly outdated. So, in 1984, made a "comprehensive evaluation of the effectiveness of the Methodology warhead missile systems including overcoming dynamic protection" does not take into account the development of combat traits zabugornoy armored vehicles, have not been established aspects of their defeat in relation to the sixth generation wars. It is not considered non-traditional methods of destruction of tanks ("HBO» № 6, 2000). Do not finalized questions zapregradnogo act different ammunition.
Lost its practical value the guidance document "The composition of complex prepyadstvy to assess acts of anti-armor-piercing ammunition (RD 401.1.6-454-85)", made in 1985, the Institute began. This document does not reflect the exposed barrier structure protection zabugornyh tanks. Instead of imitators DZ zabugornyh tanks were offered the least efficient units DZ-mounted Russian armored vehicles.
Requests immediate processing "system of primary data on the vulnerability of standard features common ground armored targets and damaging acts of anti-tank ammunition", made in 1983. Since the creation of this system has changed a lot in zabugornom tank building, which is adapted to operate in the criteria of the sixth-generation warfare. In the development of the initial data for a sixth generation warfare requires a thorough study of the vulnerability characteristics of armored vehicles. If the physician-pathologist studies the cause of death of a person or animal, the special study on the vulnerability of 'organism' armored vehicles with a view to finding a more effective lines of its destruction.
So makarom available and used in the current time guidelines do not provide a tribute to the level of the organization and conduct te
sting of the new missile systems with TBCH.
In the journal "Military Thought," in which Raphael Davlieva written article, posted congratulations Test Site (v / ch 21374) in connection with his 70th birthday. Congratulations Grau signed by the head Major General Alexander Romanovsky. No desire to assume that the signature Romanowski apply to the forthcoming introduction of obsolete and inapplicable for the practical implementation of the methodology to test missile systems TBCH discussed in the article Davlieva. The organization of editors of the magazine "Military Thought" severe opposing coupled with the expert opinion of experienced professionals, of course, would increase the quality of the article by Raphael Davlieva topical dilemma trials of modern anti-tank systems.