Eminent "Big Bertha"
Usually, one has only to speak of "technicians" of the ultra-large guns, somebody sure to remember:
— A "Big Bertha"! She shot in Paris …
But, as the Doctor of Technical Sciences, Dr. V. Malikov, in this judgment there is at least two errors. First, the Capital shot is not "Big Bertha" and "enormous" and, second, "Bertha" in general could not spit out the shell on the 100 km redundant. In general, it was so …
Night on March 23, 1917 passed without sirens, herald the beginning of the next air raid. However … "at 7:00 am I heard of strongest, as I thought, the gap bombs shook the windows of our apartment on the Quai Bourbon — recalled Lt. Gen. AA Ignatiev, while the military attache of the Russian Federation in France. — Sirens were silent, and we were even more surprised when at 7 o'clock 15 minutes, there was such a hit, and in 7 hours and 30 minutes — the third, somewhat more distant. In this sunny morning in Paris froze from continuing and no one understood what that strong discontinuities unknown bombs. " They were shells fired from sverhdalnoboynyh German guns.
Plan subject shelled Paris, demonstrating its military strength and moral influence on the French appeared in the Kaiser rate in the spring of 1916. At the initiative of General Ludendorff was decided to make mnogokalibernuyu gun that could get to Paris from the front of the strip, which was held in the then 90 kilometers from the capital city of France.
Development tools commissioned company Krupp, who in 1914 made the sea tool, Shoot to 56 km. In order to hit Paris, essentially required to increment the initial velocity of the projectile. As you know, it depends on the length of the barrel. Calculations show — supergun useful barrel length of over 34 meters! Pour se trunk proved unrealistic. Because its going to make a composite. Over the five-meter bolt was made up of several parts inside threaded pipe. It was attached to the muzzle of the smooth-six-meter. From the breech trunk was covered by 17 meters of housing.
Extremely long but relatively narrow trunk weighing 138 tons … caved on its severity. He even had to maintain iron wires. After each shot he hesitated 2-3 minutes. After shooting even had to remove it with cranes and straighten.
Under the influence of the hot gases from the combustion of 250 pound powder charge, friction against the walls of the barrel a projectile weighing 118 kg trunk diameter change. If immediately after the production of the caliber of 210 mm supergun was, after firing increased to 214 mm, because these shells had to make thicker.
To the firing position ranged monster took out a gun carriage on the train platform weighing 256 tons, mounted on 18 pairs of wheels. They accepted and energy efficiency. With traverse major technical problems were not. And with the vertical? In the place where the fire had intended to Paris, the Germans secretly concreted area. And on that "cushion" made for a great turntable platform and mounted on her gun. His gunners served 60 coastal defense led by Admiral.
Before each shot, some experts at first carefully examined trunk, projectile and charge, the other line was calculated based on the data traffic weather reports (direction, wind speed). Taking off from the trunk raised to 52 ° 30 on the horizon shell 20 seconds reaching a height of 20 km, and after 90 seconds left on the top line of traffic — 40 km. Then shell again went into the atmosphere and dispersed, to strike the target at a speed of 922 meters per second. The entire flight over a distance of 150 km he had done for 176 seconds.
First shell fell to the Republic Square. Total, the French capital Germans fired 367 shells, with all this, a third of them fell into the suburbs. 256 Parisians were killed, 620 people were injured, but the goal set by Ludendorff, Kaiser's command and did not have gained. In contrast, in July and August 1918, the Allies have taken coming, bringing Germany to the brink of destruction.
However, from Paris left several hundred urban residents. Rumors of a mysterious supergun "Big Bertha", betrothed since Tipo in honor of the wife A. Krupp. But, as already mentioned — the "Big (or" thick ") Bertha" called snub, 420 millimeter mortar siege, which the German army used during the siege of the Belgian fortress of Liege. And in the French capital were consuming three sverhdalnoboynye 210 mm guns "enormous." After the armistice with the Allies dismantled the gun, put away their items, and documents.
Yet the effect is produced has led to the fact that during World War sverhdalnoboynye guns began to develop in other countries. Until the end of the war, the French experts at time to do heavy 210 millimeter tool, mounted on multi-axis conveyor train. Its range of fire was to be more than 100 km. But this sverhpushka never made it to the front — it was so cumbersome that when her carriage broke down, however, one bridge.
English engineers prefer caliber 203 mm. British gun barrel length was 122 caliber. That was enough, that 109 pound bombs at the reference speed of 1500 meters per second, flying 110-120 km.
In Russia in 1911, a military engineer V. Trofimov offer superior project management languid artillery guns and shells which would podymali into the stratosphere and hit targets at a distance of over 100 km. But the project is rejected. Later, after learning about firing guns Paris "colossal", Trofimov first interpreted the essence of the ultra-long shooting, highlighting that there is reason to suspect the German engineers to borrow his thoughts, placed before the war.