At the morning of the resurrection of the islands covered with tropical greenery, stretched dazzling blue Hawaiian sky. Only a few Tucek aggressively clinging to the hillsides. In the other hemisphere of the earth rattled fighting, the Germans were eager to Moscow. In Washington, the Japanese embassy worked on decoding the 1st secret document. All the East Indies was the Japanese invasion.
Impregnable base of the U.S. Navy, lost among the expanse of ocean, was preparing to spend a weekend fun. Who cares what was on the mark appeared on the radar display. Ordinary Lokkard and Elliot turned off radar installation and went for breakfast.
Thus began the war in the Pacific. Few of us realize what was happening in Southeast Asia between Pearl Harbor and Hiroshima. Maybe someone will remember kamikaze. But what channel was Guadal, will be able to answer only those who are seriously interested in history.
Indeed, from the standpoint of the history of sea battles, Pacific theater of great enthusiasm. Large squadron fought for scraps of land expanses of ocean stateliness. The massive battleships plowed the sea, and hundreds of aircraft rushed toward each other from the decks of aircraft carriers.
My plane buzzes
Hard to my plane.
Hurry to Pearl Harbor.
About linkornom pogrom in Pearl Bay written entire library of books. Now is not the anniversary, so there is no need to repeat the hackneyed truth and bore readers known facts. Although … as though what a momentous event, Pearl Harbor has many exciting moments: for example, at 9:30 am, when the base has over the devastated Japanese planes circling in Honolulu (Hawaii's capital) has already sold the newspaper with a huge headline: "Japanese planes bombarded Pearl Harbor! "
In contrast to the all-powerful American reporters, South American military have shown their utter incompetence: Dramelya fleet admiral, sent in search of the enemy, was found aircraft carrier "Enterprise" and adopted as the Japanese ships. Dramelyu immediately told about the discovery of the enemy and he started looking at this square … himself.
In particular the "distinguished" ack: NIGHT MODE follow the peninsula Ford was hit by a group of American fighters. On all the ships had passed strict orders: "Do not shoot! In the air, their "but when the pilots turn on the sidelights on it has knocked the bottom out of all trunks. The seamen were jubilant: Finally residents of the country of the rising sun got what they deserved.
In fact, long been an occasion to remember past actions served as a case — another series of naval carrier aviation investigator about. For me, Pearl Harbor is fascinating as another fact of the successful introduction of aircraft carriers. At first glance there is nothing unusual — not how many ships sunk deck planes! Yamato, Ise, Musashi … 20 plywood "Swordfish" smashed to pieces naval base at Taranto, sinking three battleships (despite the fact that "Vittorio" and "Dulio" were later raised and repaired all have reason to believe that the damage were fatal, the ships sunk near the shore). The only torpedo damaged the steering "Bismarck", not allowing the German monster escape retribution.
With regard to the most vulnerable ships, there statistics are even more impressive: the Italian cruiser "Paul", the light cruiser "Konigsberg", the Japanese cruiser "Mikuma", "Teka", "Sudzuya", "Chikuma" … Japanese pilots in a matter of Minutka torn languid English cruiser "Dorsetshire" and "Cornwall". How can you not remember the massacre at the naval base of Truk Peninsula — South American pilots sank 10 Japanese warships and more than 30 transports, the infirm, before a massive attack carrier-based aircraft.
Paradoxically, but the deck is often drowned … aircraft carriers. Rightly see, it was one of the most "hard targets" — breaking through the enemy's air patrols, aircraft often carried the tragic loss. Languid carriers "Akagi", "Kaga", "Zuikaku", "Lexington", "hornet", "Yorktown", lighter aircraft carrier ship "Princeton", "Hermes", "Soryu", "Shoho" … They have all become victims of own "colleagues."
Vorachivayas to Pearl Harbor, what's exciting this operation? First — this is the rare case when the carriers have shown their ability to the limit. According to statistics, almost all naval carrier aviation battles occasionally managed to make a huge number of departures — aircraft very quickly destroyed the enemy. Another prerequisite was the strategy of introducing carrier battle ships — they drove in huge groups, under the cover of countless escort of battleships, cruisers and destroyers (although still not clear who gets covered: deck-based aircraft did not let the enemy at close range.) 10 aircraft carriers — enough to cover the landing area or massive strikes against the shore, but obviously sverhizbytochno for at least some sea battle. On the interception super battleship "Yamato" South American aircraft carriers sent a quarter of its own aircraft. But even this was not very much — the largest warship on the planet sank two hours later.
At Pearl Harbor, it was different. The Japanese have been nemnalo forces, and the goal was great — the whole garrison of Oahu: a large naval base, with its own infrastructure, airfields, oil storage tanks, hundreds of ships and aircraft. Admiral Yamamoto was waiting for his Eagles will destroy everything on the peninsula, with all this will be lost half of Japanese pilots.
The main hope of the Land of the Rising Sun — 6 carrier battle ships:
— 2 languid aircraft carrier "Akagi" and "Kaga" — former battle cruisers laid down in 1920-1921., But of completed as aircraft carriers. Despite the tremendous displacement (40 tons) ships are not very rational assembly and carried to the small size of their own air group. At the time of the attack on Pearl Harbor on board the "Akagi" was 64 fighter, bomber and torpedo bomber, "Kaga" was carrying 72 aircraft. Also, on each ship kept dozens of spare aircraft in parts, but obviously they did not participate in the attack.
— 2 languid aircraft carrier "Zuikaku" and "Shokaku". Two of the most massive ship squadron thoroughbred aircraft carriers, the pride of the fleet Pravitelskogo land of the rising sun. On board each cruise to 72 c
— 2 USS "Soryu" and "Hiryu." Despite its modest size, the two ships operated on a par with the "older". Each wing — 54 aircraft.
Also, as part of the strike group were two battleships, three cruisers, nine destroyers, eight tankers (though the target was 4,000 nautical miles from the coast of the Land of the Rising Sun).
Harsh, at first glance, the squadron had in fact not clear quantitative advantage — the Americans were on the peninsula more than 200 aircraft and military aviation, air groups, excluding aircraft carrier "Lexington" and "Enterprise", an unlimited number of ships and submarines. The Japanese operation was nezapyatannoy adventure — in the case of early detection of any plans for the attack of Pearl Harbor collapsed like a house of cards. And in a languid way, it could cause the death of the Japanese fleet.
But everything turned out as it should have happened aircraft carriers secretly went to the cash point and the first wave — only 183 aircraft — rushed toward dawn. It's been 49 torpedo planes, 91 and 43 fighter bomber "Zero" (of the attack was being prepared 189 planes, but the 6 — 2 of each type — could not take off due to technical reasons).
For me this is the most curious stories of all time: 6 aircraft carriers were able to raise into the air for 183 aircraft kutsee time! Each grave aircraft carrier sent into battle 35-40 cars, light "Soryu" and "Hiryu" — 25 aircraft.
An hour later — at 7.15 in the morning went to take off airplanes second wave — 167 cars, among which 132 bombers and 34 fighters cover. The champion was a heavy aircraft carrier "Zuikaku" — has soared to 44 aircraft.
Surprisingly, but in just a couple of hours in the air rose 350 carrier aircraft! Must be seen in the attack were made machine with a full combat load of supplies and full of fuel. As the Yankees gifts, Japanese aircraft carried 800-pound armor-piercing bombs, 457-mm torpedo aircraft and other massive construction.
At about 10 am on the ships were the first wave of planes vorachivatsya. Funny colorful pilots shared experiences and vied were in charge of their own "heroic deeds". Samurai characteristic arrogance them again, eager to fight. According to Mitsuo Futidy, the commander of the first shock wave technology, despite the absence of any indication, is rapidly produced aircraft to take off newcomer. On the peninsula there are still a lot of goals. All the lively expected order and were very disappointed when the day or hour in aircraft carriers turned and went on working the course. Later, Admiral Yamamoto, who was at that time in Tokyo, not once was that it was a big mistake — should bring the matter to an end.
In the end, we have a soft-spoken fact: every languid wing aircraft carrier has fulfilled that morning by 70-80 sorties. And it was not the limit — the inhabitants of the country of the rising sun had a chance to repeat the raid. Of course, 150 sorties and there is the largest number of sorties per day for a period of aircraft carriers, the second world war. The same number of sorties could provide a languid aircraft carriers of the "Essex."
Naturally, it can be objected that the people of the country of the rising sun, with their characteristic precision, painstakingly prepared for this operation, and probably more than once practiced mass take-off of aircraft and their coordination in flight. But also be aware that the new 'Essex' were larger and more perfect Japanese ships: on their decks there was more tractors, lifts, flight deck itself was spacious, had a more advanced filling system, multichannel communications and radars to monitor air space, and most importantly — they carried more aircraft.
Legend of well-aimed anti-aircraft gunners
One of the major stories of the war in the Pacific was a confrontation between ships and aircraft. I would like to add a few words on the subject. In past articles, readers will not once resented quality Japanese anti-aircraft artillery — despite the presence of hundreds of anti-aircraft guns barrel, the same odious Battleship "Yamato" hard shot down five planes for two hours of continuous fighting. Indeed, as practice shows, the effectiveness of anti-aircraft fire depended not so much on the number of anti-aircraft guns, but from the fire control system.
A huge amount of negative feedback received Japanese 25-mm anti-aircraft machines "Type 96". Almost a few facts about this weapon to dispel speculation. "Type 96" is often made in the form of a twin-structed or automatic anti-aircraft, with all this, unlike the famous "Oerlikon", they all have electronic actuators guidance. It is striking that each building unit served as many as 9 people: the commander, two loaders on each barrel and two gunner (azimuth and elevation) — and then the people of the country of the rising sun have complained that it is not time to turn the barrels of the guns!
Against this positive reasons completed and begins a continuous negative: the food was made from a 15-round magazine, which is at least twice the rate limiting (Technical rate of fire per barrel — 200 rounds / min.). Living in the country of the Rising Sun noted that of the invisible to the naked eye defect, as a significant vibration settings while shooting, the projectile had a small initial velocity (although … 900 m / s — in comparison with analogues looks completely acceptable).
Naturally, this was a very imperfect instrument with an abundance of bugs, but argued that "chatter" of the Japanese anti-aircraft guns was quite worthless, it would be unfair. Striking example: 84% of Russian aircraft losses in Afghanistan were completely from the "Stingers" and DSK fire and small-caliber artillery. But the Japanese 25 mm anti-aircraft gun — it's not a machine gun 12.7 mm …
"Comrade Captain, allow me to report?
Shooting exercises completed, the target is not hit, but very scared "
Well, now we are familiar with the Japanese situation, and came to the conclusion that the Japanese air defense left much to be desired. Now let's see how things were with the air defense on the ships of the U.S. Navy, and as a broker of the Yankees. Meets the view that if these air defense systems were on Japanese ships — uhh, samurai would set the heat aircraft Yankees!
In fact, while the Yankees managed to make one of the most advanced naval air defense system, which was based on 3 "pillars": the gun mount Mark-12-caliber 127 mm, the fire control system (FCS) Mark-37 and shells with radio controlled fuses.
Universal installation Mark-12 entered service in 1934 and was nothing special in itself is not — ordinary pyatidyuymovka. Ballistic harakteritsiki gun did not cause delight, the only positive quality — the rate of 15 rds. / Min, there were cases w
hen the calculations are done by experienced 22 rounds per minute — very many tools for such caliber. But the main focus was not the case … All Mark-12 guns mounted on the American ships were directed to a central goal of getting the data from the radar fire control system Mark-37 — an advanced complex by the standards of today.
Finally, know-how — radio controlled fuses. The development of this electronic accessory has been spent hundreds of millions of dollars! The idea of the ordinary: a small transceiver, mounted inside the shell emits radio waves in place of the highest frequency and the preparation of a strong return signal simultaneously trigger works — target is destroyed. The main problem was to develop a small vacuum tubes that can withstand a shot from the gun barrel.
In view of such an excellent job of creating an effective system of air defense, anti-aircraft gunners South American squandered only two or three hundred square meters of radio controlled fuses for shells with a Japanese plane shot down. Shocking? A mundane projectiles required about 1000! And this is the perfect ship air defense system in those years! With radar and ballistic computer!
Typically, the "record" achievement lead battleship "South Dakota" 26 October 1942 — in the battle battleship shot down 26 of the 50 Japanese planes attacked the compound. An extraordinary result — usually with impunity planes sink ships! Upon closer examination it turns out that 26 aircraft shot down — this is the work of anti-aircraft gunners of the South American connection, including the aircraft carrier "Enterprise" and a dozen destroyers (and each — naizloveschaya MSA Mark-37!). In addition, the mere mention of an aircraft carrier is distrust of official data — in the air were probably air patrols who have made their own contribution to these "26 battleship downed aircraft." In the upcoming Yankees never managed to repeat the record, is also indicative of another case: anti-aircraft artillery battleship "Missouri" was unable to repel the 2-suicide in 1945 — one plane broke through the wall of anti-aircraft fire and was destroyed on impact with the battleship's hull.
Feat favorite Tashkent
Remember the picture of Aivazovsky "Brig" Mercury "attacked with 2 Turkish ships"? Russia's "Mercury" and then shot them both. June 27, 1942 Maritime fortune visited favorite Black Sea Fleet "Tashkent" — regardless of the hours-long attack German aircraft dropped bombs and 332, all the same ship remained afloat, with all this managed to shoot down four of the 96 had attacked him "Junkers". In "Tashkent" got just one bomb and that did not explode! It is in fact very rare, magnificent, indescribable event — usually squadron buried within a few minutes after the start of the raid. And then — the only destroyer overgrown, devoid of any reservations, weathered all the attacks, and aggressively snapping, came out of the battle victorious.
As a broker of Russian sailors? The case just in case. And more appropriate combination of different events. In 1-x, the highest speed — even overloaded, "Tashkent" developed 33 knots (60 km / h!). In-2-, moderate dimensions — length 140 m, width — 14 m For comparison, the dimensions of the battleship "Yamato" is more than 2 times — hard to miss on such thugs! Certain advantage gave the Germans a bad strategy — "Junkers" stormed the individual pairs. And most importantly — accurate and concerted actions of his team — even with warped control management "Tashkent" continued to shy away from flying to the sky ruin, writing on water unheard of zigzags.
In the end, it turned suddenly effective air defense ship, one twin 76 mm anti-aircraft gun, six 37 mm rapid-fire anti-aircraft guns, machine guns 6 mnogokalibernyh — on the Japanese destroyers by the end of the war there were 10's of similar systems, but the air force destroyed them like tin cans. And there happened indescribable.
And yet there are no miracles — the case of "Tashkent" by numerous explosions lost loved ones density. Black Sea Fleet destroyers found the ship in a languid state — without running, half-submerged, with broken machinery, but with the fearless crew, who continued to fight for the life of your own ship, "Tashkent" did not dare had no right to go down — on board were still 2,000 peaceful residents were evacuated of Sevastopol. A favorite from the cellars of weird way anti-aircraft ammunition was gone, all the sailors were shot, right to the last bullet.