Complex phenomena in the dynamics of earthquakes


More and more often these days, scientists recognize that the tremors and vibrations caused by the earth's surface not only by natural causes — tectonic processes or volcanic eruptions. The tectonic forces that drive the solid earth is discharged their energy from relatively shallow surface.

Rugged rocks resist these forces. At a time when the limit is reached rock strength, they burst, crack, collapse. Echoes of these powerful processes reach the earth's surface in the form of earthquakes. Sometimes the movement of individual sections of "the split" the earth's crust can be observed by changes in the relief (the formation of ledges, terraces and breaks, etc.).

Over the past decade, including the causes of earthquakes, a new factor: the geological activity of the person. Moving large masses of ground in the development of mineral resources, conducting underground nuclear explosions, creating large reservoirs that his weight pressing on the individual blocks of the Earth's crust, by pumping into the bowels or pulled out a large amount of water, oil or gas, a person unwittingly may cause groundwater impacts. Active human activity in the bowels of the earth, disrupting the balance and redistributes energy, which in turn drives the layers of the earth's crust.

Proof of this is collected worldwide data on shifts in the Earth's crust in aseismic areas, that is, where in itself is a dangerous phenomenon is not common where there is no joint boards of major faults, folds of rock, a hint of the passage of magma.

Gazli earthquake in 1976 near Bukhara may be an example of this is not a typical manifestation of the earthquake. Repeat after 8 years, a series of earth tremors outlined the new major faults in the region that have not been up to that time on the seismic zoning map established by the Institute of Seismology.

As scientists say, these phenomena are characteristic of young Turan plate. When the gas pressure is reduced by 50% but the structures and mechanisms of action of the oil and gas industry is not fully understood. The events of those early days prompted seismologists do research not only causes uncharacteristic of Bukhara region earthquakes, but also update the card, install the equipment.

Since then, there were more than 650 mikrotolchkov force from 0 to 4, 25 balllov. Turan plate is not the only manifestation in the world of unexpected earthquakes. An example of such a phenomenon in the aseismic zone can cause an earthquake under Neftegorskaya (Sakhalin Island). An earthquake measuring about 7.6 completely destroyed the village Neftegorsk terrible outcome were not only numerous destruction, but also a huge number of lives.

For the people and the buildings are dangerous not only to themselves tremors. Frequent earthquakes more formidable companions, they cause natural disasters: devastating, Tara sea waves (tsunamis), large landslides and rock falls, failures earth's surface, mud-rock flows (mudflows). Landslides and mudflows caused by earthquakes are particularly characteristic of the whole of Central Asia, including Uzbekistan.

According to the information portal for environmental to such a category of natural disasters caused by earthquakes, landslides can be attributed to the area Senginyk in 2004; Handizak in Surkhandarya region in 2007; Michukur landslide, located in Chorvakskogo reservoir.

All of these disturbing facts reinforce the need for comprehensive action on the basis of ongoing research.

In order to share experiences and information, develop collaborative research partnerships, the comparison of different methods and approaches in the field of seismology, to discuss the problems and prospects of the application of modern physics of complex systems and nonlinear dynamics to the prediction of earthquakes and earthquake resistance of structures recently gathered members of the International Scientific Conference ": From nonlinearity to earthquake prediction and seismic stability ".

The organizers of the conference was the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), the Turin Polytechnic University in Tashkent, Uzbekistan Society of Physics, National University of Uzbekistan, Institute of Seismology of the Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan.

Geotechnical catastrophe, the nonlinear dynamics of seismic waves, seismic ground motion, prediction and early warning of earthquakes, seismic problems of monuments, seismic risks in Central Asia — this is just a small list of those disclosed in the reports of the participants, as well as a discussion over a cup of tea while business interruption conference.

At the conference were invited experts, professors from Japan, Germany, Italy, France, Turkey, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, as well as local experts working in the field of seismology, earthquake engineering, physics of complex systems, nonlinear dynamics, catastrophe theory, geophysics and related regions. In addition, it is expected that most participants will be young scientists, graduate students and university students from Uzbekistan, many of which will deliver scientific reports. At the conference will also be attended by representatives of the Ministry of Emergency Situations, Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources and the State Committee for Architecture and Construction.

As one of the participants, the leading expert of the Institute of Geology and Geophysics of the Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, Bakhtiar Nurtayev: "It is time for a different look at the problem of earthquake hazard. Necessary to conduct a thorough examination of hydraulic structures, seismic zoning map update with current processes. It is important to maximally protect the public from the possible risks associated with earthquakes and subsequent disasters. "

As you know, Japan, China, the United States, are advanced in the area of ongoing research, scientific and technical potential in the field of seismology. The countries in the study have been spent huge amounts of money, but, despite this, no cases of destructive or "ordinary" earthquake has not been thoroughly and accurately predicted. What were the participants of the conference agreed, so it is that much remains to explore and discover in this scientific field. On the development of strategies to reduce the risk from earthquakes should be taken very seriously, it is important to combine the efforts and knowledge.

Perhaps someday in the future, people will learn to use the seismic energy for peaceful purposes. And today, it is important to develop technologies that would not have stepped up, and without such an unstable Earth's crust.

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