Modern wars have confirmed the importance of air and space attack towards the end of the military and political objectives of the armed conflict and the role of air defense / missile defense as a whole. This contributes to the intensification of the military procurement agencies of the world anti-aircraft missile systems and complexes (AAMS / SAM). The principal trend is the enthusiasm for the missile defense system to protect against tactical and operational-tactical missiles, and in the near future — and to the means of site-defense against artillery, mortar and rocket attacks (called the West Systems Force Protection). There is a frisky expanding development and procurement systems of the latter class.
Time dictates …
The main trends in the development of modern air defense missile systems / SAM are increasing their multichannel Target and improve the ability of the defeat of high-speed targets, including ballistic, which allows solving problems of missile defense. Complexes of long range (with a range of more than 100 km) and medium-range (20 to 100 km) are considered at this time as a means of defense against ballistic missiles nemezhkontinentalnoy-range (tactical and operational-tactical and medium-range missiles), cruise missiles, and improved in the direction of increasing capacity on the defeat of a very large number of aerodynamic purposes. Complexes close action (up to 10 km) and short-range (10 to 20 km) develop priemuschestvenno towards giving them the ability to defeat by high-precision weapons, as artillery shells and short-range missiles (including MRL). New development is the integration of air defense missile systems of various ranges of distance in the same complex. Reflecting this trend is the creation of a combined anti-aircraft missile and artillery complexes close deeds and short range, where the leader takes our homeland ("Tunguska", "Shell").
In view of the development of means of oppression defense increasing importance given to the creation of complexes close deeds and short-range passive detection tools and guidance, also with a full homing missiles (infrared or active radar), which allows to realize the principle of "fire and forget". On the other hand, the development of passive self-defense systems on airplanes and helicopters retains the enthusiasm and anti-aircraft systems with command guidance systems (especially the laser) that make the missile impervious to traps.
Modern air defense systems are more complex types of military equipment, and the extent of their capabilities to self-production is an indicator of the level of development of the defense industry of the country. The creation of a more sverhtehnologichny air defense systems of medium and long range should be attributed to naikrupneyshim military achievements of "high-tech", requiring possession at the industrial level, the most advanced technology and investing huge amounts of money on research and development. In view of this development vsepolnotsennuyu complexes medium and long range at the moment without the help of others produce only the United States and our homeland, Western European countries are cooperative applets, and other countries produce in this field with the assistance of the U.S. (Israel, Japan) or Russian (South Korea, India, China) developers. Air defense loved the act and short range also require a very high level of development of science and technology.
AAMS SAM AND LARGE AND MEDIUM-RANGE
In the sector of the AAMS / SAM large and medium-range missiles on the world market at the moment is dominated by the United States with strong family SAM Patriot, and our homeland air defense missile systems to a number of S-300P, and now and the C-400. Undisputed leadership in sales here belongs to the U.S., sold the Patriot in 12 countries (Germany, Greece, Israel, Jordan, Spain, Kuwait, Netherlands, UAE, Saudi Arabia, Taiwan, South Korea, Japan). By the time the true export-made or ordered up to 140 cells of this complex. With the outbreak of the PAC-3 version (including the virtually all EU customers upgrading of early versions of the Patriot to the level of the PAC-3) can be expected that the Americans want to expand and consolidate its position. Scope of supply systems, PAC-3 and later versions of the PAC-2 in the coming 10-15 years will amount to tens of billions of dollars, and the price nedavneshny megakontrakt 9 billion dollars to supply these systems UAE is a pleasant proof of this.
The U.S. also developed and begun to market complex Theater missile defense system THAAD and (along with Germany and Italy) SAM short and medium range MEADS, using the PAC-3 missiles.
As for the Russian Federation, the number of air defense missile systems S-300P act as a "flagship" product Russian "defense" in the field of defense. Yet a number of export SAM S-300P almost focused in the main on China (which from 1997 to 2009 put the 27 divisions of various modifications), and a pair of the division of Cyprus (Greece) and Vietnam were actually a single character. Once the contract in 2006 to supply four battalions of S-300PMU2 in Algeria was a real breakthrough for the border of South-East Asia, but it is unclear whether follow behind this large-scale extension in other countries. In addition, a number of export air defense missile systems S-300P is seriously complicated political obstacles — nice example was practically locked into 2009 Shipping 5 battalions of S-300PMU1 in Iran. S-300B in general have not been able to realize over the limit, not including delivery scandalous 1st set of Yeltsin in 1995 in the U.S. (this is not excluded and supply C-300VE in Venezuela). At the moment, our homeland declares its readiness to conduct a limited export of the latest S-400. According to experts, its actual export prospects are very ambitious.
Almost troubles in exporting initially pursued and Russian medium-range SAM series of "Book", which managed to make only to Finland in debt (three divisions). At the same time, at the moment the situation begins to change for the best uniform due to start exporting the modified systems "Buk" with the 9M317 missiles — such complexes have been sold to Cyprus, Syria, and at the moment are scheduled for delivery in yet another country. In addition, the 9M317 missiles can also be supplied in the upgrade package to upgrade the facilities "Square".
Together with the Russian companies that are participating in the development of new medium-range for other states. Thus, of the concern "Almaz-Antey", apparently contributed to the development of the PRC SAM HQ-9 (a kind of Chinese counterpart S-300P), and at the moment of delivery produce missiles 9M317 series made for the active assistance of the Russian Chinese Complex HQ -17. For South Korea, "Almaz-Antey" has developed a medium-range air defense system KM / SAM, almost being adapted promising Russian air defense missile systems "Vityaz". Sam "Knight" with missiles 9M96 series, planned to be used again in the S-400 "Triumph", should also be considered as one of the future Russian proposals on the world market.
Another area of Russian exports in the sector of medium-range air defense system is to promote vserasprostranennogo extensively modified versions of an old Russian S-125, while here
in Russia there is a competitive offer from the "Almaz-Antey" (option "Pechora-2A") and of "Defensive Systems "(variant C-125-2M" Pechora-2M "). By the time the true not only been modernized systems of old times for these projects in a number of states, but Russian companies signed a number of contracts for the supply of modified complexes in the country, where the C-125 was not in service (Myanmar, Venezuela).
In the coming years we should wait for the expansion of suppliers AAMS / SAM medium and long range and increased competition. First, it must be emphasized further large-scale return to the market of European producers (concern MBDA) with their new, potentially very powerful medium-range air defense missile systems offer SAMP / T Aster 30 missiles to, as the complex of MICA VL. Israel is becoming a massive player, especially in the case of offering them to the world market at the moment created by Rafael anti-missile systems of small and medium-range Stunner (Kela David) and Iron Dome (Kippat Barzel), and the development of success together with India complex medium and long range Barak 8. Already at this time Israel has Arrow 2 anti-missile system (Hetz) joint with U.S. development, however, because of opposition from the United States can not be exported. In the end, it is necessary to wait for the occurrence of severe as the supplier of air defense and China, before nipped in marginal niches — the first important step was to offer them for export complexes KS-1A and the HQ-9.
At the same time, of course, that the market sverhtehnologichny modern anti-aircraft missile systems, large and medium-range, even more so with the capabilities of missile defense (C-300, C-400, Patriot of all versions in the future — SAMP / T), remains very fragmented along political lines. The very choice of such systems for the acquisition has been and remains very politically focused and not really allowing truly free competition, and export of such systems will be as before to face political constraints.
Short-range and a close Acts
Due to the relative ease and cheapness of these SAMs in this sector of air defense offer even more extensive and greater competitiveness. At the moment, the main trend in the middle of a small complex (and some secondary) range may be referred to the proposal of a new family of samples, where the main SAMs are used as air missiles of "air-to-air" with active radar homing, occasionally supplemented by aircraft as missiles infrared homing. They all allow you to embody the principle of "fire and forget". These complexes are SLAMRAAM South American and US-Norwegian NASAMS (both use the known missiles AIM-120 AMRAAM), the European MICA VL, also Israeli Spyder. Can not wait frisky growth in sales of these SAMs, which are not far decade will make a larger share of the market.
Our homeland continues to advance on the global market of short-range high-performance systems with command guidance. This is the first SAM series of "Thor" (sold in China, Greece, Cyprus, Egypt, Iran), and unique anti-aircraft missile and gun complexes families "Tunguska" (delivered to India and Morocco) and "Armour-C1 '(UAE, Syria, Algeria).
Creating a "shell", a descent who found a significant demand in the market and also adopted by the Air Force of the Russian Federation, it was a great achievement of the Tula Instrument Design Bureau. In this case, for the first time in Russian "defense" the embodiment of such project was carried out at the beginning of the means and in the interests of a foreign customer (UAE), and, more fundamentally, marked the first major breakthrough in the Russian air defense systems market countries generally pro-Western orientation.
As for the anti-aircraft close deeds, that for the moment the main focus here was to create systems with packet or turret launchers for high-Zour modern portable air defense missile systems. So, well-known Stinger missiles used in mass-producing and widely exported South American self-propelled air defense system on the Avenger chassis HMMWV, also in a number of similar products from other manufacturers. Currently on the market there are a huge number of mobile packet complexes of this class.
With all of this in the United States last decade and a half sharply restricted the export of MANPADS own Stinger, fearing that they will fall into the hands of terrorists or objectionable crisp white home regimes. These complexes are practically available only to the coming Washington's allies among the developed countries. Americans sell MANPADS shall be removed even more friendly to developing countries by offering them only mentioned self-batch systems with the introduction of SAM Avenger Stinger.
Our homeland, on the contrary, widely exported handheld portable SAM series "Needle". As a result, these Russian systems are now virtually no alternative proposal in the middle of a modern portable MANPADS in the world market (if we disregard the Chinese or Polish MANPADS, which represent a significant extent "clones" "Needle"). Modern French (Mistral 2), English (Starstreak) and Swedish (RBS-70 and RBS-90) portable systems are not fully portable, transportable MANPADS is faster turret type. With all of this in purchase of portable MANPADS are interested in virtually all the country's political orientations. The presence of the Russian Federation at the "turret" ("horseman") and the "package" ("Sagittarius") offerings with the introduction of Russian missiles portable SAM systems further enhances our position in this market sector.
In general we can say that in the near future Our homeland after a certain period of pause is expanding its global market share AAMS / SAM. Such a situation justified highest first competitive Russian proposals in the area of air defense and first in the presence of the Russian Federation proposals on the full range of systems of all classes and ranges — from complex series of S-300 and S-400 air defense missile systems to the portable. But in many parts of the Russian proposals in general are unique to the world market — for example, the modern self-propelled short-range air defense system in an armored chassis (the 'Thor'), or anti-aircraft missile and gun systems ("Armour-C1" and "Tunguska").
The second most important factor in the competitiveness of Russian systems until they are price advantages in comparison with Western ones. Although we should expect that these benefits will be reduced, if not entirely disappear with increasing prices and labor costs in the Russian military-industrial complex.
Finally, the third part is a plus Russian political neangazhirovannost its proposals. She expressed the readiness of Russian suppliers to sell the most modern and sophisticated air defense system which states are actually even without significant political constraints, so characteristic of the American policy of arms exports. The latter factor makes the Russian proposal particularly pretty, for example, in the sector of portable SAMs.
Let's face dominates the volume of supply air defense systems in the world of contemporary design. Shipments of used SAMs are generally unimportant character, although the situation is changing due to the launching of Germany from the presence of complexes Patriot (exported, namely, South Korea), and the supply of Russian modernized variants of the S-125 and S-300P (last — Belarus and Kazakhstan).
At the same time, the real market is experiencing a boom and modernization of air defense systems. First, it is associated with the highest cost of new systems, often making them difficult to access for the purchase of many states and keep driving "all the way" cash outdated systems. In all this there is a greater demand for the modernization of a number of military significance in preserving th
e AAMS / SAM Russian production ("Square", "wasp", "Strela-10", S-125, S-200) is supplied in abundance to their Soviet allies in the Warsaw Pact and friendly countries in the Third World. At the moment there Russian developers faced with a significant konkurentnstyu in the proposals for modernization of options from a number of other post-socialist countries — Ukraine, Belarus and Poland. Western systems of comparable prevalence has only recognizable South American medium-range HAWK, but to the true time of its modernization potential is virtually exhausted and the improvement can be only in the direction of complete substitution of missiles (namely, the AMRAAM), that is actually comparable in price to the acquisition new air defense system.
— significant growth in the market today AAMS / SAM of all classes;
— geographical and political segmentation of the market AAMS / SAM;
— further strengthening of international competition;
— predominance in sales AAMS / SAM latest technology;
— a sharp increase in market modernization programs and packages;
— a significant increase of interest in the missile defense systems and defense systems of the object of artillery, mortar and rocket attacks.