Zabugornye anti-tank guns

One of the first before the second world war anti-tank guns has adopted the Polish army. In 1935, under the title «Karabin Przeciwpancemy UR wz.35» was made 7.92 mollimetrovoe anti-tank gun made by T. Felchinym, E. Stetsky, J. Maroshkoyna, P. Vilnevchitsem. For the base was taken scheme magazine rifle. A special 7.92-mm cartridge (7,92 x107) weighed 61.8 grams, armor-piercing bullet «SC» — 12,8 gr. The bullet of this cartridge was one of the first to have a tungsten core. At the end of the barrel was located a cylindrical active muzzle brake, which absorbs about 70% return. Relatively thin-walled trunk can withstand up to 200 shots, but in this battle of the criteria was quite enough — antitank infantry were short-lived. Was used to lock the butterfly valve type Mauser, who had two symmetrical front and rear lugs one subsidiary. Handle — even. The firing mechanism — striker type. In the trigger arm blocked by lowering the reflector in the case is not completely locked gate: reflector was rising and let rocker only full rotation speed. Store for up to 3 rounds, was mounted from the bottom with 2-latches. Scope — unchanging. Anti-tank gun had a whole box of rifle, steel reinforced the back of the head butt pad, sling attachment gun belt fastened below the box (like a rifle). Folding bipod fixed on a rotating sleeve around the barrel. This allowed us to turn the instrument on their.

Ample supply of anti-tank rifles to the troops were started in 1938, all them produced more than 5 million units. Each infantry company was to be three anti-tank guns, in a cavalry regiment — 13 units. By September 1939, the Polish troops had 3.5 million kb.UR wz.35, which performed well in the fight against the German light tanks.

Poland has also developed anti-tank gun with a conical bore Barrel (similar to the German rifles Gerlich). The barrel of the gun had to be pooled at the entrance caliber 11 mm at the muzzle — 7.92 mm. The initial velocity — to 1545 meters per second. Anti-tank gun was not done. This project is flown to France, but because of the defeat of France in '40 working on tests of pre-standard not advanced.

First 20's the Germans attempted to modernize the anti-tank gun "Mauser", adding to his cushion stock and store, but in 1925, experts at the Reichswehr came to the conclusion that "the 13-millimeter caliber can not meet the target" and turned their attention to the 20 — millimmetrovye automatic cannons. German Reichswehr before the war, recognizing the need infantry anti-tank defense, and elected caliber 7.92 mm anti-tank guns. Single-shot «Pz.B-38» (Panzerbuhse, model 1938) developed in Suhl designer of "Gustloff Werke" by B. Bauer, was carried out by "Rheinmetall-Borsig." To lock the trunk served vertical wedges. To mitigate the impact linked shutter and barrel shifted back to the box, which was formed integrally with the housing bore and has stiffeners. Thanks to the design of such action recoil was stretched in time for the shooter was the least sensitive. With all of this rollback used to unlock the gate is similar to the way it was made in the automatic artillery guns. The trunk has a removable conical flash suppressor. Most of flatness line of motion bullets at ranges up to 400 meters made it possible to establish unchanging sight. Rear sight and front sight with fencing of were attached to the trunk. Right on the barrel breech positioned handle. Safety lever is on the left above the pistol grip. In the back of the handle lever located Breaker. In the tubular folding buttstock placed revertible spring barrel. The butt is equipped with shoulder rest with rubber buffer, a plastic tube to hold the gun with his left hand. The butt is formed on the right. Along the edges of the receiver to speed up the loading fastened two "accelerator" — cases in which was located at 10 rounds in a staggered manner. At the front of the enclosure was secured with a fold-out sleeve bipod (similar bipod MG.34). To fix the folded bipod was used a special probe. Above the center of mass located carrying handle, anti-tank gun for self-caliber was very cumbersome. The design of the anti-tank gun gave a hint Degtyarev idea of using stem motion for partial absorption of impact and automatically open the gate.

To increment zabronevoe action to the cartridge bullet has developed a variant of the blowing-up, creating a habitable volume after breaking your significant concentration of tear gas (chloroacetophenone). However, this cartridge implementation is not found. After the defeat of Poland in 1939, the Germans borrowed some solutions 7.92-mm cartridges for the Polish anti-tank wz.35. Germany's powerful 7.92-mm cartridge model "318" made on the basis of cartridge case to the 15-millimeter aircraft gun. He had armor-piercing incendiary or armor-piercing bullet. Armor-piercing bullet had a tungsten carbide core — "318 SmKRs.L Spur». Cartridge weight — 85,5 gr, bullets — 14.6 g, propellant charge — 14.8 grams, length of the cartridge — 117.95 mm cartridge — 104.5 mm.

The troops needed more light anti-tank gun. Same Bauer significantly reworked design, by simplifying and facilitating anti-tank gun, dropped in all of this creation. Pz.B-39 had the same locking system and ballistics. The gun consisted of a barrel with a receiver, the shutter-release frame having a pistol handle, the butt, the bipod. Pz.B-barrel 39 is fixed, and an active muzzle brake disposed at its end, can absorb up to 60% efficiency. Wedge controlled swing trigger frame. Between the stump of the trunk and mirror shutter to withstand the gap and extend the life of the bolt gun was equipped with a front removable liner. At the gate was set trigger hammer mechanism. When lowering the shutter cocking lever. Locked gate on top of the flap, which automatically unlocked when reclined. The trigger was their trigger sear, trigger and safety lever. Flag fuse located on top of the rear seat bolt. With his left position (becoming visible shaped as letters «S») closed bolt and sear. The trigger mechanism as a whole was very difficult, but the system is very sensitive to fouling. In the receiver on the left establishes a mechanism for the extraction of spent cartridges. After lowering the gate (release) liner was ejected through a window in the butt slider extractor back and down. In Pz.B-39 had a folding stock (forward and down) with a tube under the left arm and cushion shock, wood forearm, lever handle and shoulder strap. The ring fencing of protected front sight. The total length of the anti-tank rifle, the design of "accelerators" and bipod were similar Pz.B 38. Anti-tank gun were produced in Germany by "Rheinmetall-Borsig" and in the "attached" Austrian company "Steyr". It should be noted that in September 1939, a Wehrmacht had only 62 anti-tank guns, by June 1941 their number was already 25,298. Anti-tank guns included in virtually all parts of the Wehrmacht CB: As of 1941 in the infantry, sapper, mountain infantry and mechanized infantry battalions there was a link anti-tank rifles to 3 units. guns, motorcycle platoon had one anti-tank rifle, reconnaissance unit Motorized Division — 11 anti-tank guns. At greater agility and lower weight, compared to its predecessor, the gun Pz.B-39 had a huge impact. Another drawback of the respective gun was tight extraction cartridge. In addition, when unlocking the trigger to the frame had to make a huge effort. According to its features Pz.B-39 pretty quickly outdated. For example, the German airborne units abandoned the gun in 1940 after the Crete operation.

Captivating design was the Czech magazine-7.92-mm anti-tank gun under the same cartridge, known under the designation of MSS-41, which appeared in 1941, and applies the Wehrmacht. Anti-tank gun were produced at the plant "Vaffenverke Brunn" ("Česká Zbroevka"). Shop located behind the pistol handle. Reloading performed trunk movement back and forth. The gate was part of the fore-end motionless, grappling with the barrel coupler which was planted in a barrel with thread. Rotate the clutch is a movement pistol handle forward and upward. Upcoming traffic pen barrel moved forward. Perforated casing served dapravlyayuschey trunk and clutch. The trunk in the frontal position to speak on the slider hit the reflector and the reflector is turned and threw down the sleeve. During the revolving movement of the barrel "runs" for the next round. By turning the knob down the barrel of the pistol with the shutter closed. The firing mechanism — striker type. The platoon drummer came when reloading. In case of misfire had provided a special lever for cocking hammer — to repeat the descent there was no need recharging. The trigger mechanism is constructed in the handle. On its left side is safety lever, which is locked in the rear position latch sleeve and pull the trigger. Sights — front sight and sight — folding. On the trunk was mounted active muzzle brake. Shop — sector-shaped, box-shaped, interchangeable, for 5 rounds. To reduce the height of the gun he was mounted on the left, down at an angle of 45 degrees. Following the filing of a new cartridge, the rest being held by the arm cut off. On the campaign butt with a pillow, "cheek" and Shoulders leaned up. Anti-tank gun had a folding bipod. Had a carrying strap. Czech anti-tank gun, with the same ballistic properties as Pz.B-39 features a compact length in the stowed position is 1280 mm in combat — 1360 mm. But the creation of anti-tank rifle was complicated and it did not spread. At one time it was used of the Waffen-SS.

In Germany before the second world war have identified the requirements for a massive anti-tank rifle. Of course, his role here was played by experience with the 20-millimeter cannon "Oerlikon", whose effectiveness has been demonstrated in Spain in the fight against the German and Italian tanks. A more appropriate German requirements was a 20-mm anti-tank gun "Solothurn" system Racale Herlaha and, even more so that its base lay a 20-mm aircraft cannon Erhard, of the First World War.

In the barrel rifling were 8 right-handed. In automation scheme is used recoil barrel with his little move. The barrel is locked by turning the coupling was made that has been installed on its breech, and going down its projections for the lugs longitudinally sliding bolt. During the movement of the trunk and the back gate at return, the projection clutch went into an inclined groove boxes, clutch turned, and is unlocked. The barrel was staying, with all the shutter continued to move backwards, performed ejection, cocked hammer mechanism. Reloading cycle ended under the revertible spring. Was used for reloading manual rocker lever on the right side of the box.

Out 20-mm cartridge "Solothurn» (20×105 B) partially sucked active muzzle brake, bipod and shock absorber unit at the back of the stock. Near the center of mass guns were mounted folding bipod. To fix the sight and additional support was available for butt hinged support of adjustable height. On the left side of the box magazine was mounted horizontally on the 5 or 10 rounds.

Anti-tank gun in 1934 to produce "Vaffenfabrik Solothurn AG" under the designation S-18/100. It consisted in service in Hungary (36M), Switzerland and Italy. Following the development of the cartridge "long Solothurn» (20×138 B), having great power, he developed a model gun S-18/1000. Several modified by "Rheinmetall-Borsig," this 20-mm anti-tank gun under the designation Pz.B-41 have adopted. The gun was reactive muzzle brake. In a small number of Pz.B-41 was used on the Eastern Front and in the Italian Army.

Already during the war in Europe against the British and French troops in 1940, the Germans made sure of the need to strengthen the anti-tank infantry — this leads to the British tanks Mk II «Matilda." In the first months of the war against the Russian Union has yavna inefficiency 7.92-millimeter anti-tank guns against KV and T-34. Already in 1940 the Office of the German arms was activated work on the more massive and with all this relatively light anti-tank gun. At the end of 1941 on the Wehrmacht adopted the so-called "heavy anti-tank gun" 2.8 / 2 cm s.Pz.B-41 (not to be confused with a 20mm gun Pz.B-41 system "Solothurn") has a conical drilling bore. On the Soviet-German front, the gun seized the winter of 1942, the British captured it in May 1942 in North Africa. This anti-tank gun was the implementation of the scheme, previously spent on the theoretical level and experimentally. The design of the conical bullet that implemented the "principle of cork and needles" (small lateral load in the barrel and the highest load on the line of motion), Beck offered in Prussia in the 60-ies of the XIX century. In 1905, a rifle with a conical bore of the barrel, tapering to muzzle, a bullet of special shape and special rifling offered Russian inventor Druganova and designed by General Rogovtseva, and in 1903 a patent for 04 years of a gun that has a conical trunk, got the Teuton Dr. C. Puff. Extensive experiments with a tapered barrel were conducted engineer G. Gerlich in the 20-30s. He even tried to release his "sverhvintovku" to the market first as a hunter, and later as an anti-gun. The design of anti-tank rifle barrel Gerlich had tapered portion and cylindrical segments in the breech and muzzle part of it. Rifling (at the breech more profound) to the muzzle coming to naught. This allowed more correctly use the powder gas pressure required to break up the bullet. This was done by increasing the average pressure at the same highest. The initial velocity of the bullet at the skilled 7-mm anti-tank gun system Gerlich was up to 1,800 meters per second. The projectile (Gerlich in their own marketing articles called it "ultra-bullet") had crushes driving bands. When driving along the bore they are pressed into the special groove on the projectile. The highest lateral load bullets fly out of the barrel, provides the highest breakdown action and hold speed on the entire line of motion of its flight. Gerlich work while lured everyone's attention, but even in Germany, in practice not applied enough. In Czechoslovakia in the late 30's HK Janacek took over the base "ultra-principle" Gerlich "has made anti-tank rifle caliber 15/11 mm. After the seizure of Czechoslovakia experienced data standards antitank guns into the hands of the invaders, but did not cause enthusiasm.

Because by 1940 the properties were improved armor, and the thickness of booking cars has increased significantly, had to resort to huge caliber. Caliber Barrel s.Pz.B-41 was in the breech — 28 mm in the muzzle — 20 mm, length 61.2 caliber. In the bore, there were two conical transition, in other words crimped shell half. The barrel was equipped with a muzzle brake active. In the huge breech had a horizontal slot wedge bolt. Anti-tank gun was supplied with a kind of gun carriage (like artillery) with swivel top machine. There were sliding frame with foldi
ng bipod and forged wheels with rubber tires. Barrel with breech bolt and slide in the guide cradle fixed in the sockets on the machine top trunnion. The top machine was connected to the low combat pin. Lack hoist facilitate and simplify design. To swing work was used a small flywheel. The elevation was up to +30 °, pointing across — up to ± 30 °. Rate was up to 30 shots per minute, which depended on the conditions of work and the fitness calculation. The gun was equipped with a cover as a double shield. In his left hand was placed on top of the cut to the desired aim. Optical sight handed down to the left, also had a double shield. The total mass of the system was equal to 227 kilograms, in other words two times less than that of 37-mm anti-tank gun Cancer 35/36 whose weight was 450 pounds. "The heavy anti-tank gun" was purely positional — that is placed on a specially prepared positions — anti-tank weapons. But the emergence of the guns at the front was one of the reasons that led the Russian tank designers to again raise the issue of improving body armor. Russian troops in January 1944 took the other option s.Pz.B-41, who had a weight of 118 kilograms. It was produced by introducing a set of configurations — odnohobotovy lower machine was equipped with a tubular frame and the guides of stamped, installs a small wheel-Quilted. Gun carriage provides radial traverse (with the highest elevation angle — in the sector 30 °), and the vertical — from -5 to +45 °. Height band of the lamp was 241 to 280 mm. s.Pz.B-41 carrying disassembled into 5 parts. The main board is often filmed for the best mask.

For s.Pz.B-41 made a unitary cartridge having an armor-piercing projectile fragmentation 28cm Pzgr.41 (weight 125 g) with an iron armor-piercing core and duralumin sharp cap (Gerlich such core bullets had not). General construction of the shell corresponded patent Gerlich 1935 — with 2 belts conical-shaped skirts and rear undercut them. In the front there was a girdle 5 holes, which helped Tipo symmetrical compression girdle. 153-gram charge pyroxylin powder (tubular grain) progressive combustion provides the initial velocity of the projectile is equal to 1370 meters per second (in other words, about 4M — and now "hypersonic" anti-tank missiles listed as a promising means). Chuck had bottled brass sleeve length of 190 mm with a prominent rim, primer — C/13 nA. The total length of the projectile was 221 mm. Broneprobivaemost s.Pz.B-41 with the introduction of armor-piercing projectile was at a distance of 100 meters — 75 mm, 200 meters — 50 mm, 370 meters — 45 mm, 450 meters — 40 mm. So Makarov, with the smallest size and weight of the "heavy anti-tank gun" in the fight against armored vehicles was comparable to the 37-mm anti-tank gun. Since the "heavy anti-tank gun" in fact, was an infantry weapon, to enhance the abilities was created fragmentation grenade cartridge with 28cm Spgr.41 (mass grenades — 93 grams of the explosive charge — 5 g) with a propelling charge of 139 grams, the head fuse instant action. The liner and the total length of the match s.Pz.B-41. The cartridges are sealed by iron in trays of 12 pieces.

Not counting 28/20-millimetrovogo anti-tank rifle in Germany have produced anti-tank guns, "conical" bore — 42/22-millimetrovaya 4,2 cm Pak.41 (weight — 560 pounds) and 75/55-millimetrovaya 7,5 cm Pak.41 (weight from 1348 to 1880 pounds). These guns have good ballistic performance, but the creation of systems having a "tapered" barrel was costly and technologically difficult — a property that was awkward for the front edge of anti-tank guns. Also, "conical" trunk has a low survivability. Piercing projectiles same tasks solved with great success even with the 'traditional' trunks. The adoption of the coil-piercing shells to regular 37-mm and 50-mm anti-tank guns gave a greater effect because in 1943 the issue of guns with a conical barrel finished. In those years, the construction work of sub-caliber bullets failed, because anti-tank rifles have not received similar cartridges.

Before the war, the British army for service received anti-magazine- gun, designed by Captain Boyce, who held the post of assistant chief of Bureau of Plant "Royal Small Arms" in g.Enfild in 1934. Initially, the gun was being developed for 12.7-mm cartridge "Vickers" for mnogokalibernogo machine gun. Development conducted in the framework of activities of the Committee of English light weapons under the code "Stanciu» (Stanchion — «backup"). Anti-tank gun after adopting received the designation Mkl «Boyce." His caliber was increased to 13.39 mm (".550"). The cartridge was equipped with armor-piercing bullet with an iron core. Beginning in 1939 armed with every infantry platoon had to stand one anti-tank gun. Since the end of 1936 gun "Boyce" produced by the plant «BSA» («Birmingham Small Arms") in Birmingham. First order completed until early 1940, then immediately entered a new order. It has been reported that also participated in the production of "Royal Small Arms" and "Boys."

Consisted of anti-tank gun barrel and the receiver, the frame has a roll-away bipod, shop shutter recoil pad. The bore was 7 right-rifling. The box-shaped muzzle brake was attached to the muzzle of the barrel. Trunk in the receiver was attached to the thread. When fired, they are somewhat shifted along the frame, and the suction part of the recoil energy, compressing the spring shock absorber — a combination of "elastic mast" and the muzzle brake, taken from artillery systems, reduced the effect of the impact and prevented bouncing guns under the impact. The barrel is locked happen when you turn the longitudinal sliding bolt having a front portion 6 lugs arranged in three rows and curved handle. At the gate was built drummer equipped with a ring, spiral-shaped mainspring, a reflector and a non-rotating extractor. Holding the ring, the drummer was on the safety or combat descent. The striker was attached to the hammer coupling.

Anti-tank gun had a firing mechanism of a simple type. On the left side of the receiver was a safety lever, the locking drummer in the rear position. Lessons to left Sights include fly and sight with diopter setting 300, 500 meters, or only 300 meters. The box was placed on top of single-row store. The pistol grip was leaning forward. The iron back plate had a rubber bumper on the left side of the "cheek", a pen, it is located oiler. Bipod T-shaped. Also met with anti-tank guns "bipedal" folding bipod. The gun "Boyce" carried by one soldier behind on the rifle strap.

For the first time anti-tank gun "Boyce" in fighting the criteria applied are not English, and Finnish Army — England hastily put these guns in Finland during the Soviet-Finnish War of 39-40 years. In 1940, a 13.39-millimeter bullet entered the cartridge with a plastic driving bands and tungsten core, but they are used is limited — perhaps due to high production costs. Orders for the Army anti-tank guns "Boys" were issued to January 1942 — by this time guns were ineffective. But in 1942, released a model of the "Boys» Mkll having a short barrel and is intended for Airborne. In the same year, made a pre-production model of the "Boys" which has a conical bore of the barrel (may have an impact of Polish, German), but in a series she did not go. Total produced about 69 thousand "Boys", part of which has been put Canada and the United States.

In place of anti-tank rifles "Boys" in the British army were armed with rocket-propelled grenades taken «PIAT». "Boys" were also broadcast in the Polish part of the English army. About 1.1 million units. put the Lend-Lease of the Red Army, but they di
d not get the success. At the same time, German troops captured "Boyce" got very willingly. Need to see that who moved to the United Kingdom Czech designer Janacek during the war, has developed a tapered choke tube "Littlejohn" for firing a small-caliber anti-tank guns and staff magazine rifles special armor-piercing bullets and shells, but in fights similar device was used.

At first the war in the United States conducted tests 15.2-mm anti-tank gun has an initial velocity of 1,100 feet per second, later 14.5-millimeter anti-tank gun, which was offered to install a telescopic sight. During the Korean War have experienced — though unsuccessfully — to 12.7-mm anti-tank gun.

Now make out zabugornye anti-tank guns "minimal artillery" caliber. Languid 20-mm self-loading anti-tank guns were in the armies of Germany, Finland, Hungary, the land of the rising sun.

The Swiss 20-millimeter semi-automatic anti-tank gun "Oerlikon" used the Wehrmacht made on the basis of "anti-gun" of the same company. In automation used bulky recoil free slide. The gun had a magazine-fed (for the base has been taken over as a German scheme guns Becker). Weight antitank equated 33 kilograms (making it the lightest in its class), the length of a gun was — 1450 mm with a barrel length — 750 mm. The initial speed of 187-gram "bullets" — 555 meters per second, armor by 130 meters — 20 mm, 500-meters — 14 mm. Apart from armor-piercing ammunition used in lighting, incendiary and high-explosive shells — ammunition borrowed from the gun.

Japanese anti-tank gun "type 97" (in other words, the model 1937 — according to the Japanese reckoning it was in 2597, "from the foundation of the Empire" is also understood as anti-tank gun "Kyyana Shiki") developed on the basis of aircraft automatic gun. It has been developed under the cartridge "type 97» (20×124), who had two options — to fragmentation and armor-piercing projectiles.

Anti-tank gun consisted of the barrel, receiver, mobile system (slide, wedge gate) chock devices and machine-shop basket. In automation principle was applied powder combustion gases. In the middle of the bottom of the barrel there was a vapor chamber and the regulator to 5 positions. The camera tube was connected to a gas distributor. Was mounted on the trunk of the active-reactive muzzle brake, made in the form of a cylindrical box having a longitudinal slit. Connect barrel and receiver — rusks. The vertically movable wedge lock barrel bolt. The relevant feature of the system — the bolt carrier with 2 back-action spring and plunger. Handle reloading located at the top right and carried separately. In the receiver located slide catch, which was turned down by joining the store. An anti-rifle had udarnikovy hammer mechanism. The drummer gets a boost from the front bolt crossing a locking wedge crotch part. Trigger, the trigger box collected in the machine included: sear, sear, trigger, pull the trigger and the disconnector. Safety lever, located at the rear of the receiver, blocked the firing pin in the top position. Barrel and the receiver moved along the machine-cradle on a length of 150 mm. At its trough placed recoil mechanism, which included two coaxial spring roll forward and roll back air brake. Anti-tank gun was capable of conducting fire bursts (because it is in our press from time to time called "heavy machine gun"), but had a very low accuracy.

Sights — stand with sight and front sight — were brought to the mounts on the left. Were attached to the mounting cradle. Was mounted on top of a box store. The cartridges were placed in a staggered manner. Shop window closing cap. Were attached to the cradle stock, having a rubber shock absorber, shoulder strap and "cheek", the handle under the left arm and pistol grip. Reliance is placed back support and adjustable bipod, adjustable in height. Their position was fixed with locking sleeves. In the cradle had two jacks for connecting the "two-horned" tubular handles carrying — front and back. Using the handle anti-tank gun could be carried by 3 or 4-fighters. For anti-tank rifle was designed removable shield, but it did not actually use. The gun was fairly stable at the position, but the fire was difficult maneuver on the front. Cumbersome "Type 97" usually used in defense. Calculations preferred to work on in advance prepared positions with sighted borders and points. Two anti-tank gun was in the machine-gun company Infantry Battalion. Infantry Division had the least 72 anti-tank rifle — not enough for effective action against the enemy, has a huge number of armored vehicles.

Russian tankers faced with Japanese antitank rifles "Type 97" in 1939 on Halkin-Gol. Then their limited use in the Pacific Islands. There they showed good results in the fight against South American amphibious armored personnel carriers and light armored vehicles, but against medium tanks were ineffective. Anti-tank gun "type 97" was intended to make up for the shortage of antitank artillery, but he will be released in a relatively small amount, because it did not solve the intended target. Developed by the end of the war grenade launchers and anti-tank guns Japanese industry is put on the creation of no time.

System of the Finnish anti-tank rifle L-39 developed by Aimo Lahti. For the base of it was taken private aircraft gun reference in 1938 when all of this was reinforced cartridge (20×138). Automatic L-39 was also built on a system of powder combustion gases. Consisted of anti-tank gun barrel having a gas chamber, a thin perforated muzzle brake and woody cover, the trigger frame, receiver, trigger, hammer and locking devices, sights, shopping, butt plate and bipod. The gas chamber — closed, with the guide tube and the gas regulator (4 positions). The barrel and receiver connected by a nut. The breech-block to the receiver — vertically moving wedge. Unlocking and locking the bolt lugs performed, which was performed separately from the piston rod. percussionist with the mainspring, rammer and extractor mounted in the bolt. Swinging handle reloading is to the right.

A distinctive feature of the Finnish anti-tank guns were two trigger: the rear — for keeping the moving cocked, front — to keep the striker. Before the pistol handle, inside the trigger guard were two trigger: the bottom — for the rear trigger, the top — to the front. Safety lever located on the left side of the receiver in the front position blocked the front sear trigger. Alternate first descent of the moving system, and later drummer prevents accidental shot, and did not allow to produce very spirited shooting. Sights included the sector sight placed on the receiver and the front sight on the barrel. The box store sector, which has a huge capacity for anti-tank guns and ammunition staggered arrangement was mounted on top. On the march shop window locked up a flap. Recoil pad equipped with a height-adjustable rubber shoulder rest and wood plate — "cheek". At a campaign-fry separated from the bipod rifle was also equipped with skis. In the bipod assembly went a little spring balancing mechanism. Forward-facing stops can be mounted with screws on the bipod — they are anti-tank gun was based on the mound, and the parapet of the trench similar. The design of the anti-tank rifle is seen north of specific accounting criteria of operation — at least in the receiver holes, plate shop window, on the bipod skiing, woody cover, located barrel, good for carrying in cold weather.

Anti-tank gun from 1940 to 1944 year were produced by state VKT. In all there were 1,906 anti-tank guns. Since 1944, L-39 run to the category of "support" a
ir defense systems — a fate realized many anti-tank guns. In the Soviet Union were also made to make the sample more massive anti-tank guns "gun" calibers, but that's the way of "consolidation" has been futile. In 1945, AA Blagonravov great Russian expert gunsmith, wrote: "In the current form of anti-tank guns have exhausted their ability to … The most massive (20-mm PEC), which are on the verge of developing into artillery systems are not able to fight well with modern self-propelled guns and tanks languid. "

Note that this conclusion applies to this type of weapon, as anti-tank weapons. After the war the "niche" of anti-tank guns this plan firmly occupied rocket-propelled grenades — they are not a case called the "anti-tank rocket-propelled guns." But in the 80's revival began a typical anti-tank guns in the form of mnogokalibernyh sniper rifles — during WWII anti-tank guns tried to equip optical sights for use on large distances. Mnogokalibernye rifles of this type are provided either to engage manpower for significant distance, or to assault action (short-barreled model), or to engage point targets (reconnaissance, command and communication protected firing points, antennas, satellite communications, radar, light armored vehicles, tf , drones, hovering helicopters). The latter type, which is more close to the same anti-guns, include the South American 12.7 milimmetrovye M82 A1 and A2 "Barrett" M88 "McMillan", Hungarian imllimetrovuyu 12.7 "Cheetah" M1 and 14.5-millimeter "Cheetah "M3, Russian 12.7-mm and 96-SALT KSVK, Austrian 15-millimeter IWS-2000, the South African 20-mm NTW. In this type of small guns are frequently used approaches, anti-tank guns recycled — the cartridges are borrowed from mnogokalibernyh aircraft cannons or machine guns, or specially designed, some structural features similar to anti-gun second world war. Exciting to do during the second world war trials use anti-tank guns as weapons to light armored vehicles. So for example, in 1942, 14.5-mm anti-tank gun instead of machine guns installed on the lot of light BA-64 (USSR), the German 28/20-millimetrovoe s.Pz.B-41 was mounted on a light armored car biaxial SdKfz 221 ( "Horch"), a 20 mm 36M "Solothurn" — in light of "Turan I», the English-mm 13.39 "Boys" — a tank Mk VIC, an armored car, "Humber MkIII" and "Morris-I», tracked armored personnel carriers " Universal "narrow-gauge light armored trains territorial defense. BTR "Universal" kitted anti-tank rifle "Boys" was delivered in Russian Alliance under Lend-Lease.

Almost all the pre-war teachings and charters recommended concentrated machine-gun and rifle fire on the tanks — the experience of local wars of the 20s and the First World War — usually at the viewing slits with distances up to 300 meters. Such a fire actually played purely instrumental. During the Second World War the Red Army abandoned the allocation in the defense of shooters with rifles and machine guns to shoot at groups of tanks — small cannon was to first against the manpower and fire tanks do not want to give effect even with armor-piercing bullets. The available rifle cartridges with ordinary caliber armor-piercing bullets pierced the armor up to 10 mm at a distance of 150-200 meters and can be used only for shooting at shelters or light armored vehicles. For example, U.S. Army General Ridgway recalled how he managed to incite the Bulge from 15 yards with a rifle, "Springfield" armor-piercing bullet slight German self-propelled guns until thrower, who was nearby, fiddling with the "bazooka" clogged with snow.

Source disk imaging:
The magazine "Arms and equipment" Simon Fedoseyev "Infantry against tanks"

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