Earlier trials of anti-aircraft missile systems, and on the teachings of their introduction into targets were aircraft, spent their own resources and equipped suitable equipment. This approach to creating target saves on storage and disposal of obsolete equipment, but with the passage of time, he did not hold the military. At least as a possible opponent appeared at potential targets that can develop comparable tremendous speed. Use as their aircraft simulators with similar features would be just wasteful. The way out of the resulting situation was the introduction as targets specifically to finish the anti-aircraft missiles. Rockets, of course, is not sufficiently similar in size to the real purpose of flak, but the goal is not to determine the SAM for its size, and the reflected radio signal or by thermal radiation.
As is the case with the rebuilt obsolete aircraft, the ready targets of anti-aircraft missiles at the same time allows to get rid of useless ammunition. At the moment, there are works on remaking missile systems S-300P and S-300T in the target, as These modifications of the C-300 is not on duty, and of keeping them in storage does not make sense. So we can confidently state that doubts about the necessity of removal from service and that of "recycling" of old times versions of the C-300 are unjustified.
As already mentioned, the anti-aircraft missiles are guided to the target by radar or infrared homing, and for more effective training of personnel required, so that the target on the radar screen looked just like the real goal. But in itself for themselves anti-aircraft missile has the lowest effective surface scattering (EPR) and infrared visibility than combat aircraft. Because when retrofitting missiles target almost always installed reflectors on their various designs for the growth of the EPR, and from time to time and special tracers to "attract attention" infrared seeker.
At the current time only in Russia there are an unlimited number of models of target missiles. For example, in the September of the Russian-Belarusian maneuvers "Union Shield-2011" held at the site Ashuluk (Astrakhan region), for the creation of so-called Mishennaia environment used for more than 4 s 10 types of targets.
Most of today's targets are made on the basis of outdated anti-aircraft missiles, although there are exceptions. This, for example, "wild boar", made on the basis of meteorological rockets, and "Flight" — a converted unmanned spy Tupolev design bureau. With all of this the purpose of these 2-missile differs: "Hog" simulates ballistic targets and flies at a speed of 800-1300 m / s, reaching a maximum height of 50 km. Its range — 90-110 km. "Flight" (aka BP-3VM or M-143), in turn, is designed to simulate aerodynamic purposes, such as: enemy aircraft or cruise missiles, hovering at an altitude of thousands of meters at a speed of up to 900-950 km / h
Other targets in the middle of special interest are the rockets "Armavir", "Tit" and "arquebus." The fact that they are made on the basis of complexes missiles With-75 (first two) and the C-125, has long been removed from duty in our country. But as targets of these missiles could serve for more than one year. RM-75 "Armavir" (developed by an NGO "Lightning"), for example, is able to simulate not only available, and promising aerodynamic targets, including the subtle, soaring to a height of 50 meters to 20 km. EPR own this missile least half a square meter. When using the optional power reflectors this figure can be increased by 3-4 times. Running "Armavir" is the standard launcher, but the management of all systems by using "Lisa" and "Lisa M". RM-75 is flying by early planted programmke, making corrections on commands from the ground. In addition to the standard control equipment and reflectors, "Armavir" can be equipped with recording equipment hits, infrared tracers or electronic countermeasures equipment.
Family target "Tit" ("Tit-1 ', -6 and -23, as" kite ") is generally similar to" Armavir ", with the difference that the" bird "have great ability to control the missile during flight lots.
Target RM-5V27 "arquebus" was developed Vyatskiy engineering company "Avitek" based on the 5V27 missile complex With-125. This rocket may be used as mimics of ballistic targets, in case it is "climbs" up to a height of 45-50 km. But the main goal of "food" — an imitation of aerodynamic targets with small ESR, hovering at low and medium altitudes, capable of maneuvering with congestion (cruise missiles, etc.). Like other target missile, "arquebus" starts with the standard launcher. Drastic improvements triggers when all this is not required. First flight rocket controlled from the ground, and then goes into the stand-alone mode, although the possibility of operator to adjust the line of motion of flight remains.
And in the end slightly on target, made from scratch. One of the most noticeable patterns among them — complex "Tribute". This catch rocket with a turbojet engine starts with the powder of the accelerator and can fly at altitudes from 50 to 9000 meters. The highest speed — of the order of 710-720 km / h With all of this rocket is quite strong and can maneuver with congestion from +9 to -3 units. "Tribute", developed in the Kazan bureau "Falcon", is capable of carrying a wide range of head units for various purposes (reflectors, electronic warfare, etc.) are also tracers. At the end of the flight, either automatically or by operator command, "Tribute" is able to make Myagenko landing by parachute. So Makarov, one similar missile can be used up to 10 times.
In general, the practice shows that it is not necessarily to create a target for air defense from scratch. Naturally, such an approach makes it possible to make them specifically for what they should be. But at the same time, the concept alteration antiaircraft missiles target Viability is not only in theory, and in practice.