Despite the successful introduction of the "Shilka" in the Middle East wars, in the course of the fighting have been identified and its shortcomings — a small Reach Target (in range of less than 2 sq m), poor power shells, also missing targets not fired because of the inability to timely detection.
Worked for the need of growth-caliber anti-aircraft automatic guns. In the course of experimental research revealed that the transition from 23-millimeter shells for 30-mm projectile with a two-threefold increase in the weight of the explosive allows 2-3 times lower right amount of hits to destroy aircraft. Comparative calculations of combat effectiveness ZSU-23-4 and ZSU-30-4 in the management of fire on the MiG-17, which travels at a speed of 300 meters per second, showed that at a similar weight of ammunition used by the possibility of defeat increases approximately 1.5 times , reach adjustment for all that grows from 2 to 4 km. With an increase in the caliber of guns increases the efficiency and fire on ground targets, expanding the ability of the introduction of self-propelled anti-aircraft shells cumulative acts for the destruction of lightly armored targets, such as BMP, etc.
The transition of automatic anti-aircraft guns with caliber 23 mm caliber 30 mm actually disrupted the pace of fire, but his upcoming ensure the highest rate of increase was unrealistic at the technical level.
Anti-aircraft self-propelled gun "Shilka" has a very limited search capabilities, which provide its radar tracking of targets in the sector from 15 to 40 degrees azimuth with a simultaneous configuration of elevation within 7 degrees from the direction of the axis of the antenna installed.
Maximum efficiency of fire ZSU-23-4 was achieved only after receiving preliminary target designation from the battery CP CP-12 (M), who used the data that came from Fri management division chief of defense, which had a radar station radial angle P-15 or P-19 . Only then radar ZSU-23-4 was carried out a successful search purposes. In the absence of target indication radar self-propelled anti-aircraft unit could produce an independent radial search, but the efficiency of detection of air targets provided less than 20 percent.
In Defence Research led that to ensure a promising battery life of self-propelled anti-aircraft installations and the highest efficiency of fire in its composition should go its own radar radial angle with a range of actions to 16-18 km (with standard deviation ranging up to 30 meters), and the sector Current overview of the station in the vertical plane should be greater than 20 degrees.
But, on the development of the station, which is a new added element of self-propelled anti-aircraft installations, CPP NAM agreed only after a painstaking review of special materials. research conducted in the Research Institute of the Ministry of Defense 3. To expand the zone of fire until the turn of the introduction of airborne enemy guns, and to increase the combat power of self-propelled anti-aircraft "Tunguska" on the initiative of 3 Institute of Defense and the PCU MOS was considered appropriate to complement the installation of missile weapons system with an optical sight and radioteleupravleniya anti-aircraft guided missiles, defeat the purposes of providing at ranges of up to 8 sq m and heights of up to 3.5 million m
However, the need for the creation of the anti-aircraft gun-missile system in the apparatus AA Grechko, Minister of Defense of the USSR, has caused huge doubts. The reason for hesitation and even for the withdrawal of funding the design of the upcoming self-propelled anti-aircraft "Tunguska" (in the period from 1975 to 1977) was that the air defense system "Osa-AK", put into service in 1975, had a close the affected area of aircraft in range (10 sq m) and large than the "Tunguska", the size of the affected area by height (from 25 to 5000 m). In addition, the properties of the efficiency of destruction of aircraft were approximately similar.
But all this does not take into account the specifics of arms air defense regiment level for which the plant was designed, the fact that the combat helicopters AA missile complex "Osa-AK" significantly inferior "Tunguska", since he had more dead time — 30 seconds compared to 10 seconds for the anti-aircraft "Tunguska". A small reaction time "Tunguska" provided a successful struggle against "jumping" (short-term emerging) or at one point because of the shelters departing helicopters and other flying targets at low altitudes. SAM "Osa-AK" it could not provide.
Americans in the Vietnam War for the first time used the helicopters, which were armed with ATGM (anti-tank guided rocket). It became clear that the approach of the 91 anti-tank helicopter armed 89 were successful. Helicopters attacked by artillery positions, armored vehicles and other objects of ground targets.
On the basis of this combat experience in every division of the American special forces helicopter were made, the main aim of which was to combat armored vehicles. Group attack helicopters and reconnaissance helicopter took shelter in the folds of the terrain position at a distance of 3-5 thousand meters from the strip of contact. With the approach of tanks to helicopters it "jumping" 15-25 feet up, hit the enemy vehicles with anti-tank, then quickly hid. Tanks in such criterion is defenseless, and South American helicopters — with impunity.
In 1973, the government's decision was given a special all-encompassing scientific research "dam" to find ways to protect the NE, and in particular — tanks and other armored helicopter from enemy attacks. The main executor of this complex and extensive research led to three Defence Research (Scientific Manager — Petukhov, SI). On the ground Donguzskaya landfill (landfill manager Dmitriev DC) in the course of the work carried out by experienced scientists running Gatsolaeva VA live fire different kinds of guns on helicopters NE-targets.
As a result of this work led to that reconnaissance and destruction, which are available in modern tanks and weapons used to attack ground targets in the armored, infantry and artillery formations strike helicopters in the air is not able to. Anti-aircraft missile systems "Wasp" capable of producing a reliable protection from bumps tanks of aircraft, but they can not provide protection from helicopters. The positions of these complexes will be in the 5-7 km from the position helicopters during the attack would "jump" and hover in the air for 20-30 seconds. According to the total reaction time of SAM and the flight of the incoming missile before the turn of the location of heli
copter systems "Wasp" and "Osa-AK" will not be able to hit the helicopters. Complexes "Strela-1", "Strela-2" and set "Shilka" martial abilities are also unable to fight a helicopter fire support, using a similar strategy.
The only anti-aircraft vehicle, with excellent fighting hovering helicopters could be self-propelled anti-aircraft unit "Tunguska", which had the opportunity to accompany tanks, being a part of their battle formations. ZSU had a small dead time (10 seconds) is also far enough own border zone lesions (4 to 8 km).
The results of the research work "Dam" and other add. research projects that were conducted in 3 Institute of the Ministry of Defense on this dilemma, have allowed to achieve renewal of funding for the development of ZSU "Tunguska".
Developing a set of "Tunguska" generally conducted at PCU MOS running head designer Shipunova AG Chief designers of missiles and guns were respectively Kuznetsov VM VP and dirt
By developing the chief means of the complex and other organizations involved: the Ulyanovsk Mechanical Plant MCI (radiopriborny developing complex, the chief designer Yuri Ivanov), Minsk Tractor Works MSKHM (developed tracked chassis GM-352 and the power system); Institute "Signal" MOS ( guidance systems, stabilize the telescope and the band shot, navigation equipment); LOMO MOS (sighting and optical equipment), etc.
Joint (state) tests complex "Tunguska" conducted in September 1980 — December 1981 on the landfill Donguzskaya (control polygon Kuleshov VI) under the control of the commission, headed by JP Belyakov Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of 08.09.1982 complex have adopted.
The composition of the combat vehicle 2S6 anti-aircraft gun-missile complex "Tunguska" (2K22) were the next major advances self-propelled, track, having a higher permeability:
— cannons, including two machine guns 2A38 30-mm caliber with a cooling system, ammunition cartridges;
— Missiles, including eight launchers with guides, ammunition anti-aircraft guided missiles 9M311 in TPK, equipment selection coordinates encoder;
— power hydraulic actuators guided missiles launchers and cannons;
— radar system consisting of a radar target detection, target tracking stations, ground radiozaproschika;
— digital computing devices 1A26;
— sighting and optical equipment with a system of stabilization and guidance;
— system for measuring the course and kachek;
— navigation equipment;
— Built-in test equipment;
— system communication;
— life-support system;
— avtoblokirovok System and Automation;
— anti-nuclear system, protivobiologicheskoy and chemical protection.
Double-barreled 30-mm AA Machine 2A38 provide fire cartridges, fed from a common trunk for both cartridge tape using one of the feeder. Automatic firing mechanism had the shock acts that served alternately both barrels. Fire control — remote with electric trigger. In water-cooled barrel using water or antifreeze (at low temperatures). Angles of elevation of the machine — from -9 to +85 degrees. Cartridge tape units and cartridges were having a fragmentation-tracer rounds and high-explosive, incendiary act (in a ratio of 1:4). Ammunition — 1936 shells. The overall rate of fire — 4060-4810 rounds per minute. Machines ensures reliable operation in all operating criteria, including work in temperatures from -50 to +50 ° C, with glaciation, rain, dust, grease and shooting without treatment within 6 days from shooting 200 rounds on the machine during the day, with grease (dry) details of automation. Vitality without changing the barrel — at least 8 thousand shots (shooting mode with all this — 100 shots on each machine with the following cooling down). The initial velocity of the projectile was 960-980 meters per second.
42-pound 9M311 missiles (mass of the rocket and the transport and launch container — 57 kg) was built by bikalibernoy scheme and had a detachable engine. Single-mode propulsion rocket consisted of a lightweight starter motor in a 152-millimeter plastic case. The engine is reported to rocket speed of 900 m / s and over 2.6 seconds after the start, when finished, was separated. To exclude the impact of smoke from the engine to process the optical sight missiles at the launch site was used arcuate program (by radio) line of traffic output missiles.
Following the withdrawal of the guided missile to the line of sight targets marching stage SAM (diameter — 76 mm, weight — 18.5 kg) of inertia continued to fly. The average speed of the rocket — 600 m / s, with all this, the average disposable overload was 18 units. This ensured the defeat on a collision course and will catch up with goals, moving at a speed of 500 m / s and accelerations of maneuvering with 5-7 units. Lack of propulsion motor excluded smoke band optical sight that provides a clear and reliable guidance of the incoming missile, reduced its size and weight, simplifies assembly of military equipment and on-board equipment. The introduction of a two-stage scheme of SAMs with the ratio of the diameters of 2-1 start and marching steps allowed almost halve the weight of the rocket in comparison with single-stage guided missile with the same flight characteristics as well as the Department of Motor significantly reduced aerodynamic drag on the main line section of the rocket.
The structure of military equipment included rocket warhead, proximity sensor targets and impact fuse. 9-kilogram warhead, which occupied virtually the entire length of the sustainer stage, made in the form of a compartment with rod striking elements that are to increase efficiency were surrounded by a fragmentation shirt. Warhead design goal on the elements provided the cutting action and incendiary effect on the elements of the fuel system goals. In the case of small slips (1.5 meters) also provide explosive action. Undermining the warhead carried by the signal of non-contact sensor at a distance of 5 meters from the goal, but a direct hit on target (the ability to about 60 per cent) of a contact fuze.
Proximity sensor weighing 800 grams. consisted of four semiconductor lasers that form the pattern of the eight pointed perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the rocket. The reception of the reflected laser signal from the target was carried photodetectors. Range confident response — 5 meters, reliable failure — 15 meters. Cocking the non-contact sensor is by radio for 1000 m to meet the guided missile with a vie
w, in firing at ground targets before the start of the sensor disconnected. The control system SAM had no height restrictions.
Onboard equipment included a guided missile: antenna-waveguide system, gyroscopic coordinator, electric block, drive control, power supply, tracer.
In SAM applied passive aerodynamic damping airframe missile in flight, to help correct the control loop transmission of commands from the computer system to BM rocket. This gave the opportunity to obtain sufficient pointing accuracy, reduce size and weight of onboard equipment and anti-aircraft guided missiles as a whole.
Missile length — 2562 mm, width — 152 mm.
Target detection station BM complex "Tunguska" — coherent pulsed radar radial review decimeter range. The highest frequency stability of the transmitter, which was designed as a master oscillator with an amplifying chain, introduction of filter selection scheme targets ensure the highest level of oppression echoes from local subjects (30 … 40 dB). It is allowed to create target detection on the background of saturated reflections from the underlying surfaces and passive interference. The selection of the values and the pulse repetition frequency of the carrier frequency was achieved unambiguous definition of the circular speed and range that gave the opportunity to realize target tracking in azimuth and range, automatic target tracking station target designation, and the issuance of a digital computer system of the current range in the formulation of saturated jamming enemy in range tracking station . To ensure that the work in motion stabilized antenna electromechanically with the introduction of signals from sensors for measuring the course and kachek creep.
When the pulse transmitter power from 7 to 10 kW, the receiver sensitivity of about 2×10-14 W, the width of the antenna 15 ° in elevation and 5 ° in azimuth station with a probability of 90% provided the detection fighter, which flies at altitudes from 25 to 3500 meters , at a distance of 16-19 km. Resolution station: range 500 m azimuth 5-6 °, in elevation within 15 °. Determining the target coordinates MSE: range 20m azimuth 1 °, in elevation of 5 °.
Station target tracking — coherent pulsed radar centimeter range with a dual system of tracking the angular coordinates and choice of filter circuits moving targets in the channels of the angular auto-tracking and avtodalnomera. Coefficient of clutter and oppression of clutter — 20-25 dB. Station of transition to automatic tracking modes in the sector target search and target acquisition. The search: azimuth 120 °, in elevation 0-15 °.
When the receiver sensitivity 3×10-13 watts, pulse power transmitter 150 kV, the width of the antenna pattern 2 degrees (in elevation and azimuth) station with a probability of 90% provided the transition to automatic tracking in three dimensions fighter soaring to heights of 25 to 1000 meters With a range of 10-13 sq m (when the target designation from the detection station) and 7.5-8 thousand meters (in autonomous sectoral search). The resolution of the station: range of 75 m, the angular coordinates 2 °. RMS target tracking: 2 m in range, 2 PDE the angular coordinates.
Both stations with high probability of finding a little bit of and was accompanied by hovering and low-flying helicopters. The detection range of the helicopter hovering at an altitude of 15 meters at a speed of 50 meters per second, with a probability of 50% was 16-17 km, range switching to automatic tracking — 11-16 km. Hovering helicopter detection station detected by the Doppler shift of a rotating propeller, was taken by helicopter tracking of target tracking station in three dimensions.
The stations were equipped with circuit means of protection against jamming, have also been able to accompany goals for faulty due to the composition and use of optical radar BM. Due to these compositions, separation of operating frequencies, simultaneously or regulated by time work at similar frequencies of several (which are separated by a distance of more than 200 meters) in the BM batteries provide reliable protection against missiles "Standard ARM" or "The Shrike."
Combat Vehicle 2C6 in the main working autonomously, but does not exclude working in the control system of air defense of the Ground Forces.
During battery operation provides:
— target search (radial search — with the introduction of detection station, sector-search — with an optical sight or tracking station);
— recognition gosprinadlezhnosti found helicopters and planes with built interrogator;
— tracking by the angular coordinates (inertia — according to the digital computer system, automatic — with an optical sight, automatic — with tracking station);
— tracking of targets in range (manual or automatic — with the introduction of tracking station, automatic — with detection stations, inertia — with the use of the digital computer system, according to the set speed as determined by the commander of the visual target type selected for firing).
The combination of different methods of tracking targets in range and angular coordinates provided the following modes BM:
1 — in three dimensions, obtained from the radar system;
2 — range acquired by the radar system, and acquired by the optical sight angular coordinates;
3 — inertial tracking the three coordinates received from the computer system;
4 — the angular coordinates derived from the optical sight and the target speed set commander.
When firing at ground targets was used to move around to manual or automatic weapon laying on the remote grid sight to pre-empt a point.
After the search, discovery and definition of the purpose of target tracking station passed its automatic tracking on all axes.
Digital computer system by firing anti-aircraft guns was solved task meeting the projectile and target, as determined by the affected area of disk imaging, coming from the output shafts of the target tracking station antenna with a range finder and extract the signal from the block error by angular coordinates, and the measurement system of the course and angles kachek BM . In setting the adversary saturated interference target tracking station on channel ranging change to manual range tracking, and in failing to hand accompaniment — for inertial maintenance purpose or for range tracking station detection. This formulation produced saturated interference tracking optical sight, and bad visibility in case — from the digital computer system (inertial).
When fire missiles used tracking targets by angular coordinates with an optical sight. After starting the anti-aircraft guided missile fell into the field of the optical finder equipment selection coordinates missiles. In the apparatus according to the light signal tracer elaborated angular coordinates relative to the band guided missile sighting target entering into the computer system. The system produced a management team rocket that came in the encoder, where a coded pulse packages and transmitted to the transmitter via a missile tracking station. Motion of a rocket almost the entire line of traffic going to the deviation of 1.5 PDE from the strip sighting targets to reduce the probability of getting into
the field of view finder to shoot off thermal (optical) noise-trap. Enter the line of sight missiles began in about 2-3 seconds before the meeting in order, came to an end about it. When approaching anti-aircraft guided missile to the target at a distance of 1 km Zour radio commands transmitted charging non-contact sensor. At the end of time, which corresponded to the lumen of the rocket 1 km from the target, BM machine translated in readiness for launch later guided missile on target.
In the absence of data in a computer system of the target range of the station detection or tracking station was used additional guidance mode anti-aircraft guided missiles. In this mode, the SAM on the line of sight of goal deduced immediately, proximity sensor cocked after 3.2 seconds after launch missiles, and BM gets ready to launch missiles followed after the time of flight of the incoming missile at the highest range.
4 BM complex "Tunguska" organization were reduced in anti-aircraft missile and artillery platoon rocket artillery battery, which consisted of a platoon of anti-aircraft missiles "Strela-10SV" and charging "Tunguska". The battery in turn came into antiaircraft battalion tank (infantry) regiment. Battery commanding Fri serve the control point CP-12M associated with manual anti-aircraft battalion commander — Chief of Defence Regiment. CP served as commander of the anti-aircraft battalion command post units of air defense regiment "Gadfly-M-SV" (PPRU-1 mobile unit intelligence and control) or "Assembly" (PPRU-1M) — its modernized version. In the upcoming BM complex "Tunguska" were coupled with a standardized battery KP "Rankings Basic" (9S737). When pairing PU-12M and complex "Tunguska" management team and targeting with PU complex war machines to transmit voice their means of regular radio stations. When paired with a manual 9S737 command transmitted via codified created data communication equipment, imeyuschehsya on them. When operating systems "Tunguska" on battery CP analysis of air situation, and the choice of targets to shoot at each complex have been performed with this Sat. At war machines in this case should have been transferred to targeting and instructions, as with battery systems for KP — information about the status and results of the complex. In the upcoming supposed to provide a direct connection to anti-aircraft gun-missile system with the command Fri chief defense regiment with telecode band data transmission.
Work armored complex "Tunguska" ensure the implementation of the following machines: transport and charging 2F77M (based on the KamAZ-43101, carried eight missiles and two rounds of ammunition), repair and maintenance 2F55-1 (Ural-43203, has a trailer) and 1R10- 1M (Ural-43203, maintenance of electronic equipment) maintenance 2V110-1 (Ural-43203, service artillery unit), automated control and test mobile stations 93921 (GAZ-66) maintenance shops MTO-ATG-M1 (ZIL 131).
Complex "Tunguska" by mid-1990 was upgraded and received the title of "Tunguska-M" (2K22M). Major improvements concern the introduction of the complex structure of the new receiver and radio stations to communicate with the battery KP "Rankings Basic" (PU-12M) and KP PPRU-1M (PPRU-1), the substitution of gas turbine engine power electronic unit complex on a new life of having overstated (600 hours instead of 300).
In August — October 1990, the complex was tested on 2K22M Emba range (control polygon Unuchko VR) under the control of the commission headed by AJ Belotserkovskim In the same year the park was adopted.
Batch creation of "Tunguska" and "Tunguska-M", as his radar organized at the Ulyanovsk Mechanical Plant Minradioprom, cannon armament organized by TMZ (Tula Mechanical Plant), missile weapons — to CMH (Kirov Machine-Building Plant) "Lighthouse" Defense Ministry, aiming optical equipment — LOMO Defense Ministry. Tracked self-propelled and system software supplied MTZ MSKHM.
Lenin Prize laureates have Golovin AG, Caumont, PS, V. Kuznetsov, Rus'yanov AD, Shipunov AG, State Prize — Bryzgalov NP, grandchildren, VG, Zykov IP, VA Korobkin etc.
In a modification of "Tunguska-M1" processes have been automated guided anti-aircraft guided missiles and communication with the battery CP. Laser proximity sensor target missile 9M311-M radar was replaced by that increment the possibility of defeat rockets ALCM. Instead of tracer installed flash lamp — efficiency increased 1.3-1.5 times, and range guided missile headed for 10 thousand m
Based on the collapse of the Union of Russian, work on the substitution of the chassis GM-352, is issued in Belarus, GM-5975 chassis designed Mytishchi production association "Metrovagonmash."
The future development of the principal. solutions to complex "Tunguska" performed at the zenith gun-missile system "Shell-S", which has a strong anti-aircraft guided missile 57E6. Range starts increased to 18 thousand meters, the height of the targeted objectives — to 10 thousand m guided missile of the complex used a more powerful engine, warhead weight increased to 20 pounds, her caliber with all this increased to 90 mm. The diameter of the instrument section is not changed and was 76 mm. The length of the incoming missile had risen to 3.2 meters and weight — up to 71 pounds.
Anti-aircraft missile system provides simultaneous firing of two targets in the Gaza 90×90 degrees. The highest noise immunity is obtained from joint implementation in the infrared and radar channels set of tools that work in a wide range of wavelengths (infrared, millimeter, centimeter, decimeter). Anti-aircraft missile system provides for the introduction of the wheel chassis (for the Defense Forces), the stationary unit or tracked self-propelled, as the ship's option.
Another area of the creation of new air defense equipment was carried out engineering design bureau clear them. Nudelman development towed ZRPK "Pine".
In accordance with Article head — the head designer of the design bureau and deputy Boris Smirnov. Head designer Kokurina B. in the journal "Military Parade" № 3, 1998, the complex is located on the trailer chassis includes: double-barreled anti-aircraft machine gun 2A38M (rate — 2400 rounds per minute) with a shop on 300 shots, operator's cabin, opto- electronic module designed Industrial Association "Ural Optical and Mechanical Plant" (with laser, infrared and television); guidance mechanisms, digital computing system made on the basis of computer 1V563-36-10, stand-alone power system having a battery and a gas turbine unit Power AP18D.
Artillery basic version of the system (the weight of the complex — 6300 kg, height — 2.7 m, length — 4.99 m) can be supplemented with 4 anti-aircraft guided missiles "Igla" or 4 promising guided missiles.
According to the publisher "Janes defence weekly" from 11.11.1999 25 kg rocket "Pine-R" 9M337 armed with a 12-channel laser fuze and warhead weighing 5 kilograms. Range missiles kill zone 1,3-8 km, height — up to 3.5 km. The flight time to the highest range — 11 seconds. Most flight speed of 1200 m / s in the superior third of the corresponding indicator "Tunguska".
Versatile and layout scheme is similar to a rocket launch anti-aircraft missile complex "Tunguska". The diameter of the motor — 130 mm, the sustainer stage — 70 mm. Radio command control system replaced by a more fail-safe equipment on a laser beam guidance, developed with the experience of implementing systems of tank guided missiles, made by Tula KBP.
Mass transport and launch container with a missile — 36 kg.