GZ — Let's try it …
GK How did you get in the Navy? As you started the war?
GZ — I was born in 1920 in Odessa. After a ten-year school enrolled in the medical institute, but the famous "Voroshilov" order, interrupted my studies. In 1939 I was drafted and sent to the Navy in the training squad for training radio operators. The Navy were selected to form more than eight classes tall and healthy men, and only the Komsomol. In "Lad Camp" I studied for six months and was oriented to serve on a destroyer, "Courageous." It was a new destroyer, as it states the seventh project, a handsome ship. Well, our commander, the pride of the fleet, Jora Godlewski was a match for his own ship.
20 June 40 the first year, in the evening, we came back with naval exercises and anchored in the South Bay. Almost the entire crew, on Saturday, came in on furlough in store, and I — Duhovner lieutenant — commander signalers, ask him to help with the repair radios. Already in the evening the crew returned to the ship, was declared a total battle! anxiety. At three o'clock in the morning bombarded Sevastopol. Since the war began for me.
GK — You voluntarily went to the saved objects in the Marines. As the selection was carried out in these parts, there are any aspects?
GZ — In late July, the Romanians broke through the southern front and came to Odessa. The ships, announced a set of volunteers in the Marines to help Odessa.
From each warhead took less than 3 people. Just send gunners have allowed 10 sailors. Served on the ship about 30 Odessa and all claimed to send them to the protection of his native town. Our commander Godlewski looked at the list of willing and said, — "And I who will wage war", and us, as he put it — "Bindyuzhnik" — let alone half. The crew before the war was staffed only by two-thirds.
They put us in the newest form, held a farewell meeting, we hugged each other about their comrades and went to the saved. Our room on the ship called up from the occupied supplies. All written off saving value loaded on transports and a day or two we were in Odessa. And my ship, was one of the few survivors of the Black Sea Fleet surface ships during the war. Twice already fighting in Sevastopol, beheld how much is my home destroyer at the quay wall, but did not get to see the guys.
We gathered in Sevastopol four thousand sailors — volunteers. Collected "Every little helps" rifles — "trehlineek" enough only for about 50% of sailors. They promised to issue a gun on arrival at the front, but evidently forgotten. Many have already received an instrument from the hands of the wounded or taken from their victims. So it was … Parents wanted to drop by and visit — do not let go … Came under Illichevsk. Title us proud — "The First Marine Regiment." Own machine guns and cannons we did not have. I remember that we were sent to the machine gunners of the 25th Division Chapaevsky. We have over them at first joked, they say, the infantry, "Lapotnikov."
Began to wage war. Until now, I remember my first attack. Went thick chains, shoulder-to-shoulder, full-length. Sailor in the second circuit plays the harmonica. Before the war had seen the movie "We Are from Kronstadt." Romanian artillery pounding on us, as we go, as if on parade. They were later joined by the arrow and the machine gunners. Near my comrades fall dead.
During the day before was the rain, gryazyuka circle. Would need to fall to the ground, and the newest form sorry to soil. That's what was conceived in these moment … Bane then seemed mysterious.
After a week of fighting, in command of the regiment became famous navigator civilian war, the last revolutionary sailor, Colonel Yakov Osipov. He was walking in the dark Kuban cap, with a Mauser, as if still in the yard nineteenth year. This was a man who had no small authority and the power of persuasion. . He knew how to say the right words to Mariners before the fight. That after his farewell was not terrible, neither hell nor the devil. Commissioners and agitators he had to learn how to inspire the masses of sailors, although Osipov was an outstanding orator. Will come to us, just utter — "Big Brother! Homeland expect you to exploit! "And we are ready for all the native command to cut the throats. Respected and adored him …
We have fought wars against Romania. Germans near Odessa almost was not!. At least, in our defense sector was only one fight with the Germans, and they taught us how to immediately make war. And Romanians are not the bravest warriors. "Mamalyzhniki," as we read as. Although they were able to shoot accurately, here you need to give them a tribute.
Rounds we had not much, grenades were given two pieces of secession, indicating save them, and spend only when we go enemy tanks. Every day, on his own blood, we were taught to make war on land. No one came and talked to him like digging in and so on … We stood around rybkolhoz "Sechavka." So we spent three nights in a row, walking in bayonet attack. Imagine — NIGHT MODE, no shots were selected to the Romanian positions and "in arms", a dark pea jackets, with a never-ending, "Look out." Here and gave our name — the "Black Death." We were walking and flaunting their own courage, their disregard of death. And it was not a manifestation of pizhonstvo and immaturity. We walked breathe consciously for their country. Everyone came to economize the voluntary, knowing full well what awaits him in the future … As we strolled bayonet not only because of shortages of ammunition, just then we wage war on another did not know how. In the second 40 the Germans had us at a distance of bayonet throwing occasionally come near. Then came among us ordinary phrase — "I looked into the eyes of Germans." This means that you participated in a bayonet charge. When the two sides came together in battle, came out by itself, that each chose a goal, and what was then the second — that before shlestnutsya — all stopped and looked with hatred in the face of enemies. We are on the Germans, the Germans were on us. They stood facing each other … Who took my eyes, count already dead … There is another point, not everyone is capable of, even the enemy, bayonet stab …
Was near Odessa fighter last longshoreman Jacob Begelfer, healthy young man with his fists pudovymi lived with me in the same street, but was a few years older than me. He is one melee stabbed with a bayonet and killed butt and arms — 20 two Romanian soldier. Punch killed.
And similar episodes in the defense of the town was not uncommon. And the Germans this "number" does not pass easily from time to time they "kept the bayonet" worthy.
And so it went ahead, "black targets" in the open field. They brought us army uniforms, all refused to wear. Considered the gesture quartermasters nearly infringe on the honor of the fleet … And in Sevastopol, many dressed in protective clothing, vest only be seen, but the attack peakless cap dressed. There was another war … Tank attack I distinctly remember only one. Sailor our battalion Chmielewski knocked Molotov consistency two tanks.
In late August, I was shell-shocked, brought in city, in the hospital, two week lay back and the front, under Beryozovka. And again — "Look out!" … In late September, the former naval
signalers collected and sent to the defense of the town. Ruthlessness towards the prisoners was not on either of the opposing sides. I remember that on the shelf area, in agreement! with Romanians were stopped fighting act to collect from the battlefield dead and the wounded. Romanian officer came to the white flag, 5 minutes was the headquarters of all. Bayonet in the ground for a whole day. And no special person with a firing squad sent to us. In general, we do not believe that Odessa will pass when they received an order to quit the position and loaded onto ships, many do not doumevali why we hand-Odessa?, The city could still delay. Germans from planes bombarded the city with leaflets with the text — "We have come to take revenge Stalinist commissars and the Jews." Many left for the evacuation, thought that everything would …
Walked to the harbor, I ran into the home yard. Ancestors had already been evacuated. We lived in the house of an old Jewish tailor, naidobreyshey hearted man. Stopped by to say goodbye to him, and he cries … After the war, learned that for the next day after the fall of the town, intoxicated by his neighbors! in our backyard hung on the tree! … We in the anti-aircraft company of three men deserted, local inhabitant. Before boarding the ship, all lined up and read the order that the three deserters were sentenced to death in absentia. In 1947, I go on crutches in Odessa, there are cases of the 1st of them. I said to him — "Peter, are you out in the open on the town go? For you also sentenced in absentia shooting! ". In response, I hear — "Do not worry, I'm in the fourth year of 40, in the area of guilt redeemed." That such from time to time come across sailors …
Loaded us on October 15 in the holds of the ship "Armenia" and we came to the Crimea.
GK — As you began the defense of Sevastopol? What was happening at the front during the first storm of the town?
GZ — If I start to tell the truth about the events illumine 1941 in Crimea, then there are people who utter that I denigrate the heroes and water them a cherished memory mucky … Either let it remain at the memoir "historical truth"? . I really do not want to talk about all …
At the end of October, we formed a battalion of marines, put on a train, able to take to Simferopol. Issued ammunition and drove in the direction of Jankoi. All of the "Tartar" division, defending the isthmus, fled in panic. We could not do anything with their vintovochkami with 30 bullets at his brother. One belief in the victory of the Germans can not stop … There was a savage case. Enjoying the steppe is our tank KV. 're Standing on a smoke, a bit of our tank. The tank arrived and stood at 50 meters, and we just started to shoot! The Germans were sitting in it!. The tank they captured on the isthmus as a "trophy", and immediately adapted to the cause … Man 100 of our lay there forever remain …
In the naked steppe bombarded us fiercely. The infantry on the flanks did not even try to catch the defensive lines and give battle. Where was our artillery in these days of, the Lord alone knows. And we began to retreat. We walked along the strip Karasu-Bazar, Simeiz, Yalta. Constantly Germans counter-attacked, but was confused by this bit.
Our army had just defeated the German air force … Maritime Army after the bombing strshnoy divided, some of the troops went to Theodosius, and some — retreated to Sevastopol. Then I lost sight of his own friend Fima Mitelman, he went in the direction of Kerch. After the war, he met him. The fact that Fime've experienced in the Kerch landing heavily even utter. This landing was so bloody and disastrous … . Met in Yalta, during the retreat, the guys from "Osipovskii" regiment. Osipov told how he died. The Germans captured our field hospital, which served as a military doctor, the beloved lady Osipova. He gathered 70 volunteers and doctors went to beat the Germans. All of this group was missing, none of them came back. Interestingly, in the memoirs written about the fate of Osipova?
We got to the Massandra. Running infantry guard interrupted wine warehouses, composed of the soldiers, and began an orgy. All intoxicated people drowned in wine, shooting at each other. Go to the front of trucks with fuel and ammunition. Behold the drivers that rob stores and too-Go!
Boxes of ammunition and barrels of gasoline povybrasyvayut of the body, and instead they are loaded with wine barrels! What is here already defense Crimea …
All this happened before my eyes. I look at some of our sailors, too, "pipes are burning." I was komsorgom company. Came out with a political officer to the people, "it moved" about consciousness and military duty. Worked.
On the outskirts of town we got up tightly. I remember as a battleship shoot almost one hundred percent of the crews and threw us into the trenches to support. Then came Marine Brigade from Novorossiysk. We are, first of November, was put on the machine and threw close the gap in the defense.
But the "famous" feat of political instructor Filchenkova I do not remember! You'll have to forgive me, but I was under the Duvankov on November 7th, and our company was immediately behind the 18th battalion of marines under the command of Chernousova. There was not German tanks! The tanks were in the position of the composite battalion of cadets school of coastal defense of the Lenin Komsomol. The battalion took position near Bakhchisarai. Find in Russia 2-Roytburga former cadets and Israilevich. They are still alive. Let say to you, as 1200 sailors of the battalion training rifles heroically closed chest Sevastopol, and almost all there laid down their lives.
So in general, if such a case was that 5 people shot down 10 tanks, the same day, the whole Sevastopol would read about heroes … We have a politotdeltsev and newspaper men was more than enough.
During the first coming to town, I certainly did not kill any of the 1st German. Shot at them, hitting beheld, but it certainly can not tell the enemy wounded or killed. We were standing in the second line of defense. In the middle of November away from the personnel of the former gunners, signalers and gunners and sent to Sevastopol on the formation of the coastal and anti-aircraft defense of the GRA (the Sevastopol defensive area). Was the order of the commander of the fleet of professionals use only in accordance with accounting military specialty. I got the platoon due antiaircraft searchlight company.
GK For his role in the fighting during the December assault on Sevastopol You have been awarded the medal "For Courage". Medal 40 of the first year is worth, then the merits of giving ordinary soldiers and sailors are very rare. For that you get a medal?
GZ — In late December, the Germans captured Mekenzievy mountains and came very tightly to the anti-aircraft battery number 365 under the command of Vorobyov. The Germans called this battery — "Fort Stalin." Creates an intimidating situation, and for the salvation of the battery was formed composite detachment of sailors, volunteers, and I got that. Day or two, we struggled with the German infantry on the approaches to the battery. Dogfight in the wire fences of stabbing … Warmly there was a big part of our unit were killed … To me, there bayonet proporol shoulder, but I did not go to medical battalion. Who of us were alive, in the evening, on December 31, returned to their units. The medal was given for eight slain by me personally Germans, including the officer's pistol "Parabellum" which I took as a trophy. . In April, 40 of the second summoned to the headquarters of the sector and the Commissioner Axelrod gave merit.
Between January 40 and the second end of May stood up front near the city. Germans no longer attempts to solve large-scale advent. On the front lines fighting last
ed, but we beregoviki and anti-aircraft gunners, carried only constant loss of air raids. In the infantry did not take us more. Speak out so that my active role in the defense of Sevastopol ended, more than I am with a rifle on the front line is not waging war.
GK How effective was the activity prozhektoristov? What was the structure of your company?
GZ — I was on the supervisory Fri, as a communicator, telephonist, 3 km away from the location of spotlights and about a kilometer away from the front of the strip. Every 30 minutes, we were required to report — "Sector-so that planes do not watch." If you find the approach of German aviation, immediately reported to the command post, spotlights started their work, catching its rays nemtskie planes and blinding pilots. Ack we were always grateful. All nine spotlights companies aligned in back of a truck. The Germans first tried to put our spotlight, and later — the anti-aircraft gunners. We have enough work, night raids were part of our everyday lives Sebastopol. So daytime bombing is more than enough for our share … We suffered the loss of all times, and they were bolshennymi. Our work was appropriate. Here is an example. On the last day of the outgoing 40 of the first year, when we came back from the battle to "Vorobiev" battery, our comrades have made us a gift. With 2 floodlights blinded German bomber pilot and he hit the ground! Even the anti-aircraft gunners did not have time to open fire on the Germans. In the company had about 100 people, half of the personnel — former Black Sea Fleet sailors, once written off from the ships in the Marines. Other typed of the rifle units and supplies. 70% of the personnel of the company were Odessa. In general in the defense of Sevastopol was attended by many thousands of Odessa. After all, Maritime Army was formed and replenished in the main inhabitants of Odessa. Roth was located in the North Bay. He commanded a company of our Lieutenant Nikolay Simanovskiy, the last of the Baku Electric Theater Ahundova.
Non-party members in the company were not, were all Communists and Komsomol members. I joined the party in March 1942.
All the men were patriots own country. When the Germans went to the third coming at Sevastopol in the company held the party and Komsomol meeting, which unanimously decided — "We will die in the battle, but the city will not give the enemy!". This was our sincere attitude and combat impulse.
GK As fed in the besieged town? How was equipped sailors life?
GZ — They fed us as acceptable by the naval normal. Crackers were always dark, even when the event of disruption of food deliveries to the city. From time to time we fall to canned meat. But to be honest, the feeling of hunger was our constant companion. Half of the company walked in pea jackets and naval uniform, the other in a soldier's uniform. Winter 40 the first year was very cool, we really feel cold. And life was simple, the war is still the same …
GK — Third German coming, tragic for the defenders of the town. How it started for you? How do you survive in the Sevastopol hell?
GZ — After passing the Kerch Peninsula, we all knew that soon, the Germans, the whole force of his own will collapse at Sevastopol since the first of June, the Germans bombarded non-stop day and night and fired from guns languid, and somewhere on the 5th June we already own "Stalin's Falcons" in the air almost beheld. The sky was dark by German aircraft. I remember their reports in those bitter days are — "Sector 18 — see 100 German aircraft, sector 22 — see 70 German bombers." They have simply leveled with the ground. From these people came down with the bombing of the brain, literally. It was getting scary. The whole city was burning from the fire fires horizon drowned in smoke. Those few of our men, who was wounded in the bombing in the first days of the assault, "pulled out a happy lotoreyny ticket", they had to evacuate, and the 1st of them surviving — I met after the war. From the air, fell leaflets reason or printed on huge sheets of paper reddish, with a call — "kill the Jews, and political officers to surrender." Across the front of the band Germans established gromkogovoritelnye installation, and in the morning until the evening read out lists of soldiers caught them in captivity, showing the military units of these poor fellows. And then the soldiers were taken prisoner induced to change. Invited to the prisoner. Mole "is vodka, herring, not collective, life," raspberry ", ran across to the Germans guys, otherwise all of you in the sea, as the blind kitten overflow" … In Simferopol, public houses were built for the Germans. Girls working there voluntarily! So the Germans, were brought to the forefront of the prostitutes, and those "howling" soulful voice over the loudspeaker — "Vanya, come to me, I need you alive." And harmonica playing … In many such propaganda acted depressing.
Around June 15, our defense has tenaciously held. And later … Artillery stopped, ran out of ammunition. A German gun beating and beating. We do not have tanks, and the Germans already had quite a few tanks … I beheld the funnel from the German shells up to 15 meters deep … Many were demoralized and spiritually kinked. Where to find the words to tell what was going on! When attacked Minutka rare lull, we could no longer believe that we will not bombard and shell! And then again — the bomb, bomb … Our ear ear seemed about to burst. Head "torn" from the howling of German bombs … When the Germans captured 17 June 30-pack and then went to the Inkerman and to mount a breather-third the defense sector, it has become clear that this is the end. We freely shelled with mortars and machine-gun fire, even getting out. All of our anti-aircraft guns at that time were destroyed. In the evening on June 19th, we were ordered to leave the North side and go to the South Bay, where the half-formed infantry brigade of the rear parts of the fleet. There were still building the Crimean War. We have one commander was drunk and refused to go along with all. Afraid to get out of the dugout. Simanovskiy just spat in his direction … Our company was positioned in the building of the former workshops of the fleet, began bombardment and I was wounded by shrapnel eight mines.
The boys carried me on plaschpalatke. I was in a hospital in the Rush-bay, which was in the former seaplane hangar BSF. A friend of mine Isaac Litinetskoy hit the Inkerman. After the war, I worked with him in the same clinic, and that's what he was talking about his own share of hospital. He was expelled in the 47th Medical Battalion in Inkerman galleries "Shampanvinstroya." What he beheld there, can be compared only with the underworld. Without exaggeration — hell … Thousands mutilated the wounded soldiers in the shadows … The noise is terrible. People die in agony feral, stench, cries, groans, curses … On one bed lozhili of three. Indescribable stench. And there is no hope. There is no water, gave a day over a bottle of champagne with Inkerman wine warehouses and two biscuit jar of canned fish to the wounded three … . He was among the last to the wounded, who had time to load up on favorite "Tashkent". Seriously wounded usually shipped in the holds of ships, and possessed slightly wounded on the deck. Someone asked the sailors from the crew, from which they say is the order placing the wounded? The answer was as clear — "If the ship overflow, languorous still does not resurface, and slightly injured — at least at the board can take hold and survive afloat until the arrival of aid." These are the realities … I shattered hip and pelvis, I went to the brain from the unbearable pain, and pain medication in the hospital ran out of … A couple of times I have inspected the chief surgeon of the Maritime Army Valentin Solomonovich Coffman, who
came to consult with the Inkerman. He said that if I had the surgery in the criteria of the medical battalion, — I will not survive. On June 26, bypassing the doctor ordered me to prepare for evacuation. On the territory of the former hangars, lay thousands of the wounded on stretchers. Came favorite "Tashkent", approached the wall, replenishment arrived on the ship descended on the store, and soon began loading the wounded. But once her, the Germans began to bombard the bay. After about half an hour, "Tashkent" cut off "ends" and went into the sea. We are lying in the back of the mother alone, and some — the whole damned pure white light, suffering from its own weakness and bitter fate … Our driver, or died in the bombing, or run away. And one of us even crawl, no one can! Again began to bombard, the 1st of the wounded from the plane touched queue. It is up to the death Minutka was unconscious, so his death was, like say — easy. Cry for help, ran two sailors, ask — "Who threw the little brother you? '. Some of them sat in the driver's seat, the car would not start for a long time. Drove back to the hospital, rescued us from certain death. Places inside was gone. Put outside, next to the same ill-fated hundred square meters. No one came to us, some have even wound bandaged. Twice was a powerful bombing. The bombs bursting in the midst of people, only a stretcher in the air together with the people soared … And later shelling … In a nightmare not uzreesh itself! Of the wounded who could not walk — trudged toward the sea. And we … June 29, I saw the rows of stretchers is Coffman and gives an indication of which of the evacuation of the wounded to send. He came up to me and immediately gave the order to send. Who was the living spirit sprang immediately. Neuzh that our ships broke in Sevastopol?? Came trucks, 20 cars here and there. But we were lucky not to the port and to the airport in Simferopol, in the southern sector of the defense. Aerodrome of Kulikovo already "ordered a long time to live." While traveling, we were again bombarded. And again, I was lying on a stretcher, and looked at the sky, covered by German dive bombers and expecting every moment when I break off a bomb in tatters … We got to the airport in Kherson and my heart ripped from strshnoy anguish and despair. At the flying field was a myriad of the wounded!. They lay there for some number of days without water, food, and without any medical help … All … Amba … Airfield of days, methodically bombard the German artillery. Dead bodies will be removed to the side, the funnel on the runway ground grist. Here and lay expecting death of his own. From the wounds of my white worms crawl out … I was clutching in his hand a small bag with documents, a medal and a trophy "parabellum" inside. He knew that if the Germans break through to Chersonesos have to shoot — a Jew in captivity do not survive … And the strength to live was gone. There was apathy when he feel about his life with complete indifference. Intoxicated by field medics roam nearby, on hersoneskih warehouses — also all drink, waiting for the inevitable disastrous outcome. Political instructor-pilot, took place between the rows of stretchers and sonorous voice — "Guys hold on! Homeland us not give up! "… Some believed it to own the last minute. Next to me, comrade died, so I covered his jackets … Brother gave his own moorings in the last berth. I do not wish at this time to continue to talk about these days are slightly bitter … Let's take the time to …
GK How you managed to escape from the besieged town?
GZ — Took out the wounded only two squadrons of transport "Douglas" from the regiment GVF. Flew NIGHT MODE. The plane could not take on board people on May 20. The pilots were on the field, and next to them were young men — the Armenians, from the battalion BAO. The pilot who was pointing to the plane. How many thousands of eyes with hope and pain of looking at the pilots … For you do not realize … They have already passed by me, all of a sudden the pilot turned around and says, showing me his hand — "That this sailor in a striped vest, take away. Yeah, that's it. " Neuzh it me? When I was carried to the plane, the young soldiers, porters were crying, they were already aware that they, the chance to escape from this hell no. Loaded into the plane 26 and the wounded lying still 10 people who could not walk. The plane could not gain altitude, thrown out of his drawers, stretchers, knapsacks, threw everything they could. Soared … Headed for Novorossiysk, flies to him, and the city — there is a battle with the German anti-aircraft "Junkers". Lucky, we did not get to. I lay near the place bortstrelka, he treated me bortpayka of chocolate. For the first time in the last 5 days I ate something. Gave him on memory and in gratitude gun. Korenovska landed in the village. Cossacks Sevastopol met with bread and salt. Us, was carried out of the plane, I was lying on the ground and wept silently. Voltage of all these horrible, violent, my last days of Sevastopol was unbearable … After the horror … Stanichniki undid us home. Washed us — Zapyataev overgrown, exhausted by hunger and wounds. A couple of months, they are Germans, just bread and salt perceived. Usvoy there anything! … They took us through Pyatigorsk later in Makhachkala, and from the sea in Baku. We are located in the Central Marine Infirmary. There I lay for more than one year. And those who took out a favorite "Tashkent" to the last flight in the main directed at the Marine base hospital in Tbilisi and in Sochi army hospital.
The first three weeks I spent in a trance, I was constantly pricked morphine. I operated on Dr. Frankenberg. They dragged me to pieces. One of them, weighing 73 grams, after the war, was taken to the Museum of the defense of Sevastopol, together with my Komsomol ticket.
Operated 5 times. The bones healed properly. Fistulas, osteomyelitis … At the end of the third year, 40 out of the hospital on crutches, arrived in Kazakhstan, where my ancestors were in the evacuation. Do you see the picture? Prior to discharge, the sailor — kaspiets, gave us formenku, at the time of shooting the photographer. I sent a card to parents, they say, it's okay. And when on crutches, to the house in which ancestors lived — hobbled, mother, litsezrev me a long sob … In autumn 40 fourth year, he returned to Odessa, recovered in medical school. After the war broke three more operations, and only in 1953 was able to walk without crutches or sticks. And our famous surgeon Sevastopol Coffman was shot Germans in captivity as a Jew. He could fly out of town, he had a boarding pass for one of the last aircraft leaving their Sevastopol. But he gave his medsanbatovskoy Kononova nurse who had a small child. She escaped, and surgeon of the first rank Dr. Coffman volunteered to stay with the wounded, separated by a tragic fate …
GK Anyone else survived from your company?
GZ — survived four odessite, not including me. But some of them were injured before the start of the third assault on Sevastopol, blew off his hand and he was evacuated from the town. Another wounded in the leg, was taken in the middle of June. This is Monia Schr and Boris Shpiner. On the 365th Battery was wounded our sailor Ilya Wolf and also has been taken on board in January 1942. 4th — Bob Kravets, a Ukrainian, was taken prisoner and survived. He never said the incident own captivity, and that he suffered in the German camps. After the war, we often gathered together, were sitting, drinking and remembering … Maybe someone else was able to be saved? .. I do not know. But I hope that at least someone else has survived.
Then remained alive and our commander Simanovskiy. While in Baku hospital, I asked the nurse to come to your local theater and look for my company commander's wife. She c
ame to my house, and I'm told that more June 20 her husband was alive, and had read it a long time about how we loved him and respected him. And at the end of August, she received a letter from him. In the last days of the defense of the town, my company was at war with sailors Brigade Gorpishchenko there Simanovskiy was wounded and miraculously taken out on a submarine. Put the wounded in the hold compartments, in which, before, was transported aviation fuel. Several people suffocated from the fumes of gasoline during the transition. Simanovskiy survived. He wrote as a political leader died heroically our company Trachtenberg Gryzin sailor, Lieutenant Roizman and our paramedic Sima Borscher and others dear to my heart the, unforgettable my comrades … Nicholas Simanovskiy continued to wage war in the infantry and was killed near Warsaw in January 1945 …
GK Tell me, if you knew the extent of the disaster Sebastopol? The injured sailors were discussing the tragedy, or silent?
GZ — Nothing we did not know. All thought that the boys were rescued in Sevastopol. After the first surgery, I was unconscious for a long time. It turns out that during this time of Sevastopol talked with the wounded and NKVD commissar hospital and asked again emphasize — asked for! Instead gave the order — not a good not to report information about the last days of the defense of the town. Until mid-August brought a few of Novorossiysk 10 s sailors rescued by ships and submarines in early July. From these we learn the truth about the agony of Sevastopol garrison … It was terribly painful and frightening to think that all my friends were killed or taken prisoner. And the pain does not leave me all my life … But no one blamed Petrova or October, we could not even imagine that these beloved all Sebastopol, people threw their own fighter. How do we, ordinary sailors could know what happened in fact? .. It is in 1961, when gathered in Sevastopol nearly two thousand participants in the defense of the town, I vyznat this! That up to the present day or I can not forgive the October addition, he committed the act. I think he threw us … Ninety thousand people at the mercy of the Germans given! … 30 thousand threw the wounded!. Russian people cast who shed blood in battle … I loved the song — "The last sailor left Sevastopol '… How many sailors on shore at the mercy of the enemy left? For me, until October 1961, Admiral of the fleet and was the emblem of courage.
I will not judge Petrova, bright memory of him, he was an infantryman and did what he did. He was a good fighter and a decent general. We are proud of the fact that we commanded Petrov. But, I, at the moment, am not talking about military awards a specific person, but a very different concepts. There are ethics officer … There is a code of conduct, in the end … Son of the Adjutant Petrov did not forgot to take out. When the submarine "u-209" on the surface waiting until the boat from the shore son Petrov crossing, the team hooks and boots lupila hands and heads swim to the boat the wounded sailors who, in the last hope of escape, tried to get on the boat. Them back into the water, to destroy it is discarded — overdrive feared. Do Petrov recalled to his own death, as his eyes were buried heroes of Sevastopol? He beheld, at this time he was standing on the bridge. He served as an officer on this boat, which is still May 30 years ago back in his own writings, this night described the carefully … Would you like to name the witnesses? I'll call. And those that story for the next day, the crew had heard from the mouth can still be found. He lives not far from here to the submarine boat "D-4". Well, the last commander of the deceased in Sevastopol destroyer "Free" Joseph Chvertkin wrote about it, and in general, about the war in the Black Sea all the truth, but just who will publish his book?
But in the book Karpov, Petrov became nothing less than — captain, so be it, and remains … Unfortunately, in recent years, my vision was aggravated and I myself can not read, but all the chapters of this book I read aloud to relatives. Everyone has their own look at the actions … Again I repeat, I do not blame Petrova … But October! … He's navigator! He had no right to leave the city! The captain did not leave a sinking ship. He had to stay … We believed him … There is such a sacred thing as a naval fraternity. Naval tradition.
In the hospital told the guys that from June 30, each transport plane at the airport in Kherson was taken with shooting and melee combat, all rescued their skins, well — their life, loading the wounded, no one thought about it. The rarest of the lucky lucky to get the wounded on the last flight. And the vice-admiral, komflota Phillip October flew … Who can say that felt thousands of hungry and wounded soldiers in the mountains of Chersonese, when the Germans threw their grenades on top, but on the head urinated. You can not imagine all the dark abyss of despair and anguish killing, the buyout had to experience the people, abandoned his command and doomed to destruction and captivity.
A commissioner of the fleet Kulakov, our ideological inspirer. Vyznat me in the post-war meeting approached. He remembered me Odessa fights — us, sailors distinguished themselves in the attacks, while he personally represented. Says to me — "Hey YCL». My eye I saw immediately looks at his watch — "It's time to have dinner" and set sail. And I remember many other commissioners, who, rifle in hand, with us walking together on the attack and not to bow to bullets.
Do not hesitate to admiral, after the war, for myself a Hero to hang a jacket …
I figured everything would be forgiven, and if I were in these "generals" evacuation plan ready defenders of the town, but the Germans it, say — frustrated and do not give. War, what to do … But as for us, the former Sevastopol came! That no one thought we help out! … — How to later create this "person" in gold-embroidered uniforms? Already on June 20, we all understand that there is no chance to defend the city. One bayonets and private heroic blood, we have not stopped German technology would … Then, at the meeting, in 1961, people were getting up from their seats in the hall and asked directly by sitting for a longish table, on the stage, our former managers of defense. — "Why are we being cheated? Why do we give up? '.
October from the podium — "Calm down comrades. We had an order of Stalin and Budennogo quit the city, in order to evacuate the remaining defenders Sea to the Caucasus. " Politotdeltsev security officers and taken … Valuable staff who decide everything. I'm not the prosecutor. Each has its own truth, well, in general, to whom this is true at the moment is needed? I have my personal opinion will not impose. For anybody October may hero, but for me … We in the post-war meetings, arguing, discussing the behavior of October in July 1942, someone said, that the commander of the fleet had to be in the Navy headquarters in Poti and nothing he was doing in the besieged town. Well, the dead either nothing or just not bad.
Then sit in a meeting, most in everyday clothes, worn jackets, stoptanyh the shoes. Many prisoners have passed through, and later in their life is not really luck, times-then what are … October saw the way we dressed, ordered everyone to put a naval parade on the form and give a decent gift exchange. Many have adopted. And some, do not hesitate uttered — "We are not the girls, that flirt with us, we do not need these handouts. You would be better, Comrade Admiral, 40 the second year of the ships to evacuate taken care of, then we would have at this point in rags did not go. " And let not they say to you that there were no ships, or the ability to save the Sevastopol garrison. We can help. There were ships and Taman on the Black Sea. And not even "Tyulkina flotilla."
If I wanted to, and would have found the aircraft to cover the evacuation of air.
All right. Let's distanced himself from the discussion of people. And then utter that I am overflowing with hatred, defame memory and good name of the Governors defense. I know one thing, the German generals at Stalingrad also had the opportunity to escape by plane, but remained with his men. Another concept of the honor of an officer … Even in these animals and nonhumans, as were the Germans … And his own in 1944, the Germans evacuated from Sevastopol nearly all only eight thousand prisoners just horrible.
Let us, at least for a short period of time, change the subject.
GK How was the fate of the sailors to be discharged from hospital? They returned to the ships of the fleet or the Marines?
GZ — In the main, people fell to the Marines under Novorossiisk and Tuapse.
I remember being in the hospital, came back on the "second round", guys, Sevastopol, the regiment fought in the Marine Corps Colonel Haricheva, so it seems his name was. A lot of people got into a battalion known Kunikova. There were also two naval infantry brigades on formirovke in Baku and Taman, so some, after discharge, these brigades and enrolled … In February, 40 the third brought 40 people, after the amputation of kunikovskogo battalion. They are on the battlefield a few days had lain, with little or no medical care, as long as they were able to take out. Among them, about half were former members of the Defence of Sevastopol … Recognizable scout Simon Friedman, after the hospital came under Stalingrad, in the infantry division. With him was another 20 former "Sebastopol." Their entire regiment Poleg on defense Tractor plant, including the wounded, who simply did not have time to ship the Volga. Apart from Friedman, survived only 5 fighter … Of the sailors he was the only survivors.
My cousin, Lieutenant Israel Weisser, was wounded in the battery Alexander, during his second coming to the city. During the evacuation by sea, transport of the wounded had been sunk, and he's day! sailed the sea, holding a log. The January Vodicka in the Black Sea understand what it is. Survived spite of all deaths, and after the hospital was in the Marines in Novorossiysk, commanded a company, received the Order of the Red Banner. I remember in the late 40 illumine the second year, they took me to the dressing. I change the bandages and at this time, in the procedure room, imported on gurneys several "Newly" the wounded. I look, and among them — my brother! Three months later, he was discharged, he came to "Little Land", and in a few weeks, he was wounded again and again to us! arrived on healing. Just after 3 wounds, it returned back to the fleet, emergency rescue BSF. He specialty was marine engineer. This heroic man died in 1961 …
No one is going ex-defense in some parts of town, and nobody shore. There was a war. Who which came out there and fought.
For example, after the date of Odessa, a battalion of sailors has been focused on the defense of Murmansk! I've seen guys with this battalion after the war.
Nikolai Kovalenko, Odessa, came under Vyasma in landing troops in the rear of the enemy, and finished the war on the torpedo boats of the Northern Fleet.
Even when the war in the Caucasus was in full swing, and all the human reserves were in the finals, sailors, ships designed to wage war in the infantry were sent to the central portions of the front. I spoke last sailor battleship "Paris Commune" Leo Eriv that at the end of the summer of 1942, he was among the 250-minute sailors volunteers descended on the store, to wage war on land. They were sent under an old Russa, in 253 SD, in the North-Western Front, where almost all of them, laid down their lives … Mike Porter, our last Odessa and Sevastopol fighter, received the Order of Lenin, for the capture of 2-German generals, and even 14 years of senior German officers in Stalingrad, January 31, 1943.
Where only the fate of the military people do not throw!
How do I know that only 40 fourth decree was issued, according to which the former sailors began to return as the fleet. But this decree referred only to ex-naval officer and former students of schools of the Navy.
But if you are so interested in this issue, the full details can be given only the last participant in the defense of the town Baysak living in Sevastopol. He is Chairman of the Board of Veterans Marine Corps and knows the fate of hundreds and hundreds of sailors of Sevastopol. And of course, the full information is gathered at the Museum of defense of the town. First 60s in Odessa a couple of times to come, the museum and wrote a memoir, to find them, the former defenders of Sevastopol.
GK Special departments of the penalty in the defense of Sevastopol. Something about them will be able to tell?
GZ — this is the concept as part of the penalty, in Sevastopol 40 of the second year, I do not remember. Just guilty of GRA banished to the front line in the Marine Brigade. Detachments we definitely were not!
And about a special person, I will give two examples, describing their contribution to the defense of the town
First, the war, the Germans took off in Sevastopol by parachute commando group that corrected an act of German bombers in raids on the city. Our special department, not blundered. The order was given sanctuary at a certain day, the personnel of the Navy, disguised as number 2, snow white. Oh, and, among those who flared in the dark defile the Primorsky Boulevard, rapidly identified saboteurs. So, brains were security officers. But the second example, it is of the other areas of their business.
In Poti, the battalion formed from the inhabitants of the mountain regions of the Caucasus, refused to be loaded on trucks, leaving the besieged Sevastopol. Someone is afraid of the sea, and someone shouted that — the Caucasus will be protected from the Germans, and in the Crimea, they do nothing.
Drove special department, built a battalion. Asked a question — "Who does not want to Sevastopol? '. Several people got out of order. They just "leaned" to the coming wall and shot in the eyes of the other fighter. More objectors were not. How different?
With seafarers special department tried not to mess with no harsh circumstances. Were on their memory instances where whole companies came and hung with a weapon — to the Specials, and simply took away backwards own comrades arrested by special departments for nothing. Naval spike and mutual assistance is not just empty words. For all this, we respected the discipline, and in no way resembled the sailors anarchist plainclothes times of war. When, after the retreat of the Crimean steppe, we come to Sevastopol, the "committee meeting" of the NKVD, litsezrev that seafarers are simply stepped aside and let us through, no questions asked. And there were among us are those who have lost a gun, and so on … I remember a funny incident during the Battle of Odessa. Of the officers of the town formed a militia infantry battalion. They walk on Moldavanka and all over them laugh, name-calling, whistling them to track, and so on. Odessa city gangster, and here the police marching in columns of four … So police officers pleaded with authorities to hurry to give them the soldiers' uniforms.
I do not remember what-what "atrocities" servants of special departments.
Another relevant example. Hero of the defense of the town, the commander of the famous 30th shore batteries, Jora Alexander, was not Jewish, like this from time to time write and obrussevshy Teuton. And no it does not pull away from the command of the battery
And the fact that Alexander origin Teuton, knew the whole Sevastopol.
GK — Tell me if there was ever a case of defense of the town, which was never mentioned in the memoir or historical literature?
GZ — I'm not a big fan of memoirs. But for
sure, the case of the German submarine nowhere described.
First 40 of the second year, the South Bay snuck a small German submarine — similar to our "babies." She was trapped. Slick, network barriers at the entrance to the bay was closed, and the boat began to peck depth charges evenly narrowing the range bombing. The Germans broke and floated. When our sailors on the boats, approached the submarine, that capture the crew, they heard the shots rang out inside the submarine's hull. The entire German crew, 21 people shot themselves, but in captivity did not give up …
And not only have to read what the Germans at that time there were no submarines in the Black Sea theater of war! The boat lifted to the surface and put on display, and the inhabitants of participants in the defense, on the Count's Quay. Who still live in Sebastopol — should keep in mind this episode.
GK You participated in the 2-so called, military and historical conferences in 1961 and in 1966, dedicated to the defense of the town. There you will meet many of the former defenders of Sevastopol, and talked with them, and own a lot of information that has, in my opinion, the historical significance. There are a few questions that, until now, not been given a clear and specific answer. The first question — whether the facts are known, that someone from the past participants in the defense of the town, broke through to the partisans in the Crimean Mountains in July 1942?
The second question — What is the fate of participants in the defense of the town in captivity? It is written very much not enough to official sources. And the third question — the fate of the 427 th medical battalion in Inkerman galleries?
GZ — I have never heard of the lucky ones who had broken through to the guerrillas first of July 40 of the second year. There was impossible to break through. The Germans and the old days and NIGHT MODE control every inch of land to the north of Sebastopol. There was a rumor that was a group of 5 people, led by voenfeldsherom Braslav, but it's just a rumor. Realize us at these conferences was almost two thousand people, and all participants partitioned into sections according to the type of armament. I beheld only a few of the former guerrillas, the Black Sea Fleet sailors, but they joined the partisans only after escaping from prison, and one last "oboronets", was abandoned in the Crimea, in the air assault. There was a sailor who was rescued from Sevastopol on a raft, together with 3 friends. Their raft washed up on the shore of Yalta. This group of long-hidden in the middle of the local inhabitants, and later joined the guerrilla group. In the book, Sajin, at one time, it was written that the Seventh Crimean Wichmann partisan brigade, composed of former participants in the defense of the town, but this statement is not entirely true. Lieutenant Leonid Wichmann, waged war, as I do, in the "Osipovskaya" regiment of marines, and he ran for guerrilla activities, in the autumn of 1941, when the near Simferopol, together with his platoon was surrounded.
Well, in general, the history of the Crimean guerrillas also one of the most disastrous wars pages. Them, the partisans, in the summer 40 of the second year, there were only three people on the entire Crimea. They died of starvation, their no ammunition, they constantly harassed and savagely slaughtered not only the German soldiers, and the battalions, made of traitors — the Crimean Tatars. In short, I have never met people who made their way to the partisans of Sevastopol in July 1942.
With regard to the captives. As people were captured written and told a lot.
What can I say … I have heard from the 1st mate that he was in a group of captive sailors were taken to northern Italy. Of this group survived many. But when carried out in the train, the Germans crucified!, For attempting to escape on each car, one navigator, beat them nailed to the doors of cars!
At first, the third coming of the Germans captured sailors did not take, but when in July, fell into their hands 10s Millennium people, prisoners in a sailor form already in place were not shot. It was later, in the camps, where protection is beheld by a captive vest, then immediately zverela and often killed former sailor. . A lot of us fighting the Germans in Sevastopol to the light sent, so they besilis … . Immediately shot the Jews, those who had a normal appearance. Later, in Bakhchisarai and Simferopol in the bullpen, the Germans had repeated cleaning, identifying Jews and political officers. Selected five thousand people.
Threw them over the wire and stabbing two weeks were deprived of food and water. Later finished off those who were still alive with machine guns. No one survived …
I have met, only the 1st Jew, a former battery commander who survived captivity in those summer days are sad and creepy. Rescued by his orderly, by the way, the Crimean Tatar who NIGHT MODE, crawled with a knife in his hand, in the middle of the captives, lying naked on the earth, from the 1st fighter battery to another, and warned all — "Who will give the battalion commander, — slaughter!". When the Germans gave the order to all strip naked and started finding people passed circumcised men were able to cover their bodies battalion commander. This battalion was in captivity year, and then managed to escape, and got to the guerrillas. Many Jews tried to pass themselves off as Muslims and Jews doubted if the Germans in front of them or not, the exiled prisoners to the side, where there were three Muslim traitor, arrange unfortunate exam, checking for knowledge, say Uzbek or Mongolian language. Chances of survival of the Jews there were almost no 1st. And the Jews in the Black Sea Fleet was much, rather conventional example. I came to serve on a ship in a group of 90 sailors, because of this number there were 11 Jews. In "Osipovskaya" regiment of marines, the Jews were about five to seven percent.
Commanders polls were not shot. I read with people who were part of a group of officers in 1200, Sebastopol, abandoned by the Germans in a concentration camp near Munich. Of these units survived.
There was a meeting in 1961, the last colonel, whom the Germans, knowing his military rank and membership in the Communist Party was not shot.
A lot of Sebastopol died in the concentration camps in Krivoy Rog, Slavuta in Simferopol. The relatively long survived among those who had been captured by the Romanians. .
Of the wounded almost no one escaped. Many Germans finished off the wounded lying outright. Others have thrown into boxcars, boarded up doors and burned alive!. This strshny fact, but it was a sin wildest savage!
I have heard of 1 person that he was in a group of the wounded, about seven people, all after the amputation, which the Germans were held in a camp near Nikolayev. Of the wounded unichozhili only in the early 40 fourth year.
And as for the 427 th Medical Battalion. If I say that Saenko exploding artillery naval arsenal in Inkerman, randomly or intentionally undermined the infirmary, with 3 tyschami the wounded in the galleries, how do you respond? I was not there, I do not have the facts, but the stories about the companions of the disaster. And allegations?, What are they for you? I've heard this Straseni powerful explosion that shook the whole Sevastopol … Someday, something will become clear on the issue of the explosion in Inkerman galleries …
I can not read more on this topic, I am very hard to remember the pain … I do not have spiritual powers, again imagine how dying in agony my friends … All the information is in the Museum of Defence, contact there.
Let's end on this day … We had nowhere to retreat in Sevastopol. Ahead was a ruin, sea behind us. We, the sailors fought to the last bullet, sparing his life. We defended the Russian city of Sevastopol, died for the Soviet land, for his beloved homeland. And is not our fault that the city was abandoned to the ene
my. You can say at the moment a lot of fine words about the courage of the defenders of the disaster and Sevastopol. But I want to say just one thing …
The most expensive in the days of my life, these are the days when I am with a rifle walked into the Fascist attack on the enemy. I am proud to defend this city, the glory of the Russian Federation and the navy.