240mm mortar "flower", designed to fire tactical nuclear warheads.
In the race of Russian tactical nuclear weapons Alliance has always been a catch-up
U.S. President Barack Obama sent to the Senate for ratification Contract START-3. But Republican senators are trying to link the agreements signed with the question of Russian tactical nuclear weapons (TNW). In this regard, it is appropriate to recall that such tactical nuclear weapons, and how it appeared.
25 May 1953 on the desert plateau of French in Nevada passed tests tremendous 280-mm semi-stationary gun T-131, reminiscent of tools outside of the First World War. A shot rang out, and 25 seconds later a bright flash lit up the desert, which eclipsed the sun. And in a moment to the sky began to rise mushroom cluster. For the first time in the history of mankind was fired a nuclear weapon.
280-mm gun T-131
For what was useful to create a nuclear gun when he was a reliable source of delivering nuclear weapons — strategic air?
In 1-x, high-altitude strategic bombers not bad for hitting stationary targets, such as large cities, factories, and where the least effective in action on mobile targets.
Imagine the "flying fortress", the bomb Hiroshima, under the same criteria (discharge height — 11 km, time bomb — about 50 seconds after reset) threw a "kid" with a capacity of 20 kt in the Russian cruiser project 68bis going full swing in the ocean . The commander abruptly changed course and for those 50 seconds was about 870 meters According to the project, the 152-mm MK-5 bis of the tower had to keep fighting capacity in the explosion of one-megaton bombs at a distance of 750 meters, as they say unnecessary comments.
Well quadratic possible deviation (CWE), a component of numerous 10s meters resetting bombs from a height of 11 km, making it unlikely defeat of the concrete bunker or tower coastal battery. In all these cases, a direct hit by a nuclear weapon.
The main thing is that after the tests of nuclear weapons in the Soviet Union in August 1949 the U.S. administration has realized the inevitability of nuclear retaliation by the U.S. towns. Already in the 1950s, more adekvatnomyslyaschie generals and politicians United States and Britain realized that a full nuclear war is stupid.
The corresponding glimpse of the new thinking was kept in the British Yearbook of the weapons for 1952 year"The presence of nuclear weapons at the 2-groups of countries makes it possible that from this point on war will be waged on the" cold "to the standard, and if it becomes a" hot ", it will be a small scale, as, for example, was Korea, Malaya and Indochina. The horror of nuclear war and its devastating consequences are very great opportunity to prevent a new conflict, similar wars of 1939-1945 and 1914-1918. "
In the end, since the early 1950's to the late 1980's in the U.S. have been two of the doctrine of "limited nuclear war". The essence of the first — the application of the strategic nuclear forces (ICBMs, cruise missiles, aircraft) at the headquarters of precision strikes, rocket launchers, airfields, naval bases, submarines with ballistic missiles at sea, etc. In other words, pre-emptive strike, capable of preventing back nuclear blow. This doctrine is meant more for the legislators and the people of the U.S. and NATO than for the planning of a real war.
Where are the other attractive and realistic doctrine of limited war. This so-called local nuclear war, in which the use of nuclear weapons is limited to a capacity of ammunition, and geographic boundaries.
The U.S. government was considering two options for conducting a local nuclear war. It is a war in any particular country "third world" and a nuclear war in the theater of military operations. Under the "theater" South American strategists have assumed an enormous area, such as, for example, Western and Central Europe, China, together with Indochina and Korea.
The original bearers of tactical nuclear weapons (TNW) were to become jet fighter-bombers, including the deck, flying bombs (until 1959 called the cruise missiles), unguided rockets and tactical, in the end, "atomic cannon."
Designing 280mm atomic gun M-65 (T-131) was started in the USA in 1949. First experienced the reference made in 1950. In the same year he experienced, have adopted under the designation M-65 and to mass creation. Given the standard of the most experienced first-1950s was released 20 guns M-65.
The first nuclear projectile, he entered the U.S. Army, was a 280-mm shell T-124. His weight was 364.2 kg, and length — 4.9 caliber. At the highest initial charge speed was 628 m / sec and range of — 24 km. Short range was 15 km. CWE projectile at maximum range is 133 meters Projectile T-124 was equipped with a nuclear warhead W-9 power of 15 kilotons.
Gun M-65 was flat, she had not passed through the narrow streets and small bridges. The weight is in the stowed position 75 tons of Officially traveling to combat gun passed by hydraulic jacks in just 20 minutes, but in practice, taking into account the position of engineering training, it takes a few hours.
The majestic and powerful 280-mm M65 "Atomic Annie» (Atomic Annie).
Gun M-65 was delivered to Europe, where it was used to enhance the corps of the U.S. Army. On arms she remained until 1963.
In the upcoming Americans have taken into account shortcomings of the first atomic cannon. They were able to do physics in 1957, a nuclear warhead, was placed in a 203-mm projectile, and in 1963 — to 155-mm projectile. I'll tell you that at least last until the end of the twentieth century, South American and our physicists have not been able to make a nuclear warhead, was placed in a round-caliber least 152 mm.
So, in January 1957 the creation of a series was launched 203-mm artillery shell M-422 with a nuclear warhead W-33.
Power of different modifications ranged from 5 to 40 kt.
Now move on to the massive South American caliber of nuclear weapons — to 155-mm projectiles. In 1963 he was adopted by the 155-mm projectile M-454, filled nuclear warhead W-48. Projectile weight 58 kg, power of 0.1 kt.
Naturally, the South American Navy decided to get his artillery shell. In 1953, work began on the creation of 406-mm shell M-23 "Katie" Curb charge W-23 power of 20 kilotons. In 1956, the projectile "Katie" entered service battleships.
ROCKETS GET Value
First American tactical rocket — the carrier of the nuclear charge was unguided solid-propellant missile, "Honest John" M-31.
Designing rockets "Honest John" was launched at the end of the 1940s. Flight tests it began in August 1951 at an army firing range in White Sands, New Mexico. In 1953, the missile entered service. The firing range of the first sample was from 9 to 27.5 km. In the late 1960s, the firing range missiles "Honest John" was brought up to 37 km.
Outside the U.S. missile "Honest John" consisted in the armies of Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Taiwan, the UK, Denmark, Greece, South Korea, Turkey and the land of the rising sun. In the Land of the Rising Sun and South Korea rocket "Honest John" were in mass production.
In 1956, the United States began to develop a solid fuel rockets "Litll John." In 1961, it adopted it. The lowest weight and dimension properties of rockets "Little John" and its towed launcher allow transportation of H-34 helicopters and planes.
The first tactical guided missile of the U.S. Army was radio-controlled missile 'Lacrosse' M4E2 in June 1963 renamed MGM-18A.
Designing missiles began in 1948. Head developers and distributors — Office "Connell Aero Laboratory" and "Martan Marietta."
Starting weight of the rocket — 1040-1070 kg, length — 5840 mm, width — 520 mm, wingspan — 2.75 m, the magnitude of feathers — 1,45 m Rocket "Lacrosse" was a crotch level between ballistic and cruise missiles.
Warhead weight — from 181 kg to 244 kg. The missile equipped with a nuclear warhead W-40 power of 10 kilotons, produce from September 1959 to May 1962. A total of 400 nuclear warheads made rockets "Lacrosse".
Rocket "Lacrosse" is equipped with a dual-mode solid-propellant engine. The firing range — from 8 to 32-34 km. Transportation and launch carried out with a fighting machine, made on a three-axle chassis army truck.
Missile tests "Lacrosse" took place at the White Sands proving ground in August 1954. From August 1957 to 1960, inclusive, conducted its mass creation.
In 1962 he began research to develop a guided missile "Lance." For service system was adopted in 1972. The firing range with a nuclear warhead HM234 was 110-120 km.
Immediately after adopting began delivery of the missile system "Lance" NATO partners and Israel. Already in the middle of the 1950s, the U.S. government has entered into with its NATO partners a series of hidden agreements, under which a "period of threat" nuclear warheads, stockpiled in Europe, have been transferred to the Allies.
In the armies of the United States and other NATO missiles and guns — carriers of nuclear warheads are included in the divisions and corps. An exception is Italy, has formed a special rocket and howitzer brigade, which in "period of threat" was to get the South American nuclear warheads. In 1960 it consisted of four divisions missiles "Honest John" and two battalions of 203.3 mm howitzers.
Gun with the romantic name
In the USSR the media tactical nuclear warheads was first created on the principle of mirror reflection of the United States. In the end, in the middle of the 50s have been submitted to the tests: 406-mm gun SM-54 (A-3), to shoot a special shot "capacitor" (by the way, it is often called, and the whole system, shell weight was 570 kg, the highest range shooting — 25.6 km) 420-mm smoothbore mortar 2B-2 "Oka", the gunman shot a special "Transformers" and 406-mm recoilless rifle C-103 (product 0842). All three systems have been installed in the chassis, made at the Kirov plant-based languid tractor.
406-mm self-propelled gun CM-54
2B1 "Oka" — Russian 420-mm mortar
All three monsters were nontransportable and entered service. Already half a century experienced the standards of CM-54 and 2B-2 exhibited in the courtyard of the Central Museum of the Armed Forces and Artillery Museum. Kids climb on them, but the two systems so far, numbers are hidden.
Soviet years behind the U.S. for 15 years in the development of nuclear small caliber ammunition for everyday tools. Only in 1964, started designing the 240-mm mortar 3BV4 in the ordinary (firing range — 9.5 km) and the active-reactive (18 km) versions for 240-mm mortars — M-240 towed and self-propelled "Tulip", 203-mm projectile 3BV2 for 203-mm howitzer D-4D (18 km) and 152-mm projectile 3BV3 for 152-mm howitzers — D-20 towed and self-propelled "Acacia" (17.4 km).
152-mm self-propelled howitzer 2S3 "A
In addition, the developed 180-mm round with spetsboepripasov 3BV-1 for the 180-mm gun S-23 and 180-mm naval and coastal installations. According to unofficial information gained from naval officers, the cruiser "Slava" (nine 180-mm guns) during the "Six Day War" in 1967 was located in the Mediterranean Sea, having a combat-ready spetsboepripasov.
In the end, spetsboepripasov designed for 320-mm guns battleship "Novorossiysk" and 305-mm coastal artillery batteries on the peninsula and in the Russian Sevastopol.
In the late 1950s — early 1960s in the Soviet Union, there were several 10-s tactical solid rocket 3R-1 "Mars" and 3P-2 "Owl". But the massive support of tactical nuclear weapon was a rocket "Luna" — a worthy answer is "Honest John."
Tactical Missile System 2K4 "Filin"
In response to the adoption of the service in the United States flying bombs "Matador" and "Mace" in the USSR created cruise missiles FCR-1 (COP-7) and FCR-2 (C-5), made on the basis of aircraft rockets CS-1 " Comet "and the boat launch M-5. OKB-52 attempt to make a "Soviet" Lacrosse "- a set of" Baby "has failed.
In 1960 spetszaryadami began to equip almost all types of aircraft, army, naval and air defense missiles. The main thing is the diameter of the warhead was not less than 150 mm and the weight is not more than 25 kg.
It is seen that both the U.S. and the USSR tactical nuclear weapons did not fall below the divisional level. The only type of nuclear weapon "near" the fight, taken into service in the U.S., was a system of "Davy Crockett." This system consisted of two recoilless smoothbore guns M-28 and M-29 caliber 120 mm and 155 mm, made on a "broadened chamber. "
First Russian tactical nuclear bomb, developed in 1953.
Both are similarly over-caliber gun fired projectile M-388 with a nuclear warhead W-54 Y1. Power charge, according to various estimates ranged from 0.05 to 1 kt. From 1961 to 1971 was higher than 2100 nuclear warheads W-54 Y-1 for the system "Davy Crockett."
Both systems are understood. Easy system of M-28 on the battlefield tolerated by 3 numbers calculation in packs weighing about 18 kg. Both shot with a tripod and a SUV.
In 1962, the instruments of "Davy Crockett" were located in Western Europe. They were armed with infantry divisions (20 launchers) and airborne battalions.
In 1959 he started the development of nuclear missiles "near" the fight for armored divisions and regiments. The projectile was named "Shilleyla" and MGM-51 index. Carrier "Shilleyly" was to become a light tank M511 "Sheridan". The firing range "Shilleyly" with nuclear warheads — 5.4 km.
In response to the "Davy Crockett" in the USSR had developed a set of "Reseda." Only we have over-caliber recoilless gun fired rockets active-9M-24 is not a SUV, but with the BTR-60PA. The firing range 6 km. The plan complex "Reseda" was supposed to present to the Municipal tests in the II quarter of 1965.
In 1968 he started designing tactical missiles "Ram" and "Rosa" with special warheads. Complex "Taran" was intended for the tank, and "Rosa" — for the infantry regiments. According to the tactical and technical requirements, the maximum firing range should be 6-8 km, and the low — 2.1 km.
Launcher complex "Taran" was located on the tank — First, to "object 287", then at the T-64A. As in the case of "Shilleyloy", based on "Tara" was created for self-defense ATGM tank. Launcher complex "Rosa" is located on the BMP-1.
But neither "Shilleyla" or "Ram" with "Rosa" has never entered service tank, motorized and mechanized infantry regiments. One can imagine that in some places at first the 1970s the Soviet Union and the United States secretly agreed not to equip spetsboepripasov regiments and battalions.
U.S. planning to use a couple of times a tactical nuclear weapon. The first time was in Korea in 1950-1953.
First, in 1954 the French troops who fought in Vietnam were in a hopeless position in the area of Dien Bien Phu. South American Air Forces were ready to throw in the position of Vietnamese troops nuclear bomb, but at the last moment Washington canceled the order.
Details of the plan the U.S. attack on Cuba in the autumn of 1962, as well as plans for the defense of the Russian command Island of Freedom held hitherto secret. But, apparently, both sides were ready for a full or to a local nuclear war in the Caribbean.
Interestingly, the 12 South American missiles "Honest John" with nuclear warheads capable of invading Russian withstood 12 "Moon" with combat units on any 2 ct. In addition, in Cuba were introduced subsequent tactical ammunition: cruise missiles to FCR-1 — 80 combat units ranging from 2 to 20 kt, a bomber Il-28 — 6 bombs 407N 8-12 kt; Shore complex "Sopka" — 6 warheads and three sea mines.
At the end of XX — beginning of XXI century, making anger against sovereign countries, such as Iraq, the Pentagon has threatened to resort to tactical nuclear weapons, if against the invading forces will use chemical or bacteriological weapon.
In 1991, before the collapse of the Union of Russian Ministry of Defense: returned to the Federal Republic of all tactical nuclear weapon. Well, after about tactical nuclear weapons in Russia politicians and the media have forgotten completely.
One simply can verify that 95% of disk imaging onshore tactical nuclear weapons in the Web search engines is taken from my book "Atomic ram of the twentieth century", published by "Veche" in 2005.
And only the first 2010 issue of tactical nuclear weapons was again discussed. Naturally, the Americans were the first to talk. First, in January 2010 during Senate hearings on the Pentagon budget for 2011 monetary year, the head of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Admiral Mike Mullen said Washington's intention to start negotiations on the reduction of tactical nuclear weapons immediately after signing the contract with regard to the reduction of strategic offensive arms.
Admiral confirmed that before the issue of Russian tactical nuclear weapons have already been raised in the course of negotiations on START, but Moscow says its discussion in the context of the work on the START "unf
ormatted". Officially Our homeland is not against to begin negotiations on tactical nuclear weapons, but a preparatory condition for it refers to the withdrawal of U.S. tactical missiles from the territory of Western Europe.
The head of the Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov, first read at a meeting in February with a Norwegian officer, Jonas Gahr Støre. According to the minister, "Russia calls for many years to make the first step — namely, to remove all tactical weapon on the terrain of countries to which it belongs," but he "can not get through to their own partners."
In the Western media exaggerated evidence that the U.S. tactical nuclear warheads much smaller than that of Russia. The U.S. Tipo their 1200, 500 of them are in a state of readiness. 200 of the latter are located in Europe. In the Russian Federation, according to unofficial data, and the other was not, and there is no such warheads 5400, two thousand of which are in a state of readiness.
At the moment, the administration of President Obama is planning to sign a contract with Russia to limit the number of tactical nuclear weapons. Apparently, it is about bringing them to an equal number of both nations. With all of this going to the United States apparently did not take into account the nuclear warheads the United Kingdom, France, Israel and China. Note, according to Western media reports, Israel has more than 200 tactical nuclear warheads ready for immediate use.
Not enough that the U.S. try to put the Russian tactical nuclear weapons under his control. In the future, the Russian Federation and the United States will be required to store all the tactical nuclear weapons in certain places of the contract.
Is it profitable to the Russian Federation? Follow the adage of Admiral Nelson's mistress: "Know how to count!" Let's start with the fact that at this point in the everyday tactical strike weapons surpass the U.S. by an order of the Russian Federation, and even two.
For example, a fighter-bomber F-16 with a bomb load of about 2 tons a combat radius of 2,500 km above acts. With NATO air bases in the Baltic States, he can not just bombard Moscow, and Kazan, and from bases in Turkey — Saratov and Samara, with bases in Central Asia — Chelyabinsk and Novosibirsk, with bases in the Land of the Rising Sun — Vladivostok, Khabarovsk and Petropavlovsk- Kamchatsky. But the F-16 is a tactical aircraft. In addition to the U.S., he is in service with the majority of NATO countries and Israel.
Most of the areas of the Russian Federation is in the affected area of cruise missiles "Tomahawk", the armament of American nuclear submarines, and about eighty-cruisers and destroyers. In the end, as part of the U.S. Navy aircraft carriers is 12-13, 11 of which have nuclear power plants. At each based aircraft carrier from 70 to 90 aircraft, including fighter-bombers, F-14, F/A-18, electronic warfare aircraft, refueling tankers. By using aerial refueling, F/A-18 can hit targets at a distance of 3-4 kilometers.
In turn, neither Russian tactical aircraft can not reach the location U.S., excluding Alaska.
In such a situation, only the tactical nuclear weapons can somehow even the odds. Not a lot of possibility of retaliation by TNW constrains how great or small the aggressors. Well, the position of the United States and much of Russia in the military-political and geographical relations.
Guarantee the security of the Russian Federation can only be a combination of strategic and tactical nuclear weapons. Storage also lead to one-sided tactical nuclear weapons disarmament of. But negotiations on the reduction of tactical nuclear warheads and their storage is sure to lead to. With all of this more certainly they should be linked to other neuvvyazkami — free access of in the ocean, the extra-territorial transit corridor (with the highway and the railroad) to the Kaliningrad region, land of the rising sun refusal of territorial claims, and many others.