Falsification: the opening as a fraud or deceit on the scientific

Fraud in scienceMany scientific discoveries are now hitting too many questions, but the fact of deception absolutely not proved. Resorted to cheating researchers and first-class, sometimes even recognized geniuses, what to speak of ordinary mortals. However, the dark side of the history of science is not particularly advertised, although there is, writes WashProfile.
For example, in 1970 in Mexico have been discovered and subsequently published texts which, as stated, have been created by civilization m, Aya. The famous scientist and Nobel Prize-winning physicist Richard Feynman in 1965, which is also engaged in translation of Maya glyphs (he translated the astronomical treatises of civilization), following the analysis of these texts (or more precisely, after the analysis they contain astronomical data) concluded that before it fake.

However, just to prove it was not possible: the fact is that very few books survived, created Maya, so it is likely that these texts were actually created by the ignorant ancient Indian.

In 1884, in the State of Delaware on the Atlantic coast of the U.S. archaeologist Harald Cresson was found ancient suspension. It was made out of sea shells on it depicted a mammoth. Suspension allowed sdelatdva sensational conclusions: first, mammoths migrated to North America from Siberia, with the first inhabitants of the Americas, and secondly, the North American mammoths survived almost to the present day.
These theories have survived until 1988, when the historian James Grif-fin published in the journal American Antiquity article in which he argued that the suspension is a fake. He argued that the first, Cresson was little known in archaeological circles before making this sensational discovery, secondly, many archaeologists initially suspicious attitude to finding Cresson, third, despite the fact that the sink was clearly local origin, it does does not prove the fourth, engraving was almost an exact copy of the image of a mammoth found in Europe, etc. Radiocarbon dating showed that the shell came into being from 1.5 thousand to 110 years ago. Theoretically, mammoths could really hiding somewhere in the vast North America in this period, but no remains of them still could not be found.
End of 2005 — beginning of 2006, marked by a series of high-profile scientific scandals.
Famous scientists were caught by the hand — they are accused of falsifying the facts, evidence tampering, and other similar sins.
In late December 2005, a professor of veterinary science at Seoul National University, Woo-Suk Hwang was accused of deliberate fabrication of experimental results on the cloning of human embryonic stem cells, an abuse of donors, unfair handling of public funds and a whole bunch of other departures from the principles of research ethics and legal standards.
The scandal reached its peak in the beginning of January 2006, when the commission appointed by the university, mainly confirmed the validity of these allegations. A month later, Hwang removed from office before the end of the proceedings, and in mid-March, the Korean Society for Molecular and Cellular Biology excluded him from its ranks. Hwang affair engaged the investigators.
In early March, prosecutors said that Hwang admitted in giving orders to one of the assistants to modify a few lines of normal somatic cells, so that they could pass for the cloned stem cells. It is possible that Hwang's case could result in jail time. March 16 the Ministry of Health, South Korea canceled license hwan, allowing experiments with embryonic stem cells.
In mid-January 2006, it became known that the Norwegian oncologist Jon Sudbo invented nearly a thousand fictitious histories to back up their conclusions about their treatment options for oral cancer with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (an article about it in 2005, he published a serious British medical journal Lancet ).
About the same time the trouble started Stefan Willich, director of the Berlin Institute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology and Health Economics. Willich was accused that he deliberately manipulated by clinical observations, trying to prove that a lot of noise dramatically increases the probability of acute disorders of the heart.
Also in early March 2006 edition of the British magazine Nature reported serious doubts about the scientific validity of the claims of the American nuclear engineer Ruzi Taleyyarhana, who a few years argue that the fusion reactions that occur under the influence of acoustic shock waves. Purdue University, is now working Taleyyarhan until poosteregsya begin a formal investigation of the case, but immediately announced that it is passed on to the committee of experts.
In mid-March 2006, Ian Wilmut, who was considered the creator of the world's first cloned animal — Dolly the sheep, has admitted that his role in this discovery is greatly exaggerated.
Trickery involved even recognized geniuses.
Horace Judson, author of the study "The great betrayal: fraud in science" gives evidence that inaccurate facts published even giants such as Isaac Newton and Robert Milli-ken, awarded in 1923 the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the determination of the elementary electric charge and study of the photoelectric effect. However, their partial dishonesty had no impact on the quality and value of their research.
Naturalist, a monk and abbot Gregor Mendel — founder of the doctrine of heredity. In the middle of the XIX century, Mendel conducted extensive experiments on hybridization of peas. Mendel first identified patterns of divergence and the free combination of hereditary factors. But now researchers Mendel works draw attention to the fact that in his work over the experimental results are immaculate. But, apparently, Mendel was not engaged in scientific fraud — he just stopped in time to experience a time when getting satisfy its data.
The long-term researcher of Sigmund Freud, winner of many scientific awards Eugene Mallouv published the book "Mistakes and fraud Freud" and presented evidence that the creator of the theory of psychoanalysis fabricated evidence.
According to Mallouva, Freud's theory is based on the six principal stories of six people, with whom Freud had worked as a doctor. However, analysis of the archives shows that one of the patients stopped coming to Freud, three months after the start of therapy, and two patients had never had to deal with Freud. Of the other three only one shared with Freud his subconscious fears. That is the creator of psychoanalysis based his theory only on the stories of one man. Mallouv believes that Freud went to forgery quite deliberately, because I thought that psychoanalysis can not learn from books — analyst is obliged to carry out an analysis of human behavior.
Known German biologist and philosopher Ernst Haeckel, an enthusiastic follower of Charles Darwin, in 1866, discovered the so-called "bio-energy law", according to which the individual human development in a simplified form follows every stage of human evolution. That is, the human embryo in the development process through the stages of fish, amphibians, etc. As evidence, Haeckel introduced the respective images of embryos. Forgery was discovered by his colleagues, who carried the case Goeke field on the university court. Haeckel admitted that he "paint" the necessary details. In 1950 it was finally proved that even in the very early stages of development, the human embryo is not identical to the fetus fish, reptile or bird.
At the beginning of XX century, the famous French physicist, Corresponding Member of the French kademii Sciences Rene Blondlot reported a startling discovery N-rays (named by analogy with X-rays, X-ray, the letter N came from the city of Nancy, where he worked Blondlot) that produce all forms of matter, with the exception of green trees and some metals. N-rays penetrated the tissue paper and the platinum plate, but tracing the stone for them were inscrutable. Blondlot earned the laurels of the great inventor. In the period from 1903 to 1906 about 120 French scientists have published more than 300 scientific articles that analyze and explain the phenomenon of N-rays. Blondlot himself published 26 articles and book.
However Blondlot had obvious difficulty demonstrating their experience of foreign scientists, experiments were carried out in the darkness, watching the actions Blondlot was extremely difficult, even the appointment of scientific instruments was unclear. In 1904, the first articles in which the authors argued that Blondlot cheats — a proof of this was the fact that the experience of the French genius could not play anywhere but in his laboratory.
It is interesting that in the 1920s, some researchers in the UK and Ireland, confirmed the existence of N-rays. Blondlot career is not hurt — he came back to electrical engineering and has published some good research. Science historian Robert Lagemann, author of "New light on the old beams," notes that the enthusiasm of the French scientists N-rays looked like mass insanity.
Scientists often betrayed others for their discovery.
In the 1870s, the French sheep farmers suffered terrible losses from the epidemic of anthrax. The annual loss of death of animals were 20-30 million francs at the time it was a huge amount. Help farmers took great microbiologist and chemist Louis Pasteur. In February 1881 he published an article in which he said that he was able to create a protective vaccine against the disease. But Pasteur cunning, the newspaper notes.
Vaccine efficacy Pasteur proved in a public experiment conducted very theatrical. May 31 Pasteur and his assistants are infected with anthrax fifty sheep kept on a farm in the outskirts of Paris. Earlier in the same month, 25 animals were immunized with two doses Pasteur new drug.
Pasteur previously announced that the sheep do not get sick, and the other is sure to die. Two days later, on June 2, at the farm at the invitation of the Pasteur raided local government officials, journalists, MPs and farmers — a total of more than two hundred people. The sight threw them in amazement. 24 vaccinated sheep looked perfectly healthy, but one died, which soon had obyagnitsya. But out-Nevas tsinirovannyh 23 have died, the remaining two were on the blink. Messages about another brilliant success of the great Pasteur spread all over the world.
This textbook version of events has survived almost to the present day. However, in 1995, the American historian of science Gerald Geyson published the book "The Private Science of Louis Pasteur," in which the same events are presented from a different angle.
He showed that Pasteur had prepared his vaccine on someone else's method! One way is to introduce a vaccine live, but weakened culture of the pathogen. In the late 1870s, Pasteur conducted successful experiments to obtain vaccine from chicken cholera, which led him to believe that in order to reduce disease-causing microbe to culture should be longer survive in an oxygen environment, quite simply, in the air. However, for the anthrax this method did not work directly, since its bacillus (and it had already been known) in air forms a very resistant spores.
But Pasteur bypassed this obstacle by learning to relax the anthrax bacillus, keeping it in chicken broth. Another French bacteriologist Shamberlen Charles, who then worked in the laboratory at the Pasteur weakened by the same bacillus antiseptic potassium dichromate. Geyson proved that Pasteur cured sheep with a vaccine, which he did in the way Shamberlena.
Neither the public nor the Pasteur colleagues have not said, but in his laboratory notebooks noted. In 1964, one of the heirs Pasteur gave these diaries to the National Library, which seven years later, she opened them to study. Geyson first historian of science took for their decryption. He spent on this work for 12 years (there is more than 10 thousand pages, written in a very illegible handwriting.) His conclusion is clear: Louis Pasteur weakened anthrax by dichromate.
Geyson argues that Pasteur deliberately misled and the public, and colleagues in the profession, but did so in general, from noble motives. He really believed in his method of keeping the anthrax pathogen in chicken broth and by the end of spring 1881 has become a way to get drugs, which looked quite promising.
In mid-summer, he found the work completed and with full success was used to immunize animals have their own vaccine. Maybe in May, he just has not decided to use it, believing that it needs improvement. Be that as it may, if he used the technique Shamberlena, but never referred to the real author of this discovery.
A record number of well-known scientific frauds and forgeries associated with studies in history, paleontology, and archeology.
Examples of such fraud, such as the "creative editing" or additions to the product of ancient manuscripts, can be traced to the early Middle Ages. However, the era of rapid scientific progress has given a lot of new models.
Probably one of the most striking examples of this — the story of George Psalmanazara.
In 1704 he arrived in England, where he told everyone (including serious scholars) that was captured by the natives of the island of Formosa (now Taiwan). Stories Psalmanazara were sailing in the sea, books on geography, etc. As it turned out soon, Psalmanazar simply invented language, culture, religion, and customs of the inhabitants calendar Formosa.
"Man of Dawn." In 1912, near the town of Piltdown (England) were found fragments of ancient human skull and jaw. The discovery team became famous archaeologist Charles Dawson and science enthusiast Arthur Woodward. They concluded that the "Piltdown man" lived about one million years ago. By that time in Europe were found the remains of Neanderthal (lived 200-300 thousand years ago), and was found in Java Homo erectus, who was about 700 thousand years. "Piltdown Man" had a big brain. Thus, it was the oldest representative of Homo sapiens. He was named Eoantropom Dawson ("Dawson's Dawn Man").
In 1953, anthropologist Joseph Wiener first doubted that eoantrop existed. As numerous studies, jaw and teeth belonged eoantropa orangutan and the skull — the Englishman is likely contemporary of Shakespeare. Historians now argue about who forged the ancient gentleman in England.
Kenneth Feder, author of "deception, secrets and myths: Science and Pseudoscience in Archaeology" considers that the author of this fraud can be either an amateur paleontologist Thur Father Pierre de Chardin, who took part in the excavation or the famous writer Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, who lived points and had an extensive experience in this kind of lottery.
Arhaeroraptor. In the 1950s, "black archeologists" from China have discovered the remains of a creature that was described as "the missing link" between dinosaurs and birds. The creature, which took shape of a bird with a tail of a dinosaur. It was named arhaeroraptorom, but later became known as the "Piltdown turkey" (an allusion to eoantropa). History of bone were removed from China and sold to a private American collector. In 1999, National Geographic magazine published an article in which he described another discovery associated with arhaeoraptorom — bones of birds and dinosaurs had someone glued.
"The hand of God." The famous Japanese archaeologist Shinichi Fujimura made many discoveries and was nicknamed "The Hand of God" for the rare good fortune. He found plenty of evidence that the Japanese civilization originated in ancient times. In 2000, a Japanese newspaper published two series of photographs: one was caught, as Fujimura burying Stone Age artifacts in the ongoing excavation, on the other — as Fujimura triumphantly digs these historic stones and shards.
"The Missing Link". Several years ago, near Hamburg were discovered remains of a man who lived about 36 thousand years ago. It became a scientific sensation, because the remains could be "a bridge" between Neanderthals and modern humans. The discovery team was Professor Rainer von Protsh go.
Later, however, University of Frankfurt, where he worked as background go, announced that Professor longer works within its walls, as he systematically falsified the Stone Age artifacts. Person "transition stage", as shown examination carried out by Oxford University and lived not 36 thousand years ago, and 7.6 thousand other test findings professor also showed that he skillfully "sostarivayut" artifacts. But dishonesty professor was proved only after he tried to sell the university collection of skeletons chimpanzees.

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