The natural center of the development of economic relations have always been the town. And the Old Rus', which even then was the largest state in Europe, they could brag more. In the reign of Vladimir reddish sun urban settlements, there were 25, and by the time of the invasion of Batu, there were already more than 270. Battered Vikings made raids across Europe directly to North Africa, called Rus Gardariki — "State of the cities."
They were going and to share the fruits of their own labor Bobrovniki, Bortniki, trappers, smolokury, lykodery and other "manufacturers". And, of course, the negotiators that their products are exported to other countries. In Russia the very early realized the importance of trading activities. Although negotiators were not separate estate, is an ancient monument in the Russian legislation — "Russian Truth" — Veera for the murder of a man shopping twice the ransom for the destruction of the free commune.
In general, "Russian true "pays great attention to the sphere of social relations, which centuries later would be called business. carefully considered in the vault of such burning issues so far as debt collection from bankrupt owners, credit operations, the activities of loan sharks, which were the forerunners of today's bankers.
Trafficking in Russia were engaged in all free people — from princes to ordinary serfs. The extensive spread of trade relations in the then Russian society in almost all been substantiated close contact with majestic neighbor to the south of the Eastern Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire. Its capital, Constantinople, Constantinople or in Russian chronicles, was one of the greatest cities in the world, and certainly an important trading center in Europe and Asia.
Specifically, the Byzantines give the most precocious understanding of how conducted trade in Russia. Constantine Porphyrogenitus first ruler of the tenth century as outlines daily life of the Russian merchant.
With the first cold, it becomes possible to move on netornym Russian expanses sleigh rides, shopping, and people left the town rushed to the hinterland. There's a specially adapted for "guests" places — churchyards — they bought all that the villagers have extracted and produced per year: hemp, wax, honey, furs, articles of iron, wool and linen cloth, rope, canvas, hops, fat and beef tallow, sheepskins and hides. Even walrus tusks. In good years — to the same grain.
In the spring, when the river spill, all the products on the hollow water were brought in two main centers — Kiev and Novgorod in the south to the north. By this time the towns were already preparing the vessels on which negotiators push off in the overseas country. In the words of Constantine Porphyrogenitus, in Constantinople with Russia came the big trade caravans that brought together a wide variety of merchants Russian land — Smolensk coexisted with Novgorod, Chernigov with Vyshegorodtsev.
In the Byzantine capital of the ancient Russians were trading all summer to winter there, they were not entitled. But during their stay in Constantinople, the imperial authorities tried not to let militant Slavs in the city, thinking, apparently, about the eminent Oleg's shield. Because the Russian guests were located outside the city, on the courtyard of the Monastery of the Holy Mammoth. But this disadvantage is more than offset by different incentives. Negotiators had the right to free trade with the Greeks, they provide free food and allowed to warm up in the baths. In October rusichi folded mart, and the Romans provided victuals and a ship's rigging. On his return home, people shopping again put off for graveyards to sell overseas goodies and prepare for the subsequent year.
"From the Greek" to Russia carried wine, silk, art — icons and jewelry sets, fruit and glass products. But for all the importance of trade with its southern neighbor, not looked down upon ancient Russians and other countries. East of the states they carried spices, precious stones, silk and satin fabric, the instrument known damask and horses. Of these products are settled in Russia, part of recovering further to the west across the naikrupneyshy shopping center in Northern Europe — Novgorod. In response, the Europeans delivered to Russia fabric, needles, tools, glassware, wine, salt, beer and metals — iron, copper, tin and lead.
Multilateral trade contacts and rich old Rus left its own mark not only in the writing of history. Confirmation of resourceful Russian merchants were countless treasures, which are all the way from the Baltic to the Dark Sea. In their Russian hryvnia coexist with the Byzantine solidus, Arab and Western dirhams pennies.
But the development of this trading boom, unfortunately, did not get. Terrible toll on Russian trade have caused the Crusades, in particular provoked Venetian negociant ruin of Constantinople in 1204. Quickly fledgling Republic of Venice financial and military power of the Byzantine Empire, though very undermined by the time the endless wars with the Turks, was like a bone in the throat. However, the mastermind of a crusade against the Christian empire Venetian Doge Enrico Dandolo was happy for long. Sacking the majestic city, it is he, and find their own way. Doge buried with military honors, vandal who never dreamed of, and the Byzantine Basileus — in the Hagia Sophia.
And very soon and Old Russia fell under the blows of the Tatar invaders. And for several centuries in the trade Power Rurik is almost over. During the Mongol-Tatar yoke was lost some crafts and much oprostilis others. Out of stone construction. Were abandoned cereal land south of Russia, the center of economic life has shifted to the north-east. To the east, the Golden Horde and reoriented foreign policy Russian principalities.
Only majestic Novgorod and Pskov passed this sad fate. Steppe were not able to reach the north-western lands Russia. But the danger posed by the Baltics settled in the Teutonic Order, neutralized the Alexander Nevsky. And while other Russian land gradually gathered strength to expel the foreign invaders, which took more than 2-centuries, trade knights of the republic of Novgorod and Pskov grew rich on trade with Europe, particularly with the Hanseatic League.
Meanwhile, since the beginning of XIV century the rise of the border city of Vladimir and Suzdal Russia — Moscow. A great contribution to the establishment of the Moscow principality raised his grandson Alexander Nevsky — Ivan Kalita. True to his nickname — was called Kalita bag for money — he began buying up surrounding ownership. Besides the capital, Prince skillfully used the uprising against the Tatars in the realm of its own head rival for leadership in the Russian lands — Tver Prince Alexander Mikhailovich. Tver ravaged by the Mongol army, Ivan Kalita received from the Khan Uzbek shortcut on the majestic reign. When it moved to Moscow as head of the Russian Church, Metropolitan Peter.
Quite an advantage of the Moscow principality in Russia was fixed after a long-awaited victory over the Russian teams hated invaders of Kulikovo in 1380. Although two years later Moscow ruined Khan Tokhtamysh, but from that moment it became clear that the
fall of the yoke — it's a matter of time. And no one dared specify the authority of Moscow princes. Apart from Novgorod and Pskov.
The financial strength of the north-western cities has meant that by the end of the XV century, they became the main centers of separatism. Indeed, the forces were not equal. While the knights of the republic grew rich on trade with Europe and other lands under the oppression of the Horde hirel tribute. But as the decay of the Golden Horde and the concentration of power in Russia in the hands of the princes of the majestic Metropolitan alignment change. And political centralization defeated. While Novgorod boyar oligarchy thought that, that break away from Russia and Lithuania to join the church, Ivan III twice besieged city and in 1478 completely deprived of independence. And his son Vasily III annexed Pskov.
After the unification of Russian lands around Moscow and the fall of the Mongol-Tatar yoke in 1480 were made by the political preconditions for the latest economic integration. And as a consequence of trade. Having first large production centers. Metalworking was developed in Tula and Ustiuzhna Zheleznopolskoy, textile crafts — in Moscow and Yaroslavl. And in the north, in Salt Vychegodskaya intensively developed salt fish, which controlled the Stroganoff family.
Perhaps this can be called a merchant dynasty of the first Russian businessmen. By the end of the XVI century, they already controlled not only a huge part of Russian production of salt production, and the fur trade, which is sold through Archangel foreigners, first the British. Of their possessions in today's Perm Cossack detachment under the command of Ermak Kalashnikov began the conquest of Siberia. Later, their "conglomerate" joined smelting and iron production in the Urals. Stroganoff first in Russia were trained to employ foreign workers.
After an unsuccessful Livonian War, which Ivan the Terrible led a good quarter-century in Russia there was a large number of prisoners of artisans and the rest of the working people. Stroganoff redeemed them from the country, and used to own numerous fields. This includes using them to Arkhangelsk shipyards were built by the first Court of the European standard, which were used for expeditions into the mouth of the Ob. The accumulated wealth have allowed to become a negociant, in fact, the first Russian bankers, which lends itself in severe Sir Ivan.
With the salt pans and started other Russian negotiators — Sveteshnikovy, Pankrateva, Gurieva … But they soon switched to furs. The fur trade with Europe through the Archangel, with the East — through Astrakhan and Kazan, can be called Russian specialization in the international division of labor in the XVI-XVII centuries. And yet, perhaps, the sturgeon fishing. Even then, in Europe adored feast of Russian caviar. Most of the Russian Federation until the world had nothing to offer.