The accumulation of the end of the 1950s. operating experience of the first anti-aircraft missiles (SAMs), adopted by the supply of Air Defense Forces Ground Forces, showed that they had a number of significant shortcomings that make them unsuitable for use as a mobile means of covering the conduct of maneuver warfare. Required for these purposes fundamentally more complex, which has the highest degree of autonomy and mobility, the ability to shield against air attack both stationary and moving objects.
The first of these complexes are in the middle of a long-range air defense system "Circle" and the medium-range air defense system "Cube", which are organically included in the organizational structure of the defending troops. Before the long-range air defense system was put task of defense of important objects front and army levels, and medium-range air defense system, providing air defense armored divisions.
In turn, the concrete cover for motorized infantry and artillery regiments were required and a short-range missile systems, the affected area which had to conform to the current organizational structure of the Russian Army and be based on the need to overlap the front width and depth of combat units at irryadkov defended his action in defense or coming.
This evolution of attitudes was typical in those days, and for development of anti-aircraft zabugornyh pa-
ketnyh funds that came in the middle of the 1950s. the need to develop self-propelled short-range air defense system. The first was similar SAM has become South American Mauler, is meant to reflect the low-flying attack aircraft, as unmanaged and managed tactical missiles with RCS 0.1 m2.
Requirements for complex Mauler were made in 1956, taking into account held by the time the scientific and technological breakthroughs in the field of electrical and missile technology. It was assumed that all means of air defense missile systems will be located at the base of tracked armored Ml 13: launcher with 12 missiles in containers, equipment for target detection and fire control radar antenna pointing system and power plant. The total weight of SAM had to be about 11 tons, which allowed him to carry on transport planes and helicopters.
The plan was to start deliveries of the new SAM to the troops in 1963, when all this was a common issue should reach 538 facilities and 17,180 rockets. But on the initial steps of development and testing, it became clear that the initial requirements for the SAM Mauler were nominated more than optimism. Thus, according to preliminary estimates, to create a single-stage missile air defense system with semi-active radar seeker should have had at launch weight of about 40 kg (weight Warhead -4.5 kg) range up to 10 km acts, speeds up to M = 3.2 and make maneuvers with overloads to 30. Performing similarities significantly outpaced the ability of long by about 25-30 years.
As a result, the development of a promising SAM, in what was the role of leading South American Convair, General Electric, Sperry and Martin, immediately began to lag behind the scheduled date and be accompanied by a gradual decrease in the expected features. So, it soon became clear that to achieve the desired efficiency defeat ballistic missile warhead missiles mass necessary to increment up to 9.1 kg.
In turn, this has led to the fact that the weight of the rocket increased to 55 kg, and their number decreased on the launcher to 9.
Eventually, in July 1965, after the landfill White Sands was performed 93 launch and spent more than $ 200 million from the Mauler was abandoned in favor of the more pragmatic defense programs were based on the use of aircraft guided missile Sidewinder, automatic anti-aircraft guns and the results of such developments made Western European companies.
First among them in April 1958 became the UK's Short, which is based on research conducted by the substitution of anti-aircraft guns on the small ships began work on the rocket Seacat, an act which had the range to 5 km. This rocket should be part of a small-sized, a cheap and relatively common air defense system. The need for her was so great that at first in 1959, without waiting for the start of series production, Seacat adopted a ship to England and then Australia, of New Zealand, Sweden and several other countries. Along with vehicular version was developed and ground-based version of the system with a 62-kg missile Tigercat (at least 200-250 flight m / s), which is located on tracked or wheeled armored personnel carriers, and on trailers. For several decades, Tigercat complexes were in service in more than 10 countries.
In turn, in 1963, the British company British Aircraft began work on creating SAM ET 316, received the designation in the upcoming Rapier. But its properties are in fact all the characteristics were significantly lower than those expected for the Mauler.
Now, several decades later, it is recognized that in correspondence competition held in those years, the ideas of the Mauler, were largely implemented in the Russian air defense system "Osa", although its development ^ rakzhe held very dramatichnr, accompanied by a substitution of Governors and development organizations parts.
Fighting vehicle most experienced SAM XMIM-46A Mauler
Seacat SAM ship and land Tigercat
The decision to develop common and cheapest kind of short-range air defense system to protect against air attack infantry divisions was made almost immediately after it began in 1958 designing SAM "cool" and "Cube". Considering the creation of such a complex has been set issued February 9, 1959
Resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers
№ 138-61 «On the development of Air Defence Army, Navy ships and Navy ships."
A year later, 10 February 1960, the Council of Ministers of the USSR was oriented letter, signed by the Minister of Defence, RJ Malinowski, the chairmen: SERC — VD Kalmykov, GKAT — PV Dementieva, GKOT -K.N. Rudnev, SC on shipbuilding -B.E. Booth and Minister of the Navy VG Bakaeva with proposals for the development of army and naval lightweight compact autonomous air defense system "Wasp
" and "Osa-M" with a unified missile, designed to engage low-flying targets at speeds up to 500 m / s.
In accordance with these offers new air defense system intended for air defense forces and their facilities in the combat formations of infantry divisions in different forms of fighting are also on the march. The main charge against the requirements of this complex were full autonomy, which was provided by the location of all weapons of war SAM on a self-propelled wheeled floating chassis, and the ability to detect motion and defeat a small stop at one point appearing with at least some areas of low-flying targets.
First study of the new complex, which is the initial step was designated "Ellipse" (continuing a series of geometric symbols given by the troop SAM launched by "Circle" and "Cube"), showed fundamentally the possibility of creation. The complex was supposed to enter the autonomous control system, ammunition missiles needed to defeat the purposes of 2-3, Trigger, as means of communication, navigation and topoprivyaz-ki, computational tools, controls and power supplies. These items were placed on the same machine that could transport aircraft An-12 with full ammo, refueling and a crew of 3 persons. Funds have been set in motion to detect targets (at speeds up to 25 km / h) and provide a launch rocket weighing 60-65 kg, with small stops, with a probability of one missile hit a target up to 50-70%. With all of this area engage aerial targets, with dimensions comparable to the size of the MiG-19, and soaring at speeds up to 300 m / s, was to be: range — from 800-1000 m to 6,000 m, height — 50 -100 m to 3000 m, the parameter — up to 3000 m
General designer of both complexes (military and naval) was supposed to appoint the NII-20 SERC. Immediately this NII-20 should was to become a prime contractor works on troop option SAMs as a whole, and also on his radiopribornomu complex.
Running anti-aircraft guided missile air defense system Rapier
Create troop creep-cab, triggering device and a power supply system planned to charge for MMP-Mosoblsovnarho. Designing a unified missile launcher also had to lead the factory number 82 Mosoblsovnarhoza, one function block missiles —
SRI-131 SERC, control machines and gyroscopes — the plant number 118 GKAT. After a few months of management GKAT also proposed to include in the development of NII-125 missiles GKOT (development solid propellant charge), and elements of autopilots were invited to engage organizations SERC.
Supposed to start work in the I quarter of 1960 the first year was devoted to perform preliminary design, the second — on a technical project, tests of experimental samples and managed SAM missile launches. On the 1962-1963 years. planned and the ready transfer of prototypes at the municipal complex tests.
The final decision of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers, which was prepared by mid-September 1960 and released on October 27 at No. 1157-487, approved the designation of the complex "Wasp" and led to even more highest property — presumably in order to give developers an added incentive. Namely, the slant range SAM acts was increased to 8-10 km at course parameter to 4-5 km, and the height of combat implementation — up to 5 km. Mass of the rocket has not undergone some adjustments, and before the planned timing of the development moved just one block away.
As the head of performers have been fixed: for complexes of "Wasp" and "Osa-M" in general — NII-20, on the rocket — KB-82, one functional unit — NII-20 together with OKB-668 SERC, by triggering device — SKB-203 Sverdlovsk Economic Council.
Chief designers were nominated: the complex — VM Tara Condon (it soon was replaced by MM-Sichkin Co., which had provided experience in the development of compact PAC for mobile artillery systems) on the rocket — AV Potopalov.
Increased attention has been paid to the resolution approved by the decision on the choice of a basis for self-propelled, as you want to use one of those years developing a light armored vehicle.
It must be emphasized that in the late 1950s. began to develop on a competitive basis of new armored wheeled vehicles and universal wheel chassis car factories in Moscow (ZIL-153), Gorky (GAZ-49), Kutaisi ("Object 1015"), also on the Mytishschinsky Engineering Plant ("Object 560" and " Object 560U "). In the end, the winner of the contest is Gorky's bureau. Designed here BTR out more mobile, safe, comfortable, and well-developed and technologically comparable cheapest.
But these properties for a new air defense system was not enough. First, in 1961 Gorky refused upcoming role in the work on the "Wasp" because of the lack of capacity BTR-60P. Soon, for the same reason has departed from this theme and design ZIL. Ultimately, the creation of self-propelled for "Wasp" committed team SLE Kutaisi Auto Plant of the Economic Council of the Georgian SSR, designed in collaboration with spice capital of the Military Academy of armored and mechanized forces chassis "Object 1040" (on the basis of the most experienced BTR "Object 1015B").
I must say that sketch study BTR "Object 1015" — the wheel (8×8) armored personnel carrier with a floating aft motor setup, the H-speed manual and all-wheel independent suspension — was conducted in the period 1954-1957. the academy running GV Zimeleva employees of one of the chairs and the NIO Academy GV Arzhanuhinym, AP Stepanov, AI Mamleeva and others. Since the end of 1958 in accordance with the Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR to the work connected SLE Kutaisi Automobile Plant, which in the late 1950s and early 1960s. alternately ruled MA Sandy, DL Cartwheel-lishvili and SM. Batiashvili. Later in Kutaisi built several prototypes of improved APC, the designation "Object 1015B."
Interest with which the designers "Wasp" got to
work was typical for long and was based on a huge number of important points. It was assumed that brand new development will build on the experience already tested SAM "The Circle." In addition, by the time the industry has mastered the production of more than 30 types of semiconductor transistors and diodes for various purposes. Specifically, on this basis for "Wasp" managed to make a transistor operational amplifier, which is almost as good as extensively Izvestiya ^ t1 Nome in the years vacuum tube RU-50. In the end, it was decided to make account-but-critical system (EWS) for
Chassis "Object 1040", created to accommodate parts of SAM "Wasp".
"Wasp" on the transistors. Thus, if in the initial version of the PSA contained about 200 operational amplifiers, the upcoming able to reduce their number to 60. At the same time, the difficulty of the merits of the data series for "Wasp" the devil has led to severe specific difficulties that have appeared in the first steps.
The specificity of the SAM "Wasp" — small altitude targets, little time is taken to a processing and defeat the purpose, autonomy and mobility of the complex — has made it necessary to search for new technical solutions and paths. Thus, the features of SAM sought to use part of its functional antennas with the highest values of the output characteristics, antenna, capable of moving the beam in each point of the space sector for a period not exceeding a little bit of a second.
In the end, running VM Taranovskiy in NII-20 was drafted, providing for the introduction in the new SAM system as a means of detection and tracking radar with a phased antenna array (PAR) instead of the classical mechanically rotating antenna.
For a couple of years earlier, in 1958, the Americans made a similar attempt in the development of SPG-59 radar with phased array for the ship's air defense system "Typhoon", whose structure is to anticipate the presence of radar that can immediately do puzzles on fire control and lighting purposes. But just begun study encountered neuvvyazkami associated with a missing level of science and technology, as well, the same with the highest level of electricity consumption due to the presence of vacuum tubes. An important factor is the high price of products. In the end, despite all the trials and tricks antenna out massive, languorous and extremely expensive. In December 1963 the project "Typhoon" was closed. Did not develop the idea and the headlamps on SAM Mauler.
Identical task is not allowed to bring to some important results and the development of phased-array radar for "Wasp." But even more alarming sign was that already in the preliminary design stage of production SAM revealed a decoupling of the main characteristics of the rocket and the complex produced by different organizations. Then, we note the presence of SAM large "dead zone", which was a cone with a radius of 14 km and a height of 5 km.
Trying to find a way out, the designers began to turn away from the more uniformly advanced, but not yet secured the respective production base of technical solutions.
Unified missile 9MZZ engaged Bureau of Plant number 82, led by AV Potopalovym and lead designer of MG Olu. First, the 1950 HGT. this plant mastered the production of the first developed by a team of SA Lavochkin anti-aircraft missile system S-25 and KB-82 conducted a series of measures to improve them. But their own projects CB-82 chased woes. In July 1959 KB-82 was suspended from work on a missile B-625 air defense systems S-125 — have entrusted their more experienced team OKB-2 PD Grushin, who proposed a unified version of the B-600 missiles.
Now CB-82 was instructed to make a rocket, the mass of which would not exceed 60-65 kg and has a length 2,25-2,65 m Because of the need merits of very large features, to the latest missiles took a number of promising solutions. Thus, it was proposed to equip it with a semi-active radar homing, which could provide the highest precision missile guidance to the target lesion and its effective warhead weighing 9.5 kg. The next step was the creation of a functional unit, which consisted of the GOS, autopilot, fuse and power supply. According to preliminary estimates, the weight of the unit itself had to be less than 14 kg. So as not to go beyond the limits of mass of the rocket, in the disposal of the remaining designers had to fit 40 kg of propulsion and control system.
But at the initial stage of work limit on the mass of the functional unit was almost twice the hardware designer, she headed for 27 kg. Soon delineated and unreality inherent in the design of rocket propulsion system features. In the solid fuel engine, the projected CB-2 plant number 81, provided for the introduction of the charge total weight 31.3 kg, consisting of 2-solid sticks (start and sustainer). But this charge is applied to the composition of composite solid fuel showed significantly the lowest (almost at r *)%) energy properties. "
In search of solutions to KB-82 started designing his own engine. It should be emphasized that even this organization in 1956-1957. developed rocket propulsion systems for the B-625 and level designers who worked there-engine-sheets was quite high. The new engine has been proposed to use of mixed rigid fuel developed by GIPKh whose properties are close to the required. But to bring before the end of the job and failed.
Encountered a number of problems and self-propelled designers. By the time of its release to the tests, it became clear that the mass of creep is also superior adopted restrictions. In accordance with the project, "Object 1040" had a load capacity 3,5 t, and for placing of funds in the SAM "Wasp", whose mass is the most life-affirming expectations should have been more than 4.3 m (a pessimistic on-6t) was decided to exclude the machine-gun armament and the transition to the use of light diesel engine with 180 hp instead to use in the layout engine to 220 hp
All this has led to the fact that in the middle of SAM developers of the struggle for every kilogram. In September 1962, the NII-20 was a competition, according to which for the reduction of the complex mass of 1 kg has relied on bonus of 200 rubles, and in the case of reserves in the onboard equipment missiles for every 100 grams assumed 100 rubles.
LP Kravchuk, Deputy Director for the experimental production of NII-20, recalled: "On the creation of the most experienced standard in the shortest time worked hard all the shops, to the extent necessary to work in two shifts, applied and overtime. Another discrepancy emerged because of the need to lower the weight "Wasp". Nearly two hundred body parts have been cast in magnesium instead of aluminum. Not only modified eventually reassembly, and sets the available tooling model had cast again due to the difference of shrinkage of aluminum and magnesium. Magnesium castings and large models were placed on Balashihinskomliteyno-mechanically factory, and most of the models had to have the entire metropolitan area, even in the state farms, where they were gang masters of old times, previously worked at the aircraft plants, since no one was taken to a rather short time the huge number of models. But our ability to be more moderate than we had only 6 modelers. These models cost a sum of decency — the cost of each koAtlekta match prices of polished cabinet. Everyone realized how expensive it is, but there was no way, go for it deliberately. "
Despite the fact that the contest lasted until February 1968, many puzzles raised and have remained unresolved.
The result of the first failures was the decision of the Commission of the Presidium of the Council of Ministers of the USSR for military-industrial issues, in accordance with which the developers have released addition to the conceptual design. It stipulated the introduction of radio-command guided missiles
at the target, reducing the value of the affected areas in the range (up to 7.7 km) and the speed of the targeted objectives. The information presented in this document rocket had a length of 2.65 m, width 0.16 m, and weight have gained the upper limit — 65 kg, warhead weight of 10.7 kg.
V1962, was prepared by the technical design of the complex, but most of the work is still at an experimental stage working off the main laboratory systems. In the same year, the NII-20 and 368 plant instead of 67 sets of onboard equipment made just seven, and in this period (III m. 1962.) Institute-20takzhene were able to prepare for the tests experienced a standard PAC.
By the end of 1963 (by which time the initial plans for completion of all work to create a SAM) performed only a few non-standard layouts launches rockets. Only in the last months of 1963 failed four autonomous missile launch with a complete set of equipment. But the best of them was the only one.
To be continued