In the past couple years the expedition, led by Svetlana Belyaeva, working here, having received an invitation from Nikolaev regional organization of Ukrainian friendship and protection of monuments of culture annals.
And that was made really harsh discovery. Specialists attribute this to the end of Pier 18 — early 19th centuries. In addition, they believe that the pier belonged to the Turkish fortress of Kinburn. In general, this fortress is clear to slightly annoying. But it was she controlled the entry and exit of boats and large ships in the river Dnieper. The Turks have built it as an outpost in the fifteenth century to defend the peninsula from Zaporozhye Cossacks, landings are often planted here.
But it is clear the fact that the fortress was not only a military construction. After all, was placed near the fortifications and a large port. And here came merchant ships. The city could boast of a large market and artisans quarters. Immediately puts a lot of hotels. Because it's safe to say that Kinburn was not only the fortress, and the principal component of the economy of Turkey.
But by the mid-eighteenth century, the fortress lost its importance. By 1736, Russian soldiers manage to capture it, then absolutely kill the Turks again soon managed to rebuild Kinburn (particularly at this time archaeologists attribute to find the pier), but he no longer had the former power. And quite soon — in 1774 — was the Russian city of Kinburn. And now, our forefathers did not try to burn it, and attach the turning into an impregnable fortress. Now here is constantly Russian garrison. The port becomes a place of constant deployment of several warships.
But still the Turks did not leave the specimens again to capture it. They knew perfectly well that the owner of Kinburn is the lord of all Crimea. Specifically, this was the premise of the war, which began in 1787. Then Prussia, Great Britain, Sweden and the Netherlands incite the Ottoman Empire, and she eventually puts demands on the return of the Crimea. Obviously, they are turned away and start a war on September 13. It must be admitted that the surrender was not only a sign of helplessness, and indeed would weaken Russia. After all, the Russian Federation would be returned only Kinburn, and the fortresses of Kerch and Yenikale. And it meant the loss of the Crimea and control a significant part of the Dnieper.
Immediately after the attack, the Ottoman Empire was directed here two armies. Ekaterinoslavskaya, up 70 thousand soldiers and officers under the command of Potemkin, was to resist the invasion by Turkey and defend the saving value of the Black Sea. 2nd Army — Ukrainian is 30 thousand. It was commanded by Count Rumyantsev, whose mission was to protect the rears Potemkin from possible attack by Poland.
And then in the beauty of the Russian genius proved Suvorov. He had only three thousand fighter and was required to withstand 6 tyscham chosen fighter Turkey — Janissaries. September 30 and October 1 in the afternoon the Turks fired Kinburn virtually non-stop, using the ship's guns. But Suvorov forbade to return fire. Already at 9 o'clock on the western tip of Posada Janissaries. On the eastern side of the Cossacks made a landing. How unfortunate it did not sound at the time they became allies of the Sultan, because of irrational policy of the first kings of. They managed to draw back pretty quickly, but the Janissaries were severe discrepancies. It is more that escape routes from their not — ships specially taken to the sea. Suvorov, having learned about it briefly replied: "Let all come out."
He left in the fort, and in the train, which is located behind the fortress, only by two companies. In addition, he built a two lanes 5 and 6 battalions of the mouth in a staggered manner. The cavalry is left to the south, covering the flank. By three o'clock the day or the first squad Turk closer to our positions on two hundreds meters. It also was given a volley from all the available tools. After that, two Cossack regiments and two squadrons of dragoons in seconds killed the vanguard of the Turks.
After that, about 6 hundred guns mounted on ships began shelling the shore. Despite this, the front page under the command of river managed to take the first 10 Turkish trenches. Immediately had the brakes. At this point, spit markedly narrowed, and Turk were very many. Retreat, they were simply nowhere to go, because they fought to the last. In sum, with a massive artillery fire forced it to withdraw our troops.
During the fight itself Suvorov went on the attack in the forefront. The horse was killed under him, after What the Turks rushed at him. But ordinary Novikov managed to protect the commander — he shot the 1st enemy, killed another, then another escaped. After which the Russian grenadiers managed to take back all the trenches, which soon had to give way again because of a barrage of artillery fire.
One of these attacks almost cost the life of Suvorov. He was hit with buckshot, which was just below the heart. This injury was a prerequisite for the loss of a huge amount of blood and a few fainting majestic leader.
Stepping back from this injury, Suvorov again led the squad to attack. In this case, were involved in the reserves — four companies of the fortress and the convoy. In addition, in the battle and took the role of legkokonnogo team.
Suvorov received another wound — a bullet pierced his hand right through. And yet the military commander to the very end remained in the ranks! When the Turkish troops had been broken, Catherine the second, evaluating rewards Suvorov gave him the Order of St. Andrew. In addition, was released on a special medal, which was awarded to enlisted men who had distinguished themselves in battle. The very same war was over by the Turks signed a peace treaty in Iasi. Crimea and Kuban really got to us.
But after half a century of Kinburn was attacked again. But now it was not the Turks, and the Anglo-French troops. The fortress capitulated only after was destroyed almost one hundred percent. Kinburn it was decided not to rebuild. Only now there have been severe configuration — the excavation of Kinburn, ongoing today, totally can bring a lot of sensational finds.