When someone close dies, we pity the dead, and at the same time … afraid of him! Even those of us who have never heard of any of the Slavic paganism to Christianity or any other religion. Why so?
Scientists claim: mythological beliefs of various peoples somehow derived from the laws of psychology, common to all mankind. If the Chinese and the Swede in red, pulse quickened both — here on what the deepest level on the border between "animate" and "neodushev-industrial" lie the roots of religious beliefs. That is why the myths very distant tribes are remarkably similar, and we sometimes easy to understand even the myths of Australian Aborigines, although we live on the other side of the planet …
Many had to face the fact, as children run away from his friend, the blood get hurt in the game. Fear? Fear of blood? And her fear?
But just sometimes people come and the African jungle, fearless warriors, hunters ferocious beasts. Here's how they explain their behavior ethnographers who came to study the customs of the tribe, "With man nothing ever happens for a reason. All. what happens — a sign of Gods, evil or good. If someone suddenly get hurt — it means. that evil spirits and death themselves are ready to seize them. Dangerous to stay with such a man, a misfortune is contagious and all draws, like a whirlpool … "
So mythological consciousness refracts the natural fear and childish reasoning: "If I do something I have not seen or pretended not to see, then, how this would have happened …"
Hence our fear of the dead: and that, if he and I will carry off there too — to the light, with the line between the worlds, which violated the Death …
Therefore, traditional Russian funeral contain a huge amount of rituals designed to pay last respects to the deceased, yet to win away to expel the hated death. A departed promise resurrection, new life. And all these ceremonies, often retained to this day, have pagan origins.
Now when you leave this world, people said goodbye to all the elements of nature as it shall be attached to them at birth. Sensing the approach of death, the old man asked my sons to bring him into the field and bowed to all four sides, "Mother Earth is wet, forgive and accept! And you, a free light-Father, forgive, if offended … "
Then he lay down on a bench in the corner of the holy, and the sons of him dismantled roof earthen huts, to make it easier departed soul, not to torment the body. And so the same-so do not try to stay in the house to disturb the living …
Death meant a transition to another world, where people still live, invisible to other people. Therefore, at the burial of the deceased sought to remove from the house and at the same time provide him with a comfortable life after death in the form of a benevolent parent. Thus, the funeral ceremony had two purposes — to facilitate the dead to the world of the dead and to help his friends to overcome grief.
Funeral rites consist of "purification" of the deceased, to prepare it for burial and commemoration.
In the tomb (later in the coffin) put the things that were needed late in the future. Afterlife: household utensils, bows, arrows, a supply of food and clothing. In ancient times, during the funeral to-kill domestic animals, which are then placed in the grave.
In order not to cause the deceased in the future evil friends, they tried to cajole, to win: leave a memorial on the grave of pancakes, pies, a glass of vodka. During the commemoration, which became part of the ceremonial ritual, put on the table a separate device, the plate was placed a piece of bread go pancake, put a glass of vodka. When the first time since the death of a family drowned bath on the first pair of the deceased and invited him to carry a special broom and clean underwear.
After the spread of Christianity in the funeral began to give the window a bowl of water and a clean towel to broadcast, so the soul can wash and wipe before a long journey.
By the way, in popular culture, especially in the songs, death always likened wedding. Centuries of antiquity it was not just a poetic metaphor. When he died a noble man, a widower and had not managed to get married with him to the grave was often a girl — "death-wife." When trying to re-create a ritual to "historical" books and movies, usually obtained horrible and cruel scenes. Meanwhile, the girls went to the infrequent death voluntarily, causing envy of her friends and the anticipation of future blazhenzhenstvo to "seventh heaven" with a noble husband.
The struggle between good and evil takes place on earth and in heaven, and in each of us. Real and mystical tests to which we are exposed, cleanse the soul, burn it all evil, bring death to the gods as far as he is able to do … And it is not only and not so much in the "genes" of the innate dignity. After the first, the thunder god Perun who subjected Initiation was his own son …
Our life-long dedication and physical death only brings results.
If it was not in Slavic paganism of these ideas, if a thousand years ago, we were really "dark savages", is able to be Christianity with its ethos let we have such strong roots, so good fit in the traditional beliefs of the Slavs? Could be a great place that gave rise Culture Ancient Russia?
Great cultures never engaged uprooting what has been before. Great cultures grow out mighty roots.
In the stories of many people close to the Slavs, the bridge is mentioned in the pagan paradise, a beautiful bridge, which can take on only the souls of good, courageous and fair. According to scientists, there was a bridge and the Slavs. This we see in the sky on a clear night. Now we call it the Milky Way. Most righteous people without interference hit them right in the light Iriy. Liars, vile rapists and murderers fail with the stellar bridge down — into the darkness and cold of the Lower World. And the other, who had to mess things up in this life and good, and bad, go over the bridge helps faithful friend shaggy black dog-relationship of the ancient Slavs to death and the dead ancestors — the whole world that we barely looked. Why leave the cemeteries some food and wine in a glass? Then, in order to be treated with the soul dead-vors, congregate, or in the form of invisible birds. Location omen bird flew into the house — not for good? And suddenly it came back from the dead someone's mind and wants to "call" for any of a domestic …
And that there is a custom in the middle of cold winter kindle huge bonfires of straw "to the dead in the afterlife not freeze!" .. .
I will mention one more ordinary, which certainly seem surprising. Now consider the upright necessarily speak for the dead, sadly, this is a sign of eternal memory and love. Yet it was not always. Even in the Christian era recorded the legend of inconsolable parents who dreamed of their dead daughter. She could hardly keep up with the other righteous men, as she had all the time to carry a two full buckets. What was in those cans? Tears of the parents …
You may also recall that the funeral — an event, it would seem especially sad, even now very often result in a cheerful and noisy feast, where the deceased remembered something mischievous. A burst of laughter and priplyasyvanie at the funeral and even funeral rally — the custom of some people, sometimes they surprise us in the international television programs? What is it — indifference and disrespect to the deceased, blasphemy?
Think about it, what a laugh. Laughter is the best weapon against fear, and mankind has long understood this. Not so bad one in the empty and dark apartment, if loud laugh and sing. It is not by chance come up with amusing anecdotes about the cruel and unjust governments: that is something to laugh, is not able to instill fear and no longer seems invincible. Similarly, and with Death. Ridiculed. Death is not terrible, laughter drives her as light drives darkness makes concede Life road. Ethnographers described cases where the mother breaks into a dance at the bedside of a critically ill child. It's simple: The death will be, will see the fun and decides that the "wrong address". Laughter — a victory over death, laughter — a new life …
The same idea of life-affirmation, rebirth, resurrection is, as we know, and the ritual food for funerals, so kutya pancakes.
. Christian funeral rites organically absorbed features of the ancient pagan rituals. On the one hand, the deceased wearing a cross on his head Lay corolla
— tape from the sacred signs. In his hand put Absolution Certificate with special prayer, I do. that before his death he had been absolved.
On the other hand, many of the elements of the funeral ceremony reminiscent of pagan rituals and focus on diversion from living death. So, in the house where the deceased, covered mirrors (windows. The underworld). Deceased — carried out of the house feet first, sometimes even through the door and through the window, so he could not see the road and could not find his way home. With the same purpose before returning from the cemetery necessarily perepryagali horses. Strictly forbidden to bring any of the cemetery decoration or food, as might appear late for them and harm living.
Mandatory element funeral ritual are lamenting or prichet (a genre of poetic ritual lyrics) that accompanies each ritual action. In laments not only expressing a reaction to the loss of a loved one, but also contained praise the deceased.
Prichet often turned in a detailed narrative-telling about life of the deceased. At the same time he was asked for advice on how to live, what to do with, sometimes prichet took a form of "dialogue with the deceased." After prichet deceased requested to get back to earth, he has helped to live. Their activities
Wailing mourners sang specially invited. They are highly valued and considered a master of his craft, as had to remember a large number of verbal formulas, phrases and images.
Especially widely used in the lamentations symbolism associated with the world of birds: the widow was compared with the cuckoo, orphaned after the death of the owner house — with the empty nest. In addition, it was believed that a bird native brings news from the world:
Here comes the summer-warm,
Zakukuet Kukushechka in the woods.,
And I go, bitter goryushechka,
The beautiful kerylechko
Zagora I sirotochka —
Hurts my serdechushko.
The authorities disapproved of lamentations, seeing them clear connection with paganism. In 1551, the decision of the council was prohibited Stoglav wailing at the funeral. In 1715 the ban was reiterated in a decree of Peter I, but continued to run wailing and existed in an oral existence until the mid XX century.
In the church a memorial service for the deceased are (from the Greek. Panorama — the entire Knox — night). This name came about because in the first centuries of Christianity the burial took place at night, the authorities could not prevent the ceremony. A funeral service is a kind of dialogue of the priest or deacon and choir. In this case, the priest begs God to take the deceased to heaven, and the chorus responds to him.
The church houses the tomb of the deceased head for the door, his feet to the east. It was believed that the deceased so better hear a requiem and lithium and can not see the road to the cemetery. During the funeral the priest says a prayer over the dead, burns incense incense and sprinkled the coffin with holy water.
The funeral ceremony begins with the reading of the Psalms and singing penitential canon. This is followed by the ritual of farewell to the deceased "during which the choir sings verses, mood permeated sweet sorrow. The ceremony ends — let go — parting words alive and deceased. Sometimes called the funeral service funeral service.
After the ceremony, the coffin carried from the church to the singing, "Holy God, Holy Mighty, Holy Immortal, have mercy on us." For the triple repetition of words is a hymn was called the "Trisagion".
When removal of the body of the house and the cemetery priest is lithium (from the Greek. Lite — earnest prayer). Uttering words lithium, the priest throws a cross on the coffin of a handful of dirt, oil, and pour part of sprinkles ashes from the censer. The ritual is held to ward off evil spirits from the grave and prevent the dead to rise from the dead to judgment.
The tomb of the body have a face to the east, to the Day of Judgment deceased person has risen from the tomb of the Lord.
After the burial of the deceased in the house are arranged funeral. This custom also preserved from dohris-Tyana times when the grave arranged commemorative feast — funeral feast.
Description of funeral rites of noble Virus, with all the details can be found in travel notes of the tenth century Arab traveler Ibn Fadlan. More complete picture can be formed by reading the book, BA Rybakov "Paganism ancient Slavs" and "Paganism Old Russia."
Forgive funeral rite is as follows: "If any man umryashe, tvoryahu tryznu nad nim and posem tvoryahu steal the Great (Fire laid out in a rectangle, the height of the shoulders of man. At a pre-movinu should take ten times more wood by weight. Domowina is done in the form of castles, boats, etc. Moreover, the nose boat put the sunset. deceased was dressed in all white, covered by a white blanket, put in Domowina milodary and memorial meal. deceased must lie down on the west.), and vzlozhahut and stealing dead sozhzhahu (burns an elder or priest, stripped (at least for now), and with his back to stealing. interior stealing stuffed flammable straw and branches. After a fire breaks out reads cellar & tnaya prayer. After the prayer all fall silent before Since then, not up to the sky a huge pillar of flame — a sign that the deceased went to Svarga) and posem sobravshe bone (the northerners, for example, it was customary to collect bones, and pour on top of a small hill, which was arranged Trizna. Throwing top weapons and milodary participants differed feasts to dial in helmets and land-rattling is a big mound.) vlozhahu Bb sudinu mala (clay pot) and postavyahu on a column (in a small burial hut "on chicken legs") on puteh ( on the way from the village to the setting of the sun), hedgehog doeth Vyatichi and now (the custom to put the cabin "on chicken legs" over the grave, is preserved in the Kaluga region and 30's of the XX century). "
Note: the mourners to be in a white funeral clothes or white funeral capes. In a sign of grief head covered by a white blanket.
Reading with lighting a pyre (stealing great)
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