From the history of military nuclear programs from China

From the history of China's nuclear weapons program June 17, 1967 45 years ago, China had conducted the first test of a hydrogen bomb. Beijing has taken another step towards the creation of the nuclear arsenal. At the current time, China has nuclear means global land-and sea-based. Among them should be called the land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles, medium-range missiles, and bombers capable of delivering nuclear warheads to a distance of 2.5 kilometers. Modern China devotes significant attention to the development of its own nuclear arsenal, trying to make vsepolnotsennuyu naval component of the nuclear forces.

From the birth of the Chinese history of the atomic bomb

Chinese military and political control of the first years of the formation of the People's Republic of China came from the fact that the government should own armed forces with modern weapon, including nuclear. "The Great Helmsman" Mao Zedong stated: "In today's world we can not do without this thing, if we wish, that we were not hurt. He believed that the Western World "with disdain" refers to China, since it has "no bomb, but only hand grenades."

In the summer of 1937 at the Radium Institute of the Paris Institute, which was run by Frederic Joliot-Curie, there was a graduate student from Beypina (Beijing) Qian Senchzhyan. Supervisor Chinese graduate student has a spouse Irene Joliot-Curie. In 1940, Qian Senchzhyan thesis and continued his work in France, for which in 1947 was awarded the French Academy on the microphysics. Next year, he returned to his homeland. According to one version, Irene gave him a piece of radium. According to another opinion, 10 grams of radium salts Irene Joliot-Curie gave the Chinese radiochemists Ian Chzhensunu in October 1951, that "support the Chinese people in atomic research."

It should be noted that the Chinese nuclear project was the role of hundreds of Chinese who have lived abroad. Some of them — such as physics Ganpan Wang and Zhao Zhongyang from the California Institute (last worked in the Russian Dubna), mathematician Hua Logan from the Institute of Illinois — after long years of living abroad in China were already at the first step of nuclear development. So Makar, many atomic secrets to his homeland brought scientists have received education and experience abroad.

First, in 1950 in the Academy of the People's Republic appeared Institute of Modern Physics, which became the deputy director Qian Senchzhyan. In the spring of 1953 the delegation headed to China Academy of Russian Alliance to advance knowledge in the field of nuclear technology. Getting ready to meet Chinese Guest, president of the USSR Academy of Alexander Nesmejanov recommended the authorities to be prudent and to familiarize Qian Senchzhanya only with certain scientific works without the introduction of general nature in the course of problems that are part of the theme of the First central office, who oversaw Russian nuclear development issues.

The first time the "great helmsman" appealed to Moscow to assist in the development of nuclear weapons during the visit of Nikita Khrushchev to China in October 1954. Khrushchev did not make any promises. Moreover, Khrushchev advised Mao to abandon nuclear power projects, because China does not have the right to this scientific and industrial base, and money.

At the same time, the conviction of Chinese military and political control of the necessity of possessing nuclear weapons only intensified. This action contributed to the 2-conflicts on the borders of China: Korean War 1950-1953. and the Sino-American clash in the Taiwan Strait in 1958. Chinese management has received the U.S. threat to use nuclear weapon against China. January 15, 1955 Mao at the enlarged meeting of the Secretariat of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) provides the installation: China needs to create its own nuclear bomb at Moscow's help or without her role. A few months earlier statements of Mao, his deputy, Zhu De and Defense Minister Peng Teh Huai present in the Russian Union on Totsky range in exercises with the use of nuclear weapons.

Khrushchev agrees to make concessions. January 20, 1955 an agreement was signed, which provided for joint geological research in China (Xinjiang), and development of uranium mines. USSR felt the need to increase the own resources of uranium and received under this agreement the obligation of the Chinese side in exchange for their assistance in getting the excess uranium exploration. In search of uranium deposits, excluding Russian and Chinese professionals were involved scientists from Eastern Europe. Soon it became clear that China is well endowed with uranium feedstock. 1st place on the supplies it belonged to the north-west of China (Xinjiang), where in 1957 near the town of Chuguchak began to develop a uranium deposit.

April 7, 1956 an agreement was signed on the provision of assistance in the construction of the Russian civilian and military targets. On it envisaged the construction of the railroad from the latest Aktogai to Lanzhou, which made it possible to deliver the equipment to the first nuclear weapons test center in Lop Burrow.

In winter 1956 the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China decided to "the development of nuclear energy." In the framework of the project was based on two main areas: the creation of strategic missiles and nuclear weapons. The best brains in China and more than 600 Russian scientists were working on a promising 12-year plan for development of science in the years 1956-1967. In this direction were highlighted on the peaceful use of nuclear energy, the study of jet technology, the creation of semiconductor technology, the development of electronic computers, etc. To achieve these ambitious plans of going to Beijing to ask the Alliance and the people's democracies have in these matters, "a comprehensive and expedited assistance" . By the time Moscow pledged to build in China about 100 plants MIC. First Beijing from Moscow wanted help in the development of nuclear and defense sectors.

First, almost everyone in China just copied from the Russian sample. Thus, by the end of 1956, China made a "nuclear ministry" — so-called. "The Third Department of Mechanical Engineering" (in 1958 it became the second) — it was a Russian analogue Sredmash. If the basic atomic scientists in the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin proclaimed Lawrence Beria, in China, this duty was entrusted to the head of the state security Kang Sheng (he later dubbed the "Chinese Beria").

In 1956 in Poland and Hungary started riots and Khrushchev, in need of political support for Mao went on to expand cooperation with China. In addition, when in September 1957, the Chinese delegation went to the capital of the Soviet Union for talks, Khrushchev, who had just won a victory in the inner battle over Molotov and his supporters because he wished that Mao Zedong personally took part in the meeting of communist and workers' parties 1957 in Moscow. Khrushchev wished success in relations with China to strengthen its position in the USSR. "The Great Helmsman" skillfully used this situation. Mao declared that he would come to the Russian alliance only after the signing of the military-technical agreement includes the transfer of materials and samples to China for the production of nuclear weapons and their means of delivery. For example, China has gained access to Russian technology necessary for the creation of nuclear weapon

October 15, 1957 between with 2 Powers signed an agreement which provided for the transfer of nuclear weapons technology to China. Moscow has refused to pass only the materials that dealt built nuclear submarine. According to China's disk imaging, the Soviet Union also provided as examples of two short-range missiles class act "ground-to-ground." In addition, since the beginning of 1958, China began to arrive Russian nuclear scientists. During the period of 1950-1960 years. China was visited by about 10 thousand Russian nuclear industry professionals. With the help of Russian professionals in the landfill site was chosen for the atomic tests — Lop Nor. Russian scientists assist to build and run the first Chinese pilot nuclear the heavy water reactor in September 1958, was also built an experimental cyclotron. Immediately about 11 thousand Chinese professionals and one thousand scientists were trained and trained Russian Union.

I must say that Khrushchev had qualms about China's decision to arm nuclear weapons. But Russian scientists, according to the memoirs of Academician Abram Ioffe, tried to sabotage the decision. They want to pass over an old Chinese designs to slow down their nuclear program from. But Zadikyan, Russian advisor on nuclear matters with the Chinese government, found it, and told the top. As a result, China passed the most advanced Russian technology, and soon there was a break in relations with the USSR, China.

The problem of nuclear submarines and rupture of relations. In 1958, Beijing again asked the Soviet Union to assist in the development of modern naval fleet in running nuclear submarines. Russian salting in China Pavel Yudin meeting with Mao on July 1, said the issue is seen in Moscow, but the construction of a modern submarine fleet — is new and valuable even for the Russian Union. Salting added that the USSR is considered probable and rational to build a modern navy jointly by the Union and the PRC. Salting said that the sea washes the shores of China at its own location, are important and make the appropriate conditions for the acts Navy in the Pacific. Moscow has offered to continue negotiations with the role of Premier Zhou Enlai and Defense Minister Peng Dehuai. Mao raised the question of ownership of the fleet and its management. Russian salting declined to discuss details of the project

The next day Yudina was invited to an interview with Mao Zedong. In the party and government Zhongnanhai residence were all that were collected while in Beijing the Chinese politburo members. Mao said that Beijing will not agree to the establishment of Russian military bases in peacetime. He suggested the Union to assist in the construction of the fleet, the "masters of which we will be." The offer on the visit to Moscow, Zhou Enlai and Peng Dehuai was rejected.

Evenly Moscow has to raise questions about a particular control by the Soviet Union's nuclear industry and the armed forces of China. For example, July 31, 1958, Khrushchev arrived in Beijing and met with Mao said that China's atomic bomb and not needed, because the Soviet Union is ready to defend neighbor "as yourself." Mao gave to understand that China — is majestic and sovereign state, which should possess nuclear weapons to protect themselves in the event of war. He raised the question of transfer to China ready nuclear weapons technology or the creation of the atomic bomb.

In the summer of 1958 was accomplished newcomer Khrushchev met with Mao. Russian favorite tried to break through the idea of a joint naval construction and the basing of Russian submarines in the Chinese bases. Mao Zedong did not agree, saying that in the past in China for many years, "sat the British and other foreigners." He confirmed that in wartime Beijing is ready to provide its coastal infrastructure, the area for the Russian armed forces. But to manage operations in the areas of China will be the Chinese themselves. In addition, he said that the Chinese military during the war must have the right to act in the Russian countryside, including Vladivostok. In peacetime the same time, in his opinion, in a similar agreement is not necessary. In peacetime, the Russian Alliance was supposed to help China "to establish military bases and build armed forces."

Chinese progress. By the summer of 1959 it became quite clear that Moscow will not give Beijing the complete technology of creation of the atomic bomb. Prime Minister of the Municipal Council of China, Zhou Enlai said that China itself in 8 years will create a nuclear bomb, and without outside help. Review of China 1292 Russian professionals in 1960, failed to seriously push back the time of creation of the atomic bomb. By that time in China with the USSR has already trained about 6 thousand of their own professionals. The deterioration of Sino-Soviet relations first of the 1960s did not change Beijing's motivation to acquire nuclear weapons. By the time the Chinese science has already received sufficient theoretical disk imaging of the Union, established contacts with European scientists.

After 5 years (instead of the promised 8), October 16, 1964, Premier Zhou Enlai, Mao said on behalf of the Chinese people on the successful test of China's first nuclear bomb (the project "596"). According to the calculations of Western professionals This program has cost 4.1 billion in China. U.S. dollars. Tests were held at the nuclear test site Lop Nur (in the neighborhood of Lake Lop Nor.) The product was created on the basis of the element uranium-235, and has a capacity of 22 kilotons. This test has made China the 5th of nuclear power in the world.

Immediately after the first nuclear test products Beijing said the refusal of the introduction of nuclear weapons first. On the basis of economic judgments (shortfalls), Beijing took the path of preferential production of thermonuclear weapons, the creation of land-based ballistic missiles and bombs. May 14, 1965 the Chinese had first nuclear test in the dumping of nuclear bombs from aircraft. In October 1966, was launched in Chzhuvane nuclear reactor to produce plutonium. Winter — Spring 1967 was a process of development of the first end of the nuclear charge. June 17, 1967 Chinese performed the first successful test of a thermonuclear bomb based on uranium-235, uranium-238, Li-6 and deuterium (so-called. Nuclear test number 6). Explosion of an article was produced by the Lop Nor test site, its capacity was 3.3 megatons. Thermonuclear bomb was dropped from an airplane Hong-6 (similar to Russian Tu-16), a parachute launched to an altitude of 2,960 m, where was exploded. After this test China became the world's fourth fusion power after the Union of Russian, U.S. and UK.

December 27, 1968 China tested a nuclear charge, in what was used for the first time weapons-grade plutonium. September 23, 1969 was held the first underground nuclear test. In the late 1960s, China began to deploy bombers — the carriers of nuclear weapons.

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