And one soldier in the field

And one soldier in the fieldIn the office of the 1st of the leading scientists of the country's first self-employment I saw a black-and-white photograph of an unusual radar. Hardware radar cabin located on a GAZ-AAA ("lorry"). I asked to tell that for the radar is shown in this picture. The story came out spectacular, and I think the fun. In the late 30's Institute of Radio started to create radioulavlivateley aircraft. And these radioulavlivateli after many years of tests have been made. One of them — "Redoubt 3" and was pictured on a mysterious photo. On the arms of the Red Army, and the Black Sea and Baltic Fleets these radioulavlivateli under various ciphers began to arrive in 1937. This creates a new radio-military units (airborne surveillance, warning and communication), who served in the armed forces and navies of these radars. The antenna on the radar at one time had the title Udo Yaga, and nowadays it is very common and reliable antenna is referred to as the wave channel.

The high command of the Red Army and the Navy since 1940, carefully studied the effectiveness of the use of radar in combat criteria. In July 1940, Germany launched a massive raid on the town of England, from the face of the earth was even cleared the city of Coventry. 8th Air Corps Germans a shock, equipment dive-bomber "Ju-87", the number of which reached 2,500 aircraft, able to withstand only 900 British fighters. But these fighters were directed precisely to the German bombers British radar stations. The losses of the Germans grew with each of days and when the first in September 1940 for one day only shot down 185 German aircraft, aerial massive attacks on the Germans in the town of Great Britain actually ended.

At the end of August 1941 raid on Kronstadt from Tallinn broke warships of more than 100 pendants, having lost in the transition 10s ships and thousands of soldiers who could defend Leningrad. By this time, the Nazi Army Group "North" is actually closer to the town on the Neva River, had a few days to complete blocking of Leningrad. Nazi command correctly represented for themselves the danger of military units is the Baltic fleet and in particular its mnogokalibernaya artillery at the final step of the operation. Because the 1st Air Fleet of Germany was given the 8th Air Corps Percussion. Field Marshal VJ von Leeb presented to Hitler's headquarters plan to defeat the ships of the Baltic Fleet. By this time, the fascist command has grouped the "Iron Fist", which consists of about 400 bombers that can throw off the ships standing by the harbor at Kronstadt Over 200 tons of bomb load in just one flight. One can imagine that with a clear hit of the cargo from the ships of the Baltic Fleet would not have left. Fleet would be eliminated, and then the Germans seize Kronstadt was not difficult. The Nazis were preparing an operation to destroy the ships on the twentieth day of September 1941. From Hitler's headquarters came the approval of the plan.

On Leningrad front September first arrived GK Zhukov, one of his first questions was the condition of the air defense forces to provide cover for the town and the ships in Kronstadt. "Preserving the radioulavlivateli aircraft. Headquarters at the front of the fleet and station operators need to have a separate channel of communication and constantly receive information about flying the Nazi air": new Front commander claimed. By this time, one of the stations' Redoubt 3 "has already been relocated from under Narva in the village of Bolshaya Izhora and telephone cable operators of the station were associated with team Fri Defense Front and the Baltic Fleet. Operators every 30 seconds had to report on the situation in the air at distances up to 150 km. Apparently GK Beetles have already had information about the capabilities of this new type of weapon. While serving as Chief of the General Staff at the time he designed the decision on acceptance of these new weapons systems for the Red Army and Navy. It's September 21, 1941. At 10 hours and 40 minutes at the station operator "Redoubt 3" recorded flying in the direction of Leningrad, a large group of Nazi aircraft that took off from airfields Siverskaya Krasnogvardeisk and districts of Novgorod. These were the bombers, their number exceeded 230. As befits on annotations have been sent a message to the air defense headquarters. A few seconds later the enemy planes were reconstructed in three columns, the operator immediately and reported this information. Front Command and the navy realized scheduled meeting of columns bombers over Kronstadt and sighting bombardment ships. Every column must have had its mission, intelligence allowed the Germans to distribute aircraft to destroy all ships sighting. Battle of excitement on the ships, airfields and anti-aircraft batteries were made at one time, it was powered. Russian fighters moved into the area over Leningrad, so you can storm the bombers after the turn of the goals. That's how prepared the plant operators' Redoubt 3 ", located in a huge IZHORA, the fight to save the remaining forces of the Baltic Fleet.

12 minutes after the first disk imaging operator three pillars of Nazi aircraft bombers approached at different heights to Kronstadt. Then he began lowering aircraft to an altitude of 900 meters, which was the height of the beginning of the dive and precision bombing. But at this point a barrage of fire anti-aircraft guns and machine guns met the enemy planes. Started indiscriminate dropping bombs, the pilots tried to get rid of the combat load. Several enemy vehicles from getting a clear anti-aircraft shells exploded in the air. The pilots did not understand what was happening, they were negotiating among themselves hysterical character. They tried to warn each other about the deadly threat. 10 minutes was a rumble from everything that was happening on the ships and in the air. When finished shooting volleys of anti-aircraft guns and machine guns, fighter aircraft went into action with the departing bombers. Surprisingly, 22 and 23 September attacks pattern repeated itself precisely because it was on September 21. This command of the Leningrad Front saw German pedantry and the inability to move away from the approved rate in Hitler's plan of liquidation of the fleet. After the first day or the operation by Field Marshal VJ von Leeb, apparently, did not report the results in the rate of plaque, hoping that the 22 and 23 September, he finds Russian guard. The Germans did not know that the troops of the Leningrad Front successfully operate the first three Russian radars and command could do is measure for the destruction of enemy aircraft. In the remaining day or two Germans raised in the air is less and less armored, impact their irreparable loss, as well as the absence of bombs on the ground. When the command of the Leningrad Front announced the results of the Battle of Kronstadt and the ships of the Baltic Fleet, led, of all the ships were sunk 4, and 8 were damaged. Loss of personnel — about 250 officers and sailors. In reports Sovinformburo means that in 21, 22, September 23, 1941 the loss of enemy aircraft in aerial combat, and from anti-aircraft artillery were 173 aircraft, but the loss separately in the waters of Gulf of Finland does not. Apparently, so long sought situation. After September 23, 1941 8 Impact Air Corps Luftwaffe was relocated from the Leningrad front, and a little later Field Marshal VJ von Leeb was removed from command of Army Group "North". He was transferred to the reserve of Hitler's headquarters.
Evening September 23, 1941, Admiral VF Tributs arrived in the village Huge Izhory. The purpose of his arrival was to familiarize with the personnel of the station "Redoubt 3" 72nd radiobatalona VNOS. He gave the order to build the structure of habitats not occupied by duty. When personnel lined the order, the battalion commander, Admiral reported on the execution of his orders. VF Tributs, after a pause, he turned to the officers and men: "You have earned the gratitude of the Commander of the Leningrad Front KG Zhukov for the skillful and exemplary fulfillment of its own obligations. Thanks to your skill and care Baltic fleet was able to block the massive German air raids and retained its power for the destruction of enemy compounds. Two weeks have passed, as the Germans managed to close the ring around Leningrad, artillery and navy sailors, along with the soldiers of the Red Army will break through the ring. And we'll create it. You have saved our strength. " Then he shook hands with everyone standing in the ranks of the commanders and soldiers of Ehmke and went on to the Gulf, it was necessary to hurry up in front headquarters. And in his heart he must have been grateful to the men stations that assist to save that part of the fleet, which broke away from Tallinn has not blown up by mines, torpedoes did not die from German submarines and aircraft bombs. The admiral did not know that this ring fighters of the Red Army and the Navy break through only after 885 days.

In the war in staff work there is no room to detail.

Through year besieged Leningrad radio engineers were able to find a solution for the transfer disk imaging with indicators stations "Redoubt 3" specifically in front of the headquarters of operational services for the ability to independently make decisions on estimates of air situation. Many of besieged Leningrad Radio operators have been awarded the title "Honorary Radio Operator" for the awards to establish radio systems, tools and system, increase the combat readiness of units of the Leningrad Front, also awarded the medal "For the Defense of Leningrad". After breaking the siege of the Nazis, retreating, taken in 1944, yet another attempt to massive raid bomber to Leningrad. Apparently they had to use up the remaining bombs, but this massive raid was recognized already by fighter aircraft of the Leningrad Military neighborhood to restore aircraft with radar "Redoubt 3".

PS Given the experience of the British and Finnish War in charge of the Leningrad Institute of Radio Engineers, set training station operators "Redoubt 3", which consists in the fact that the amplitude of the reflected pulse signals, their number, placement, they had to determine the number of aircraft, speed and direction their flight. This task developers of the first Russian radar coped. After 3.5 months of this picture is to destroy the U.S. fleet has occurred on the basis of Pearl Harbor. Do not attach importance disk imaging at the headquarters of the fleet of radar operator, the United States of 98 ships lost 8, 10 ships were damaged, destroyed 188 U.S. aircraft, loss of personnel 2,326 officers and sailors.

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