Does not aim to audit the settled view of the emergence date of our state, we must recognize that the Norman theory, like all the concepts that have emerged on the basis of it, from the point of view of modern historical science can not give a complete picture of the origin of the Russian state. Sergei Chernyakhovsky published in "file-Russia" article "A matter of opinion. Getting started Russia? "Raised a very important topic to rethink the origins of the Russian state on the basis of new information. I hope the discussion will continue and suggest to the reader a view of the problem.
In 862 several Slav and Finnish tribes called because of the sea with Prince Rurik Vikings, and dynasty, managed to create a great power.
However, in the works of Russian and foreign historians "Westerners» XVIII — XIX centuries. event data acquired with "eloquent" comments: to Russ de Scandinavian Vikings came, they brought her to the foundations of civilization and laid the foundations of statehood itself. A to the Vikings in our land anything worthy of attention and could not be. Some tribes lived — with one word immediately suggests itself in the image of savage animal skins.
This theory, called normannizma, prevailed in pre-revolutionary Russia, and carried over to Soviet science. Abroad, it is still undisputed. And in our literature emerged as a strong stereotype that ruin it is extremely difficult.
Although a state on the territory of our country has existed since ancient times. Even Herodotus and other Greek authors described the powerful Scythian kingdom. Now clearly proved that it consisted of the ancient Slavs. And they were in Scythia is not forced disenfranchised people. Archaeology shows that the population of farmers Dnieper and the Bug is not fenced, the Scythians were not for their enemies. Ancient Slavs were their allies on equal shared the spoils of war — in the same villages, found many trophies of the campaigns in the Caucasus, the Assyrians, the Middle East. There are a lot of Greek coins, products: farmers were able to sell the products for export.
In the II. BC Great Scythia died, but in the south of present-day Russia have Yazygs kingdom, Roxolans, Alans, Crimean Scythia. At the turn of our era began large-scale settlement of the Slavs, the Romans called them Wends. They occupied Central Europe, Carpathians, southern shore of the Baltic Sea — in a sea of Roman maps designated as Venedsky bay. And the Baltic ancient authors observed quite developed states: hereditary power "kings", a strong navy, official stockpiles, where the population in the event of war to receive arms.
Tradition says that in the I century. the land of the future of Russia visited St. Apostle Andrew. Founded the Christian community in the Crimea and up the Dnieper River and blessed place where there Kiev, Novgorod saw in steam baths and surprised them, and then through the Baltic Sea returned to Rome.
Usually this legend perceive skeptical. But, if you look, then … nothing incredible in it. Of course, Novgorod did not exist. But the city flourished in the Crimea-Scythian Naples, Naples in translation — Novgorod. Steam baths in it were available, they were found during excavations. Waterway across the Dnieper and Volkhov already acted. Swim across the Baltic Sea was real, his furrowed venedskie ships. A city wends were major centers of international trade, Roman merchants went here to buy the precious amber.
In the II. Baltic states vandals Rugova (aka Russ, dew, Ruthenians), and others crushed the Germans, the Goths. Part of Russ retreated to the Black Sea, has teamed up with the local Slavs and Sarmatians-Roxolans. Set of data, archaeological and written, shows that they have formed a common state. It was loose, short-lived, and in the III. Goths destroyed it. The invaders have created a huge empire. Among other subjects, the Gothic kings of peoples became Finnish tribes Chud, whole, Meria. That is, the empire came in and what is now the Central, North-Western Russia. Some of the Slavic tribes became allies ready with them attacked the Romans. Others were subdued.
Roman chronicles mention emigre Russian prince at the court of Constantine the Great. But in the IV. ready to hit the newcomers from the East, the Huns, and on their side, as noted by contemporaries, Prince went rosomonov (translation — "the people grew up"). Most of the other Slavic tribes also supported the enemies of their oppressors. Goths were defeated, their empire was replaced by the Huns. The king was kind Balamber Slavs under it formed a tribal alliance Ants. They maintained an internal self-government, historians of the era called antskogo Prince Busa and elders who were executed rebellious Gothic king Amal Vinitar.
Nomadic Huns largely took over the Slavic culture. Byzantine capital after described Attila, lying somewhere on the Dnieper River, a beautiful city with a typically Slavic wooden architecture, carved palaces, tower. The drive and the "Hun" word — "honey", "brew", "bleed off" (funeral). In the middle of the V century., After Attila's death, his empire fell apart in a brutal war. Since that time, the Slavs are the immediate neighbors of Byzantium, for wide out to its borders.
In the Byzantine descriptions of their lives reflected strong evidence of state organization: the hierarchy of the nobility, the administrative division. Refers to the "potentates" — tribal princes of them were "kings" or "kings" — the leaders of large organizations. Board princes supplemented institute council, general gatherings where important issues were solved. Particularly high level reached principality Ants. All three had developed agriculture, there were quite a large city.
They defended themselves with powerful shafts, wooden walls and palisades. In them was the residence of the rulers, military guards, living and working craftsmen. For example, in the pastoral settlement blacksmiths cooked iron produced scythes, sickles, spades. Located next workshops of potters, jewelers, gunsmiths. The Warriors had a great weapon, armor, helmets. Ants are considered typical of the long straight swords of the highest quality. In archeology, they gave the name of a whole class of similar products, "Swords antskogo type." Even in the Anglo-Saxon poem "Beowulf" heroes fighting antskimi swords, the best at the time.
Wait for 300 years, until the Vikings come and teach something useful, the Slavs were in general not necessary. Because visitors from the west could not teach them anything, but lay near Byzantium — the center of advanced culture of the era. Antia maintained close ties with her, was her ally. Antskie squads operated as part of the Byzantine army, antsky garrison stood in the Greek city on the Dniester Tiras.
In VI. Antia, fell under the blows of the Avar Khaganate. He terrorized and subjugated tribes were within his reach, and there was a mass migration of the Slavs. Some of them moved to the Balkans. Far to the north left Slovenes, Krivichi, Polotsk, to the east — and vyatichi radzimichy. And in VII. Avar Khaganate power was undermined, he began to crumble and disappear obstacles to the development of the Slavs. They occupied a dominant position in Central and Eastern Europe.
The chain stretched their principalities on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea. At the base of the Jutland peninsula located obodritov ownership. Nearby lay a country Wagram. More east — rugiev. From the Oder to the Vistula Sea Coast Dwellers lived. And between them and Lithuanians — the Prussians. In the territory of modern Germany Labe (Elbe) to Havel and Spree lyutichi lived. South of them lay the ground luzhichan. Present Poland was divided between mazovshane, Poles, vislyane, slovintsy.
In Central Europe, lived Czechs, Moravians, pannontsy, Balkans settled Serbs, Croats, horutane. And in Eastern Europe settled peoples, we know the chronicles. On the Volkhov — Slovenia. From Lake Pskov to Smolensk — krivichi. In Belarus — Polotsk, Dregovichi. In the Carpathians — White Croats. In Western Ukraine — Volynyane. The Dniester — Tivertsy on the Southern Bug — Ulichi. In Polesie — drevlyans. In the Dnieper — clearing radzimichy, the gums and the Eye — vyatichi. And the east field, the Dnieper and the Don, lay the edge of the North.
Only we must remember that these names mean not just the tribes and the state, and to the level they were in no way inferior to other European countries. Eastern Slavs Arabs identified three most powerful states: Cuiaba, Arasan and glory. Cuiaba — Kiev principality glades, Slavia — Slovenian centered Ladoga (Novgorod did not exist). Arasan — presumably, the Principality of northerners. Persian manuscript in the early IX. telling them about the social structure field: "One part of them — a knighthood. Priests use them respectfully. People annually pay to the Government a ninth of its income and trading profits. Cuiaba — seat of the king … ". As you can see, there have been government, and know clearly about to certain taxes.
Ibn vyatichi Rust wrote: "The head, which they called the head of the chapters, called them" sviet-Malik. " And it is above supanedzha and supanedzh is his deputy. " "Malik" in Arabic "king." Obviously, the title sounded like a "prince of light." And "supanedzh" — zhupan. Governor, who led zhupu, tribal clan. In obodritov state was a federation, it included Rarog, Waranga and a number of tribes, they had their own princes, and stood at the head of the Union of the Grand Duke. Germans respectfully called him "King" and the tribal princes — "Duke." A similar device had lyutichey Northerners.
Sometimes there are misunderstandings and confusion: where is gone Russes, which gave the name of our country and people? In the confusion of resettlement, they split into several parts. Some remained in the Baltic Sea — the tribes Rarog, rugiev, Prussia. Others settled in Austria, there was a small kingdom, and later Austrian duke had their origin from the "Russian kings." Another branch joined Slovenia. A fourth settled on the Don and Donets, joined the tribal alliance northerners.
Various sources mention here Russes from the middle of VI. In alliance with the Khazars, they stopped the Arab expansion in the north, were raiding in the Caucasus. Chinese diplomats have seen Russian ambassadors at the court of the Turkic Kagan. Bavarian geographer early in the IX. listed the different branches of the Rus — "attrosy", "vilirosy", "casting", "hozirosy." The main ones he considered two Baltic and southern. A Persian geographer Ibn Hordabeg explained that "Russ — a tribe of Slavs."
Slavic civilization has reached the highest in paganism to its heyday. Grew large and wealthy cities Arkona, animal (Schwerin), Wolin Rarog (Rerik) Starigrad (Oldenburg), Michelini, Dymin, Kodansk (Gdansk) Ratibor (Rattsenburg) Branibor (Brandenburg), retro, Prague, Velehrad, Krakow , alopecia, Ladoga, Kiev, Chernigov, Smolensk, Polotsk. Archaeologists have discovered the remains of fortifications, temples, streets, even at that time have wooden bridge. In these cities lived warriors, skilled blacksmiths, potters, smelters, carvers, jewelers, weavers. During excavations across their products, expensive imported stuff. German authors have reported on the "civil rights" of the Slavs, the urban aristocracy.
But Slavic principalities were united. Someone enters the Union, others fought among themselves. As a result, the northerners, clearing vyatichi, radzimichy were conquered by the Khazars. And in the Baltic Sea at the end of the VIII century. Vikings spree. They raided and Ladoga, defeated Prince Burivoya, levied tribute words, Krivichi Chud Finnish tribes, all of it to measure. But to talk about some of their cultural and educational mission would be ridiculous. Just look at least a list of the leaders of the Nordic fleets: Raskalyvatel Skulls, Viper, Wicked, Blood Axe, Bryuhotryas, robber, Pig, Skinner, lousy Beard, Pyro. They were ordinary thieves, and only interested in their profit.
Slavs and Finns long to endure. A rebellion led by his son Burivoya Gostomysla, Vikings expelled. And the tribes involved in the liberation war, joined the union. Apparently, just the power Gostomysla called Russian Khaganate, it was known in the Byzantine Empire, and in Germany. Ties with the Baltic and Slavic principalities, especially obodritami. Comparison of the Novgorod Chronicle, German chronicles and legends, shows that over Godolyuba, prince of the tribe Rarog that were part of the federation obodritov, Gostomysla married off his daughter was touched. Rarog belonged to the largest port on the Baltic Sea Rerik, friendship with them was very important for trade.
On obodritah reached us a lot of information from German historians. Frankish king Pepin the Short and the Emperor Charlemagne maintained a strong alliance with the Principality and fought together against the Saxons, lyutichey. Franks called obodritov "our Slavs." V808 but was attacked them Danish king Gottfried drew lyutichey. Defeated the Grand Duke obodritov Drazhko fled and was killed. The Danes took Rerik, captured and hanged Godolyuba defend the city.
All the data agree that Rurik, the future ruler of Russia, just as the son Godolyuba and softened. Perhaps it was named in honor of the deceased and falcons Rarog, totem tribe. How and where the childhood prince is unknown. V826, the brothers Harald and Rurik appeared at the court of Louis the Pious. They dubbed the promised support. But the empire is falling apart francs, it began strife.
And for orphans and outcasts in the Baltic Sea opened a direct route to the Vikings or Normans. These terms denote not nationality, and occupation: free warriors, pirates and mercenaries. Their ranks were filled Daredevil different nationalities, and the Varangian Rus were known, no less Scandinavian colleagues. They took an unassailable Seville, devastated even Sweden and Denmark.
Rurik became one of the most skilled and successful Norman leaders. Squadron under his firm were noted in France, Spain, England and Germany. Building on the reputation and wealth, it is 853 — 854 years. tried to win back his father's principality. First was a success, but the Danes still overpowered.
And at the same time, important events took place in Ladoga. Gostomysla died without direct heirs. His empire disintegrated, tribes at loggerheads with each other. This did not fail to take advantage of neighbors. Meria conquered the Khazars. And from the sea in 852 Danish Vikings raided, took home a lot of wealth. V854, the Swedish Prince Eric pogroms and overlaid tribute Slovenia Slovenia: Kurovo, Estonians and Finns.
Danger caused people to squabble. Elders words, Rusich, Krivichi Chud, started talking to again unite. Resolved: "Let us look for sobe prince owned by us and others like ryadil HN by law." That is, to run and judged fairly. But where is the search of the prince? Nikon Chronicle reports that voiced some suggestions: "Either from us, or from Kazar, or on the field, or Dunaychev or from Varyag".
Discussions won variant "of the Vikings' candidacy Rurik. She was the best in every respect. Rurik was grandson Gostomysla by a subsidiary line, the noble warrior, his name was resounding in the Baltic. And everything else, he was an outcast. Prince no Duchy! Was to associate himself with the whole new homeland.
Like this place "calling the Vikings." Rurik came to Ladoga to the Vikings and assorted militias "with all its native" — pushed him emigrants obodritami. And I must say, the elders made the right choice. The founder of the dynasty had a victorious war with the Khazars, took their land, and were measured muromlyan, Rostov and Murom. Began "grads staviti" strengthening border. Finally, Russia is the only country which had access to the sea, which never knew the Viking invasions, suggests in this era terror throughout Europe.
And it is worth noting: the subsequent dispute between normannistami antinormannistami and was generally … fabricated. And abroad, in Russia for a long time remember where they had been designed to "Varangian Rus". The Germans in the tenth century. Titled Grand Duchess Olga, the "Queen of Rugova." In the XVI century. Ivan the Terrible mentioned that the Rurik dynasty originated from the legendary Prussia, from whom were descended the princes of the Baltic Slavs. And in the XVIII century. well-known associate of Peter I, Alexander Menshikov, concocted a false pedigree, where his family was made "from obodritov."
What do you think, do Menshikov knew who the obodrity? Yes, he was illiterate. A principality obodritov finally disappeared for 500 years before him, won by the Germans. Hardly heard anything about it and the clerk, to write to the prince pedigree. He's just working out the order to be "poznatnee" cheated with pedigrees most ancient aristocratic families. When Menshikov tried, he was reminded of this paragraph, the indictment stated that "many noble families of obodritov produce themselves."
But in the XVIII century. Ancient traditions are broken. Lordly class was eliminated, pedigrees devalued and forgotten. Chronicle, preserved in the library of the monastery, pulled apart by scientists and amateurs, lost, perished. And in Russia ponaehali authoritative German professors and a vacuum generated normannizma theory. Obodritov, rugiev, Pomeranians and other Baltic Slavs was long gone in the world, and remember no one bothered them — learned professors of them had no idea. Therefore started equating "Varangian Rus" with anyone, not with Rusichi. While no one Scandinavian and Germanic tribe called "Rus" in the history does not appear.
And modern Western scholars are not far removed from its predecessors. As evidence of lead, for example, a quote from Chronicle: "thee thus bo zvahut you Varaga-rus, like of my friends call svee, Friends same ourmani, anglyane, inii and Gotha, tacos and B". Hence the conclusion: in addition to the "Varangian Rus' called Swedes (svee), Norwegians (Norman), the British, the Goths. There's just the Danes — means "Rus" is what they are.
Well, it is only sympathize so historians, since they do not know that in IX. no English to speak of does not exist, just as the Angles were one of the tribes that inhabited Denmark. Obviously, they do not know that much of the present-day Germany was occupied by the dead in the XII — XIII centuries. Slavic states. But do not get tired to pour comments about culture and statehood, the Slavs brought from the West. In short, this is an extremely bright and a typical example of how the truth can be buried under a stream of "scientific" garbage.