After starting the Russian Union of the first artificial satellite of the Earth, before the United States became a task to reassert its leadership position in the global technology and, in particular, in the field of armaments. In order to unite efforts in this direction in 1958 under the Ministry of Defense was created Agency Defense Advanced Research Projects (DARPA). Before the modern structure was put job to make the development of new technologies for the U.S. armed forces, in time to inform the Pentagon about the emergence of new technical developments in other countries, to bring the academic basic research to the field of their application in the field of armaments.
In the state of DARPA has 240 employees, 140 of them are technical spec. Virtually all DARPA projects are Short-term (2 to 4 years). For each project, a specially appointed working group.
Can not say that DARPA projects are gorgeous, but the fact that the development is in the direction of military, economic and political security of the country — by all means.
To understand the essence of development implemented make out scientific and technological projects division.
For example, so-called, the project The BioFuels, for obtaining biofuels for military aircraft. The implication is that biofuels will be a classic candidate combustible. Due to limited supplies of oil and gas, many academic departments of various states have long been working towards a substitution of existing energy resources. Bio fuel, usually derived from organic waste. Biofuels can be of 3 types: liquid applied to internal combustion engines (methanol, ethanol, biodiesel), hardcore (firewood, wood chips, husk, briquettes, grass, fuel granulki) and gaseous fuels (hydrogen, biogas).
And although the search for biofuels is for different types of sources, but experts at DARPA prefer algae as a promising direction in the field of biofuels. Discussed the mechanism of commercial cultivation in the following conversion of bio marine plankton. Phytoplankton were grown in artificial ponds, located on the coast. The recycling process was a methane fermentation of biomass following hydroxylation of methane. As a result, a liquid bio fuel — methanol.
Advantages of the use of microscopic aquatic plants for the production of biofuels in the future:
— the presence of the highest phytoplankton productivity (up to 100 tons per hectare in a year);
— nor in the cultivation of plankton or in its processing are not used fresh water and soil tenderloin;
— there is no competition with the agricultural establishment;
— the highest level of energy output;
— economically successful (low-cost) procedure.
It should be noted that European countries have put themselves ahead goal — by 2020, 10% mc have to use other sources of fuel, including biofuels.
According to estimates of professionals at the termination of the production cost of biofuels for oil and gasoline will increase by 15%. Because this project DARPA helps solve one of the most important tasks livelihoods of land in the not to distant future.
It's clear that experts at working with modern appliances, usually hone their skills on simulators. The more difficult to learn, the easier it is to work. This is particularly true of military specialties. For training experts serving in cyber, required special training equipment. To address this difficulty, DARPA is implementing the project National Cyber Range, the essence of which: the creation of a complete computer simulation of human interaction on the one hand and of computers, computer systems, networks, computers, defense systems — on the other side. Co-authors of this project are the Institute of Johns Hopkins University, the company Lockheed Martin and Northrop Grumman. These work allocated from the state budget $ 51 million project aims to develop a set of programs, is a modern cyber weapons. Strategy will be developed immediately attack and defense in the implementation of cyberwar. Specialists tend to DARPA as real as possible to play using the product of human behavior in different situations, with all this great attention is paid to factors such as national, ethnic and other characteristics of each country, which is against cyberwar.
So, instead of real people in cyberspace will operate computer programs from. In this virtual world of cyber employees will work assigned tasks. In this case, the global simulation will be able to play at least some acts of difficulty levels, from simple acts virus software to a global military conflict.
To ensure a stable and ultra-fast communication between army units experts at DARPA program from implementing CORONET. Creation of a modern system of global navigation and communication is based on fiber optic technology.
It should be noted that the relationship is one of the most necessary and growing industries in the world.
For example, a Japanese telecommunications company KDDI and Russian telecom operator "Rostelecom" finished conducting fiber cable length of 900 km, which has a higher throughput (about 640Gbit / s) at the bottom of the Sea of Japan. It is expected that the project will essentially extend telecommunications and monetary transactions between countries.
Another magnificent and unexpected project ISIS. Its purpose is to conduct high-altitude reconnaissance and surveillance by unmanned airship. The shell of the aircraft is filled with helium. Airship equip massive radar and is capable to rise to an altitude of 21 km., And its service life is 10 years. The advantage of this type of supervisory apparatus is that, being in the stratosphere, it is located outside the affected area most of the existing missiles, surface-to-air and air-to-air.
In August 2009, the American company Sanswire-TAO has tested the latest design flying platform, representing a blimp. Feature of the device is a flexible sheath having no internal skeletons, and therefore resembles the external appearance of the worm. The shell is filled with helium. Airship, not counting what is the payload, has a unique design of screws, allowing to turn on all axes. The tail design is common motionless stabilizers. This airship can work as a spy, the support of sensors and relay be used to monitor the environment at low altitudes (up to 4.6 km). Its length 33.8 m, height — 3,35 m, the required load 9 kg, the power of the onboard generator —
The fact that DARPA is engaged in designing a new type of airship is based on the weight of the advantages of airships:
— the highest rate of deployment;
— small price of production and the creation of infrastructure;
— the possibility of long-term work;
— admissibility as battery life, and the feasibility of the remote control from the ground;
— A damaged parachute to the payload.
In the coming on of the technology will be made communications satellites. They will be able to rise to a height of 18 km.
DARPA project has essentially the best performance than similar civilian vehicles. And although he has a military purpose, it may be the introduction of this type of air system and for non-military purposes.
DAPRA, being the creator of the global network that continues to work to improve wireless networks fourth generation (G4). The aim of the project is to provide the military capabilities of the large number of simultaneous users without harm to the speed of information traffic.
G4 technologies provide users the opportunity to high-speed transmission of large amounts of disk imaging. If the civilian sphere main "entertainers" are the melodies and the game, then the technology will be available to the public G4 mobile TV, advanced gaming, video conferencing, etc.
During the Abkhaz-Georgian-Ossetian conflict, it became clear that the army of the former Russian republics of the extensive use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to conduct intelligence activities. This prompted the Russian armed forces to carry out some "audit" of existing armed UAV. It turned out that in operation at the Russian army models are produced in Russian time, and work on the ambitious project is not completed, or UAV, or suspended.
In September 2010, the Russian defense minister said that the country will be established for various types of UAVs creation. It is planned that the establishment will be implemented together with foreign firms, for example, with the French. Our homeland has long lost its leading position in the market of UAVs, behind countries such as Israel, the U.S. and many European countries.
But the fact that the Ministry of Defence has directed attention to this sector of arms — is a positive fact. But in order to quickly change the situation in this kind of weapons should not only produce large-scale procurement systems, and also ensure the development of Russian production models and technologies.
While the Russian military-industrial complex would "catch up" gone forward foreign developers UAV, DAPRA was engaged in the implementation of programs from Mobile Hotspots, the essence of which is to significantly improve the system for remote control of the UAV. The result of the project will be the creation of software that allows a single operator to control multiple unmanned vehicles, which will significantly improve the efficiency of the exploration and implementation of observation in the field.
Oceans has a large energy supplies. But the world's population uses microscopic fraction of that energy. This is due to bolshennymi finansovlozheniyami and leisurely return on such projects. But frisky depletion of supplies conventional fuel, including uranium, and negative environmental and climatic consequences of the use of available energoelementov, forcing scientists of all countries to find other sources of energy.
Oceans has several kinds of energy:
— energy from tides, agents construction of tidal power plant (TPP). In the 70's, when the risen sharply, oil prices, the introduction of tidal energy was pretty finansovlozheniem. The Soviet Union, Britain and South Korea have allocated significant funds to conduct research in the field of tidal power. Coastal South American and Japanese waters obseyali buoys and lighthouses, working on wave energy. Fascinating following fact: in 1966 two French coastal town quite fled consumption tidal power for their own needs.
— energy acquired by the chemical composition of the water. Its principle of operation is based on the production of specially designed batteries in which chemical reaction takes place between fresh and salt water.
— Biomass energy of the ocean. Back in the '70s, on the instructions of the Navy United States launched a group of professionals to the test to create a farm on the ocean depth of 12 meters near the town of San Clemente. Under the sun-drenched surface of the ocean grown brown aquatic plants. Scientists were able to achieve extraordinary results: 50% of the energy of aquatic plants transformed into methane gas. According to their calculations, a proven expert mode, with an area of 40 hectares, where aquatic plants are grown, you can get enough power to please the needs of the town with a population of about 50 thousand people.
— the thought energy of ocean currents came in connection with the information that the speed of the Gulf Stream off the coast of Florida is seeking 5 miles per hour. Scientists believe that totally really make a huge turbines and propellers, allowing to generate energy from ocean currents. The question is solely to identify the sources of funding for this project.
— obtaining energy through the use of the differences in the temperature of the different layers of the oceans (ocean thermal energy). For example, the difference in the temperature of surface and deep waters in the tropics achieves 50 degrees. At the conclusion of professionals in store the energy available in the surface waters of the ocean, is superior to 10 thousand times of global energy needs. But it is not created by power plant, allowing the public to enjoy these excellent ground supplies.
— implementation of the internal energy of the molecules of the sea. Naturally extracted from the molecular energy is insufficient for refueling aircraft, automobiles and ships, but for their operation may be the introduction of gas (hydrogen) that is extracted from the water. Scientists believe that the "hydrogen energy" has a future.
In the 60 years of NASA employees unable to perform electrolysis of water, collecting sufficient to provide for "Apollo", the number of hydrogen.
At the current time unit DAPRA, the project Renewable At-Sea Power working to develop technologies that use the tidal energy of the oceans and seas, as the energy of the sea for military purposes. Before the developer is quite a difficult task creation methods and technical devices by means of which may be to save and store energy from aqua generators. This energy will be used in charging the surface drones.
Another principal object of the Group is engaged in DAPRA — developing materials sverhogneupornyh Thermal Management System for the needs of the naval de
partment of the USA. The South American Navy has in its composition a significant amount of aircraft carriers. It was found that during take-off from the deck of the ship aircraft F35, flooring runway very overheated, causing it to significant deformation. Because the developers task is to make the material that is resistant to the effects of huge temperatures.
In almost all science fiction American film shows the devices allowing to behold men and weapons, located inside the building. Employees DAPRA, in the framework of the programs from VisiVuilding, make real technology and equipment, in order to display the monitor completely reproduce the situation in the building and construction, while out of it.
The Arctic has always attracted the enthusiasm of the military for itself many states. But the world's population does not have enough knowledge about this unique region of the Earth. For the purpose of detailed implementing Arctic research program from DAPRA Assured Arctic Awareness. The essence of this study is to place in the Arctic, a network of sensors that allow for continuous monitoring of the Arctic atmosphere. It is planned that some devices will be located on icebergs: magnetic sensors install on top, and bottom speakers. Icebergs, the average per day, are about 6 km, which makes them an indispensable for the purpose of patrolling the Arctic areas.
According to international agreements, the introduction of Arctic terrain for military purposes is prohibited. You can not build military bases, prohibited conduct tests of weapons of mass destruction, prohibited even flying military aircraft in the airspace of the Arctic. But at the current time, the surrounding areas are located in the Arctic Russian system of missile warning, South American interceptor missiles, Russian nuclear test site in the archipelago Bimbo Earth and the base of the Russian Navy in Murmansk.
And it's far not a complete list of programs that are being developed in DAPRA. Do they still have a lot of promising and, perhaps, unique projects. For example, the construction of a flying SUV, the submarine to shallow water, the mechanical skeleton for a man desantiruemye amphibious transporter, etc.