The power of falling out of the feeble hands of the Provisional Government of the country was not, apart from the Bolsheviks, any effective organization that could claim your inheritance serious armed with real power. This fact, in October 1917 the sentence was pronounced the country and the people.
Trotsky had reason to speak to the Council a week before the show: "It is said that we are preparing to seize power. In this matter, we do not lurking … Power should not be taken by komplota and demonstrations by friendly forces. "
Indeed, the whole process of seizing power came clearly and openly.
Northern Regional Congress of Soviets of Petrograd council, All the Bolshevik press, in which he worked under his naming and eloped Lenin called for an uprising. October 16, Trotsky organized the Military Revolutionary Committee, which was to go to the actual and the exclusive right to dispose of the Petrograd garrison. In the following days are, after a series of meetings of the regimental committee, almost all of the garrison recognized the power of the revolutionary committee, and he (thecommittee) On the night of the 22nd announced an order for disobeying the command of the military forces.
The Executive Committee protested indignantly: "Only fools or not understanding the consequences of speaking can call him. Every armed fighter, a street-side or on whose appeal, except what the staff of the neighborhood … the offender will be against the revolution … "This statement was an act of hypocrisy. For those same people when they seemed to have the power to read as the end of April the Petrograd garrison, "Comrades fighters! No cry of the Executive Committee (the Petrograd Soviet) in these troubled days are not out on the street with a gun in his hand. To the Executive Committee shall be entitled to dispose of you. " Does it matter whose hands to bury the government and military power — April's "Seven" or October "six" … On October 17, the full non-resistance to employees of state-owned warehouses were issued weapons and ammunition on the orders of the revolutionary committee of the workers of the Vyborg side, Ohta, Putilov and other 22th in different parts of Petrograd, a series of meetings at which prominent Bolshevik leaders urged people to armed rebellion . Power and command were in a state of suspended animation and mock trial of "reconciliation" with the Council, offering to strengthen its consulate at the headquarters of a neighborhood. Only on October 24 at a meeting of the "Council of the Republic," the prime minister had the courage to call the situation in what was the capital — rebellion.
The meeting is that did not have any real impact on the course of events is, but a lot of enthusiasm for the property rights-and community democracy. From a speech by Kerensky country found out about the majestic patience of the government who worshiped his own eagerness to "so that the new regime was entirely free from reproach is not justified by the necessity of the latter repression and brutality." What advantages of this mode is fully recognized even by the organizers of the uprising, believes that "the political conditions for the free activity of all political parties are superior to the current time in Russia." That until now the Bolsheviks "had a term for that they could abandon their own mistakes," but now all the times and seasons come and need decisive action on the adoption of which claims the power to support and approval of the Council.
Exclusively in the right "enfranchised" part of the government to find a moral support. Democracy denied it. Put to a vote formula left block (the Mensheviks and the Social-Democratic internationalism., Lion. Since. District s and c. District s) instead of support expressed disapproval of the government and claimed the immediate transfer of land under the jurisdiction of excavation committees and decisive steps to Launched by the peace talks; regard to the elimination performances, she was assigned to the "committee of public salvation" which had to make city government and organs of revolutionary democracy. The formula has passed by 122 votes to 102 (right block), with 26 abstentions, were among the last to cum. Socialists (Tchaikovsky), part of cooperators (Berkengeim) and Zemstvoists.
Motives for such solutions has led the revolutionary democracy with complete frankness mouth Gurvich (Dana): further action of the Bolsheviks certainly leading the country to disaster, but to fight him revolutionary democracy will not, for "if the Bolshevik uprising will be drowned in blood, whoever beat — The interim government or the Bolsheviks — it is a celebration of a third force, which will sweep away both the Bolsheviks and the Provisional Government and the entire democracy. " With regard to the left. p-s, then, according to Steinberg, the other day opening of the "Council of the Republic" between them and the Bolsheviks took the entire agreement and final guaranteed full support in case of revolutionary action outside the Council.
So, let the country die for the revolution!
Dared to question, of course, not by speeches and the real balance of forces. When the 25th in the capital of an armed clash with the government did not have any armed force. Several military and cadet schools joined the battle is not in the name of the government, and prompted by the general consciousness of the Bolshevik threat, while others were considered priklnnymi part due to the circles of the capital, after the processing of their moral campaigners sent Trotsky refused to speak; Cossack regiments remained "friendly" to the Bolsheviks neutrality. The rest of the garrison and the work reddish Guard were on the side of the Council, joined them arrived from Kronstadt sailors and several ships of the fleet.
Again, as eight months back, on the streets of the capital came armed men and soldiers, but now without any animation, with even the smallest, than if the knowledge is performed, in complete uncertainty, and in their own abilities, and the rightness of one's own business, even without excessive anger against the regime overthrows.
Descriptions of both capitals these days are evidence of indescribable turmoil, confusion, contradictions and about the impassable, the overwhelming majority of obscenity, which, coupled with off-the bloody raid, clothed first steps of Bolshevism. Generally he will go down in history coup without legends, without any admixture of heroic element, obscuring the scenery of "vampuka" and original personal drama and stately tragedy of the Russian people. Not much better was the situation in the camp unpleasant: Coming to Petrograd troops Krasnov's departure — the flight of Kerensky, the dictatorship in Petrograd in the face of deeply peaceful person of Dr. NM Kishkin, paralysis of Staff of the Petrograd neighborhood and throwing the "Rescue Committee", born in Petrograd Duma.
Only military youth — the officers, cadets, partly ladies — in St. Petersburg and in Moscow in particular — their corpses strewn over the metropolitan roadways, without posturing and phrases dying … for the government, for the revolution? No. For the salvation of Russia.
eev these days are perceived the most active role in the work of the "Council of the Republic" by giving his own authority, provided its own experience and knowledge of the Russian army — and the liberal bloc, namely, being in constant communication with the KD-sky center. Immediately he showed a huge role in the life of a beggar bloodless military officers, almost thrown into the street — as a result of the events of the Kornilov revolt, and not to stop the persecution among the soldiers. He succeeded as chairman of the noble 1st charity, by the configuration of its charter, distribute charitable activities in the affected soldiers. Society has since began to lend tacit support officers, cadets, cadets and other military persons in order to save them from persecution of the Bolsheviks, and then sending them to the Don. This support has been the most different: advice, tools, clothes, fake admissions on the Bolshevik forms, train tickets and certificates of belonging to one of the Cossack troops or self-defined margins.
Another 25 th beheld the figure of the corresponding General Alexeyev in the streets of the town is enveloped uprising. Beheld, he sharply disputed with bemused and somewhat taken aback with surprise the chief of the guard, the Bolsheviks staged at the Mariinsky Palace, in order to prevent the meeting of the "Council of the Republic." Beheld his relaxed held from Isaka to Palace Square through the chain of "forces of the Revolutionary Committee" and indignantly struck some kind of control over the defense of the palace that references invite the officers to the Winter Palace to "fulfill its own debt," and, meanwhile, to their not cooked anything — no guns, no bullets …
Approximate general is very worried about his fate, with a sharp with his hand against even took some action to make it safe and bezotstupno encouraged him to leave Petrograd.
In the day or in the evening near the illegal apartment, which was transferred to the General Alekseev Galley, profit B. Savinkov accompanied by any other person with a cool and feigned emotion, his arms crossed over his chest, he turned to the General:
— So, General, I urge you to perform your own duty to the homeland. You must at the same time with me to go to the Don Cossacks, the imperative command them to saddle stallions to stand at the head of them and go to the rescue of the Provisional Government. It asks you to Homeland.
Was present at a conversation Captain Chapron was hot to justify it — a stupid and incomprehensible adventure. Now he has debated with the Cossack Council, who said that hopes for 1, 4, 14 Don regiments that were in the Petrograd garrison, no. Cossacks completely enveloped Bolshevism or desire to "neutrality" and the emergence of the general, do not enjoy the same special to their location, will only lead to his extradition to the Bolsheviks. Chapron said that if anyone can be affected by the Cossacks, perhaps more likely, "the elected Cossack" Savinkov.
— Where is your great strength, organization, and in ways that are not so little discussion was everywhere? — He finished, turning to Savinkov.
General Alexeyev Savinkova rejected the offer as quite hopeless. Again Savinkova pathetic phrase:
— If the Russian general does not fulfill one's duty, I, a civilian, will perform for him.
And the same night he left. But not to the shelves, and in Gatchina to Kerensky.
Episodes of the armed struggle of Petrograd are described carefully and clearly many of the participants. I can not add anything new to them. Focus only on the big picture, it is very appropriate, as the epilogue of the first eight-month period of the revolution, in which, as the focus, reflected all the internal heresy revolutionary tradition, which led to absurd contradictions in the political thinking of the upper, the final eclipse of the mass consciousness, to the degeneration of the revolution.
Gatchina — the only center of active struggle: Petrograd in agony, powerless rate, Pskov (the headquarters Cheremisova) became evident on the side of the Bolsheviks: General Cheremisov, betraying his own benefactor and Kerensky and the Provisional government, More on the 25th gave the order to stop all movements of troops to Petrograd, bowing to it and Commander of the Western Front.
In Gatchina gathered.
Kerensky — preserving the external signs of military power, but abandoned by all, in essence — not the prisoner, not the hostage, who gave himself to the mercy of "imperial general," Krasnov, whom he "wishes" to the purpose of the army commander … army of 700 cavalry and 12 guns! ..
Savinkov, who two months ago back with such fervor condemned the "rebellion" of General Kornilov, now exciting Gatchina officers of the garrison against Kerensky and Krasnov offering overthrow Kerensky and to become the head of the movement … In search of the "dictator", created by his hands, he has cast all sorts of contingent claims of "democratic sheets" and the idea of authority, and from the support of her.
Tsimmervaldovets Chernov, who arrived unclear for what purpose and endorses the decision Luga garrison "to remain neutral" …
The High Commissioner Stankiewicz, which receive and defeatism, and defencism, but first world — inner and outer and looking for "organic agreement with the Bolsheviks at the cost of the largest concessions."
Representatives of the "railwaymen", which held first "neutrality," ie, did not miss the government troops, and later put ultimaticheskoe demand reconciliation.
Lord gots Voitinskii, Kuzmin, etc.
And in the midst of the color of the revolutionary democracy — monarchical figure of General Krasnov which all the emotions and motivations are deeply alien and hostile to the entire political conspiracy that surrounds him and waiting on his war of salvation — of their own position and interests of their own parties, the democratic principle "gains of the revolution," etc.
Truly tragic situation. Here — the fragments of the Provisional Government, in Petrograd — "Rescue Committee", which does not recognize the authority of government. Here at the council discussions are even the possibility of joining the Bolsheviks in the government … What are the political objectives pursued by the coming struggle in practice, the application of their value? The overthrow of Lenin and Trotsky and the restoration of Kerensky, Avksentiev Chernoff?
In particular the painfully experienced this tragic confusion squad officers, it is with hatred for "Kerensky" and, in a conscious or unconscious awareness of the need to fight against the Bolsheviks strove still to Petrograd, it is not skillfully convey the soldiers rush, animation, or even just intelligible purpose movement. For the Motherland and the salvation of statehood? It was very abstract, not easily soldier's awareness. For the Kerensky Provisional Government and the? This caused a wicked sense, clicks "Down," and the requirement to issue Bolsheviks Kerensky. So many do not, of course, was to go and "for Lenin."
In general no impact officers do not have long taken advantage of, in the Cossack units also belonged to him with acute suspicion, much less that the Cossacks are very confused by their loneliness and the idea that they are "against the people."