From the history of chemical weapons

In the night from 12 to 13 July 1917 the German army during the First World War for the first time has used poison gas mustard gas (Liquid poison substance blister act). Germans as a carrier of the agent used mines that contained oily liquid. This event came under the Belgian town of Ypres. The German command meant by this attack to disrupt the coming of the Anglo-French forces. The first application of mustard gas lesions of varying severity were 2,490 military personnel, of whom 87 died. British scientists have decoded the formula pretty quickly this OM. But to start the creation of a new chemical agent managed exclusively in 1918. As a result, use mustard gas for military purposes, the Allies succeeded only in September 1918 (2 months before the Armistice.)

Mustard gas has a pronounced local effects: RH affects the organs of sight and respiratory, skin and gastrointestinal tract. Substance, being absorbed into the blood, poisoning the whole body. Mustard gas affects human skin when exposed as in the droplet and in the vapor state. From the effects of mustard gas everyday summer and winter uniforms fighter did not protect as well as virtually all types of civilian clothes.

From droplets and vapor mustard ordinary summer and winter uniforms army does not protect the skin, as well as virtually any kind of civilian clothes. This fighter protection from mustard gas in those years was not because of its use on the battlefield to be effective until the end of the war. World War I was even called "the war of Chemists", since neither before nor after the war, OB is not used in such amounts as in the years 1915-1918. During this war, fighting the army used 12 tons of mustard gas, they were amazed to 400 thousand people. All the years of the First World War there were more than 150 thousand tons of chemical agents (tear gases and irritating, blistering OS). The favorite in the application of survival was the German Empire, which has high-class chemical industry. All in Germany produced more than 69 tons of toxic substances. For Germany followed by France (37.3 tons), England (25.4 tons), the U.S. (5.7 million tons), Austria-Hungary (5.5 million), Italy (4.2 thousand . tons) and our homeland (3.7 tons).

"Attack of the Dead." The Russian army suffered the greatest among all the participants in the war against the loss of OM. The German army is the first to use poison gas as a weapon of mass destruction on a large scale during the First World War against Russia. August 6, 1915 the German command used for the destruction of OM garrison Osovets. The Germans launched a 30 gas cells, several thousand tanks and Aug. 6 at 4 am on the Russian building green fog drip consistency with bromine, chlorine, reached the position for 5-10 minutes. Gas wave of 12-15 m in height and a width of up to 8 km leaked to a depth of 20 km. Any protection from the defenders of the Russian fortress was not. All living things were poisoned.

Just behind the wave of gas and barrage (German artillery opened massive fire) moved in the coming 14 Landwehr battalions (about 7 thousand infantry). On the advanced Russian positions after the gas attack and artillery strike has less than half-dead soldier company poisoned agents. It seemed that Osovets already in German hands. But Russian fighters have revealed yet another magic. When the Germans approached the chain to the trenches, they stormed the Russian infantry. It was a real "attack Dead", it was a terrible sight: the Russian soldiers were the bayonet of persons swathed in rags, shaken by a terrible cough, practically spitting out pieces of light on the bloody uniforms. It was only a few 10-s men — the remains of the 13th Company 226th Infantry Regiment Zemlyanskii. The German infantry fell into such a nightmare that does not withstand the impact and ran. According to the fleeing enemy opened fire of the Russian batteries, which seemed to have been killed. It should be noted that the defense of the fortress Osovets — this is one of the bright, heroic pages of the First World War. The fortress, despite the fierce shelling from heavy guns and German infantry assaults, held from September 1914 to August 22, 1915.

Russian Empire in the pre-war period was the favorite in the field of various "peace initiatives". Because did not have in their own arsenals OB countermeasures similar types of guns, did not conduct serious research in this direction. In 1915 he had to quickly organize Chem Committee and on an emergency basis to raise the issue of technology development and mass production of toxic substances. In February 1916, the Tomsk Institute by local scientists had cooperated creation of hydrocyanic acid. By the end of 1916 had cooperated in the creation of the European part of the empire, and the problem was largely solved. By April 1917 the industry produced hundreds of tons of chemical agents. But they have remained unused in warehouses.

The first cases of the introduction of chemical weapons in World War I

1st The Hague Conference in 1899, which was convened at the initiative of the Russian Federation adopted the Declaration on the Use of shells that spread asphyxiating or deleterious gases. But during World War II, this document has not prevented the majestic powers to apply OB, including droves.

In August 1914, the French are the first to use drugs tear irritant effect (they did not cause death). As the media were filled with tear gas grenades (bromoacetate). Soon his supplies ran out, and the French army was using chloroacetone. In October 1914, German troops used artillery shells filled with some chemical irritant against British positions at Neuve-Chapelle. But the concentration of OB was so small that the result was a little sign.

April 22, 1915 the German army used the OS against the French, spraying the 168 tons of chlorine near the river. Ypres. Entente Powers immediately declared that Berlin had violated the principles of international law, but the German government parried the accusation. The Germans claimed that the Hague Convention only prohibits the introduction of shells with OB, but not gases. After that attack with chlorine began to be used frequently. In 1915, the French chemists synthesized phosgene (dim gas). It has become more efficient OS, with a huge toxic than chlorine. Phosgene is used in pure form and in consistence with chlorine — to increase mobility of the gas.

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