Today, many would agree that the process of the development of mankind goes through various stages and levels, which vary according to many parameters and indicators. Equally, it applies to ethnic entities, whose interest in the development in modern Russia is quite high. Trace the qualitative changes in the life of the ethnic group can, in particular, and on the change in the language, which is one of the fundamental attributes of any ethnic identity formation. Of course, of particular interest in this regard are the words and phrases used to describe the important concepts that, for example, are associated with spirituality of the people.
For the Russian people to such important words can be rightly attributed the term "orthodoxy" and "orthodox." Today, they are habitually associated with the branch of Eastern Christianity, which profess the overwhelming majority of the Russian population. At the same time, in the X century Russia adopted the Eastern (Byzantine) Christianity, religion and rituals which, at the time of its adoption, consistent with the definitions of the first seven ecumenical councils. This trend in Christianity in the Greek-speaking Christian world has been called "orthodoxy", which translated into Russian means "true faith." Naturally, the question arises: how the "true faith" was transformed into "Orthodoxy"?
Very often, this issue is a theological rather puzzled, but not the desire to find an answer. However, the truth, and the process of searching should not divide, but rather to bring people together. Based on this, we propose to approach the issue etymology of the term "Orthodoxy", if possible, do not discriminate on the basis of factual material.
This material are various historical documents, in particular, the chronicle. Ancient chronicles not only describe and interpret historical events, but also reflect the level of development of contemporary language, at least, that part of it was used in official government and church documents, since the centers were originally chronicles monasteries. The presence in the chronicles significant number of contradictions, has led researchers, in particular, AA Shakhmatova to the idea that the hand of the chronicler, "ruled the political passions and worldly interests" 1. This, in turn, has led some historians to describe many of the historical processes and events in complete contradiction with the facts (or their interpretations) as set forth in the famous chronicles of Russian and Slavic origin. JS Lurie wrote: "The Chronicles of XV-XVI centuries. not reliable sources on the history of ancient Russia. But the record is valuable not only because of the reliability of the facts about which they narrate. Chronicles were also monuments of the time. We want to know not only "Where have gone Russkaya land", but saw it as a story of people following centuries. In this respect, all the sources are of great interest … "2. Therefore, despite the obvious bias of some annalistic sources, in particular the end of the XV and XVI centuries, the language used to write them can be considered as the actual evidence of the processes that took place in the spiritual, political and social life of Russia at the time. Such reasoning has led to the investigation of most published Russians and Russian chronicles documents for use in these terms "orthodoxy" and "orthodox" and epithets applied to concepts such as "faith," "church" and "Christianity."
The study analyzed the 79 chronicles documents following dates: XIV century — 3 documents; XV century — 9 documents, end of XV — beginning of XVI century — 6 documents; XVI century — 25 documents, end of XVI — early XVII century — two of the document; XVII century — 28 documents, end of XVII — beginning of XVIII century — 2 documents; XVIII century — 3 documents; XIX century — 1dokument.
The most interesting results are obtained by analysis of the Novgorod I Chronicle older recension from the New King list, dating from the second half of the XIV century. At the moment this is the most ancient chronicles of the surviving monuments chronicle of Northern Russia. In this record, the terms "orthodoxy" and "orthodox" does not occur. To the concept of "faith" are used such epithets as the true, Christian and right. The concept of "church" is used exclusively in relation to places of worship, and not a social institution, the term "Christian" is not used. This chronicle is protograph for Novgorod I Chronicle recension Jr., commission list which dates from the first half of the XV century. In this chronicle the document to the concept of "faith" are used such epithets as chaste, Christian, right, and the Orthodox, and the epithet "faithful" is also used in relation to the concepts of "Archbishop" and "peasants (Christians)." Also in a thrift list Novgorod I Chronicle younger recension the term "Orthodox" in the description of the life of Alexander Nevsky, "… and a champion of the Orthodox Christian faith suscha, drazhaishago Alexander …". Historical events in 1240, with, obviously copied from the Novgorod I Chronicle older recension, but their description is preceded by a description of the life of the prince, which uses the search term. As for the "orthodoxy", then the term in the annals of the documents do not meet.
If we turn to the most ancient monuments in Central Russia chronicles: The Tale of Bygone Years at Laurentian list and Suzdal Chronicle on Laurentian list, dating from the year 1377 — we will see, in general, a similar picture. In the Tale of Bygone Years at Laurentian list to the concept of "faith" are used such epithets as God, the true, Christian, blameless and right, once used as the epithet Orthodox: "… those of us veschmi iskushatisya the Orthodox faith …". Interestingly, this term is used to describe the dangers of sorcery, which the chronicler puts after the description of the death of Prince Oleg (912) that occurred decades before the Baptism of Russia. In Suzdal Chronicle Laurentian list on to the concept of "faith" is used epithets and Orthodox Christian, with the epithet of "the faithful" is also used in conjunction with the concepts of "chelovetsi", "people set" and "Grand Duke." It also occurs in the term "apostolic orthodoxy" to describe the virtues of Vladimir Prince Constantine in connection with his death in 1218: "… this is rightly odaroval whi Bog meekness Davydova wisdom of Solomon to execute raw apostolic orthodoxy …". These documents chronicle the concept of "church" is beginning to be used as a symbol of faith and social institution ("yes budet excommunicated tsrkve about …", "… Catholic and Apostolic Church …"), the terms "Christian" and "orthodoxy" is not used.
In the annals of the Ipatiev on the list (dated 1425 year, was written in Northern Russia), which, according to JS Lurie, general protograph with Chronicle on Laurentian list, the terms "orthodox" and "orthodoxy" is not there, and in the comments, data chronicle the death of Prince Oleg, is written: "… those veschmi iskushatisya didst cast preslavnyya faith …". Interestingly, in Sofia I chronicle the list Obolensky (70-80 years dated XV century, written in Northern Russia) is used in this context "… prostoslavnyya faith …". In other lists XV century Tale of Bygone Years, namely in Radzivilovskom list, dating from 1486 — 1490 years, and the Moscow Academic record, which the researchers attributed to the second half of the XV century, consumed in a given context "of the Orthodox faith." In chronicles the later dates (for typographical annals Synod list XVI century, etc.) in this context is only used the term "Orthodox". In the annals of the Ipatiev to list of already used the concept of "Christianity" and twice — "orthodoxy."
If we consider the sources analyzed chronicles XV century, the term "Orthodox" and "orthodoxy" is not only used in the Annals of the Ipatiev on the list and in the Pskov chronicles the New King James II list, also written in Northern Russia. In the Novgorod I Chronicle younger recension on commission list, Moscow academic record, Sofia I chronicle the list Obolensky Annals Avraamki (Smolensk), Rogozhskoe Chronicler (Tver), and Nikiforovskaya Radzivilovskoy Chronicle Chronicle (Belarus) use the term "Orthodox". In the Novgorod I Chronicle younger recension on commission list Radzivilovskoy annals and chronicles Nikiforovskaya it is used only once and only in relation to the concept of "faith." In general, in the chronicles of the period, the term "Orthodox" was used in combination with concepts such as faith, the people, the church, Prince Christian, arhirei. The number of uses of the term "true believer" in the chronicles documents XV century, as a rule, much higher than the number of uses of the term "Orthodox", except for Rogozhsky Chronicle and Chronicle Avraamki in which these values are almost equal. As for the term "Orthodoxy", he used only in Sofia I chronicle the list Obolensky and Chronicle Avraamki.
Analysis chronicles the end of XV — beginning of XVI century shows that the language chronicles the gradual substitution of the term "true believer" in the "orthodox." Of the six analyzed annalistic sources of the period, the term "orthodox" is found only in the two chronicles, written in Northern Russia: Novgorod and Novgorod Chronicle IV Karamzin record, but in these sources, the term "Orthodox" is more common, and significantly expands the concepts of composition, in combination to which it is applied. Of particular interest is the following phrase in the Novgorod Chronicle IV to describe the events of 1402: "… but we ourselves, Recom krestiani, faithful and sousche Orthodox, stvoryaem promezhou him rati … and abuse." The term "Orthodox" in the Novgorod chronicle of this period is not used. Interestingly, in Slutskaya (Uvarov) Chronicle (Belarus) and Vilna Chronicle (Lithuania) analyzed in general terms do not occur.
In the chronicle documents XVI century, the trend to replace the terms "orthodox" and "orthodoxy" to "orthodox" and "orthodoxy", respectively, only grew. The term "orthodoxy" is found only in the two chronicles: Simeon (Moscow region) in the description of events in 1219 and a chronograph version of the description of the West Russian Byzantine history. The term "true believer" is not used in the description of the events of the XVI century, the latest mention of it occurs in the brief annals of Volyn (Western Russia) in the description of events in 1497. As for the term "Orthodox", the "geography" of application includes for 29 concepts, including the concept of "land" in the chronicles of Simeon, and he also began to be used as a noun. Now considered not only the Orthodox Byzantine rulers, but all professing Christians and to its division into East and West, and even Moses, in the Vologda and Perm record on Kirilo-Belozersky list: "… sometimes like of Gideon on Modiamy and Orthodox Moses to Pharaoh … ". And expanding the list of adjectives used to the concept of "faith", they become more ornate and solemn: bogopredannaya, pious, "prechisteishaya", etc., and in the Annals of Racha (western Russia) there is such a thing as "Russian faith" . In the future, this concept is found in the annals of western Russian XVII century Rumyantsev and Evreinovskoy and in Tver chronicles the list Stroyev (Kiev) in the same period.
Starting from the end of the document chronicles XVI — early XVII century, the term "orthodox" practically stops. The exception is on the list of Novgorod Chronicle Dubrovsky (XVII century Northern Rus) Piskarevskiy chronicler (XVII century Central Russia) and Chronicle of Lithuania and Zhmoytskaya of Tobolsk list. In general, the language of the chronicle of presentation becomes less pompous. Changing the term "Orthodox": a chronicle of the main trunk Yesipovsky on Sychevskaya list (XVII century Tobolsk), and Siberian chronicles in Golovinskaya edition (XVII century Tobolsk) uses the expression "pravoslavnorossiyskie Christians", and Mazurinskom Chronicle (XVII century, the place of writing not set) — "pravoslavnorustie riches."
These facts may be considered as evidence that the term "orthodox", in relation to Eastern Christianity, its media and symbols began to be used in the official language of the church and the state in the late XIV — early XV century, and in Central Russia, this process was more intense than in Northern Russia. It is unfortunate that chronicles documents or lists made in the Kiev (South) Russia, almost did not survive. Among the published since 1846, the documents chronicle researchers attribute south Russian origin only Gustynsky Chronicle (second half of XVII century Gustynsky Trinity Monastery Poltava province) and Tver chronicles Stroyev the list (the second quarter of the XVII century, Kyiv). It is not possible at this stage of the study, said the use of the terms analyzed in Kievan Rus. The most active terms "orthodox" and "orthodoxy" comes into use in the XVI century, and in the Novgorod chronicle the term "orthodoxy" is used only in the Novgorod chronicle the list Dubrovsky (XVII century), the description of events in 1471 — 1491 period. Noteworthy sometimes inappropriate use of these terms, for example, in relation to Moses that can be seen as a consequence of deliberate introduction of "top", without fully understanding the meaning.
If we look at the historical events of the time, which could be associated with the spread of the terms "orthodox" and "orthodoxy" in the official language of the government and the church, we see that this process took place during the folding of the Russian centralized state and the struggle for liberation from Mongol-Tatar yoke. Rather significant events took place in the development of Eastern Christianity: 1439 — Union of Florence, 1448 — The Russian Church is autocephalous, 1453 — Turks capture Constantinople, in 1461 — the division of the Metropolitan of Kiev and Moscow. One should not forget the famous formula of "Moscow — the Third Rome", formulated in the letter Elder Pskov Eleazar Monastery Philothea to Grand Prince Vasily III, written in the years 1514-1521.
Our analysis suggests that the official turnover of the terms "orthodox" and "Orthodoxy" consists in the wake of the Moscow establishment of a centralized state and its struggle for independence, which coincides with the formation of the Russian Christian autocephaly. This naturally leads to the question of the origin of the roots of the "rights" and "glorious" and their presence in the Old (Old Slavonic) language, in particular in the Glagolitic. We believe that further research in this area can shed light on the very important processes in the development of the Russian people, other Slavic peoples and ethnic groups of the Russian Orthodox Church and the Russian state.
VA Kolosov, Ph.D.
Practical Philosophy Club "Honor and Light"
1. Shakhmatov AA Chronicle. Pg., 1916. Vol 1
2. JS Lurie. To chronicle the history of Russia and the perception of the New Age. / / Russia Old and New Russia, St. Petersburg: D. Bulanin 1977.