From the stories of their own names aircraft of in the 1930s

1930s were marked by the rapid growth of socialist industry, which has given the opportunity to enter the Russian Union level of world leaders on manufacture of civilian and military aircraft. This process, in turn, sought to provide a broad propaganda, means the country which had a massive ideological apparatus.

Significant role in this continuing withdrawal of registered aircraft, speaking specific advertising inseparable connection of the Red Army and the Russian society. As in the 1920s. across the country lasted for events intended to equip the Air Force with the latest military technology from traditional funds collected by voluntary donations.

Despite the previously established rules under which the aircraft could receive only the names of deceased famous people, for the sake of being implanted in the country cult "Führer" began the process of assigning aircraft (gliders) Hello names of party-state elite, and control of the Red Army. In the middle of the first such honor awarded fighter of the "I-5", topped the naming "Klim Voroshilov"1, at the time of the USSR People's Commissar of Defense and the 1st of the closest associates IV Stalin. This aircraft Chief of Air Force (1931 — 1937 gg.) YI Alksnis2 Periodically check the air units near Moscow3. In honor of the Alksnisa was named the single-seat experimental gidroplaner "G-12" design VK Gribovskogo, built in 1933

More recognizable aircraft originally entered Alexander Yakovlev4, encrypting the title aircraft under the abbreviation "AIR"Initials own highest patron — chairman of the SNK Alexei Ivanovich Rykov5. In coming up in the Soviet Union was launched in the creation of several series of aircraft of this type. But that followed in the middle of the 1930s. political processes in the country against the so-called "Enemies of the people", including and AI Rykov, just shut down the project.

From the stories of their own names aircraft in Russia 1930
Single-5 fighter "Klim Voroshilov"
From the stories of their own names aircraft in Russia 1930
Hydroplane G-12 "Alksnis" 1933
From the stories of their own names aircraft in Russia 1930
"Ispolkomovsky plane" AIR-6. 1932
From the stories of their own names aircraft in Russia 1930
Double glider — tailless design PG Bening, "P. Postyshev. " 1934
From the stories of their own names aircraft in Russia 1930
Experienced glider RE-1 "Robert Eideman." 1933

The same fate was realized and gliders "PP Postyshev"(PG design Bening, 1934), "ER" (Robert Eideman)7 (OK Antonov design (6 series), 1933 — 1937.). Military and municipal leaders, after whom they were named, were victims of Stalin's tyranny. Meanwhile, the air spaces of the country continued to roam the gliders with the names "Stalinets"(Different versions, designs Eremeeva PA),"Sergo Ordzhonikidze"8 (BV Belyanina design), and other processes occurring in the country associated with the rapid update of the governing bodies in the upper echelons of power, and are reflected in the title of aircraft.

Lasted trend assign an aviation unit and part of the name of municipal and party favorite country. In 1930. in the Red Army Air Force appeared "Fighter Brigade named SS Kamenev9"10, "Squadron of the MI Kalinin11 "" Light air squadron of Air Force Institute of aviation brigade named NV Krilenko12"13, "3 separate air squadron name Orjonikidze"14, "201 legkobombardirovochnaya Aviation Brigade name that KE Voroshilov "15 etc. This included not only the living and surviving members of the military and political control of the country, and has gone out of life. Thus, due to the catastrophic death of a prominent party leader of the country, the first secretary of the Leningrad Regional Committee of the CPSU (b) SM Kirov16 Many military units and military educational institutions of the Red Army were named in his honor. The air force is the right won 3rd Aviation Brigade special purpose.

ORDER

COMMISSIONER OF NATIONAL DEFENSE USSR17 Number 085

December 27, 1934, Moscow

Awarding of the Air Defense Division 2 and 3 of the aviation brigade OH behalf of Comrade Kirov SM

To perpetuate the memory of the Secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the Leningrad (b) that Mironavich Sergei Kirov, who died at the hands of the treacherous enemy of the working class, set its defense division 2 and 3 of the aviation brigade of special purpose name of Sergei Kirov.

Henceforth, these military units called:

1. "Division 2 defense named after SM Kirov. "

2. "3 Aviation Brigade special purpose named after SM Kirov. "

The People's Commissar of Defense of the USSR Voroshilov

In the first half of 1930. number of units and institutions of Air Force were assigned names recognizable military pilots and military control, and dramatically departed from the life: P. Baranova — Chief of Air Force (1925 — 1931 gg.)18, PH Mezheraupa19 (Inspector of Air Force), VI Pisarenko (Senior Assistant Inspector of Air Force)20 etc.

A special place in the history of Russian aviation since occupied a specially formed aircraft squadron agitation
behalf AM sourness21. In fact, all the planes, which were part of it, wore the name of the leading Russian newspapers and magazines — "The Truth" (ANT-14), "Spark" (Day-9), "Peasant Newspaper" (ANT-9), "Spark" (K -5), "Krasnaya Gazeta" (AIR-6), etc. So, warped emergency landing "ANT-9" was repaired and assigned him a new name — "Crocodile" (by name is popular in the USSR satirical magazine). For bolschoy uveritelnosti nose of an aircraft depicted in the form of a grin tropical reptiles.

From the stories of their own names aircraft in Russia 1930
Aerobatic — training glider "Stalinets-4"
From the stories of their own names aircraft in Russia 1930
Squadron of the MI Kalinin. 1936
From the stories of their own names aircraft in Russia 1930
ANT-14 "Truth". 1931
From the stories of their own names aircraft in Russia 1930
U-2 "Peasant newspaper." 1930
From the stories of their own names aircraft in Russia 1930
AIR-6 "Red paper." 1935

Squadron became the favorite of the campaign plane vosmimotorny giant "Maxim Gorky" (ANT-20)22, made under the common control of the famous Russian aircraft AN Tupolev23 and won the title in connection with the fortieth anniversary of the literary and public activity of the majestic Russian writer AM sourness. Unfortunately, the fate of the aircraft was tragic. May 17, 1935 in the skies over Moscow air collision happened giant who performed a pleasure flight, accompanied with one of his fighter aircraft, "I-15» (№ 4304). Piloted fighter military test pilot TSAGI NP Blagin24, in the process of making an unscheduled aerobatics nearby "Maxim Gorky", inadvertently bumped into him. In a plane crash killed 47 people, including test pilots, crew (11 people), TsAGI employees and their families. The country has lost a single, unique in its own way the aircraft.

From the materials of the newspaper "Pravda" May 20, 193525

On the second lap, "Maxim Gorky" made a U-turn to the left and went toward the airfield …. Blagin, being on the right wing, despite the prohibition, made right "barrel" (one of the complex aerobatics) and walked out of inertia on right off the plane. Then he ran to the left wing … added gas, burst forward and suddenly became the latest to do aerobatics. It was very unsafe, because it could drag on inertia to "Maxim Gorky". Figure it did not work out, he lost speed and crashed into the right wing of the "Maxim Gorky", about the average motor. … The blow was Straseni force. "Maxim Gorky" banked to the right, he flew from a dark hood and pieces of training aircraft [incorrect assessment: the plane "E-5" was a fighter]. "Maxim Gorky" proparhal of inertia for 10-15 seconds, the slope of ever rising, and he began to fall on the nose. Then he pulled away from the tail of the fuselage, the aircraft ran into a vertical dive and rolled over onto his back. The car hit the pine trees began to demolish and completely fell apart on the ground.

According to some professionals, this disaster was a result of the outbreak in the country promoting aerobatics. First boom dizzying demonstration flight Our homeland has experienced the other day of the First World War, when the sky of the country showed their skill outstanding Russian and French aviators. As in the 1910s. Air prazdnichkom with virtuosic acrobatic figures again collected 10 of thousands of spectators, which significantly expanded the enthusiasm of a high-class in society.

From the stories of their own names aircraft in Russia 1930
Aviation meeting with the role of aircraft K-5 "Spark". 1935
From the stories of their own names aircraft in Russia 1930
ANT-9 "Crocodile" in flight
From the stories of their own names aircraft in Russia 1930
Vosmimotorny giant aircraft ANT-20 "Maxim Gorky"
From the stories of their own names aircraft in Russia 1930
Glider "Red Star" design SP Queen

Do not stand aside and representatives of non-powered aircraft. One of the best glider Soviet Union at the turn of 1920/1 930-ies. Vasily A. Stepanchonok October 28, 1930 for the first time in the world on a single aerobatic glider "Red Star" SC-3 (SP structures Queen, 1930) performed aerobatics "loop the loop" (3 times).

According to the views of the airframe design "The construction of such machines had to actually prove their own ability to produce aerobatic glider in general. The only experience in this area has been done in America, but the pilot Hase, who made four loops, used to climb through the plane, glider tow it. So makarom for glider, without the help of others to gain height, a similar task posed for the first time "26.

Later on a glider "G-9" (VK design Gribovskogo) VA Stepanchonok was able to repeatedly perform "loop the loop" (115 times), and the subsequent flight, the number of loops is headed for number 184. Glider Aerobatics Vasily was the beginning of the development of our country and the world aerobatics. VI on the 11th rally glider (g Koktebel, 1930) VA Stepanchonok on the same airframe, "D-9" for the first time in the world have mastered such stunts as flip, spin, fly on the back. Immediately he began teaching high aerobatics others. Soon his students showed these figures on aviation prazdnichkom in Tushino.

It is necessary to point out that the previously mentioned glider "PP Postyshev "was also able to do aerobatics. So on the 10th rally of piloting his aeronautic pilot LS Ryzhkov successfully performed the "loop the loop" and other aerobatic maneuvers, and SN Anokhin with his parachute jump from very low altitudes way of failing. According to its flight features glider was recognized as one of the best aerobatic machines.

Solving puzzles propaganda, the inscriptions on the sides of airplanes and gliders sometimes reflect the current history of the country. Thus, there is the Sino-Soviet armed conflict (1929) was immediately reflected in the form of "Our response belokitayskim bandits", and a complicated relationship with the Vatican Russian control — "Our response to the Roman father." From time to time the name of aircraft had a funny origin. So, made in 1932, the designer VK Gribovskaya single training glider was sent by rail in Koktebel the Supreme flight gliding school. On the way to the car with the glider was lost somewhere and came to school only six months later, in 1933 in connection with such long delays sharp-tongued school instructors, considering that the glider wandered the roads of the country's steel as bloodless child, named it "waif". Later glider participated in the IX th and X th aeronautical gatherings of the country.

With the establishment of the Soviet Union in the highest rank of the Hero of Russian Union (1934) individual aircraft soon adorned with this inscription. Except for the title of extraordinary popularity in the country and received the first pilots of the award of a noble title. The names of some of them were soon captured in aircraft. The first such honor was given to the pilots MM Gromov and MV Vodopianov. On the initiative of the Azov-Black Sea glider flying club of the "parasol monoplane," was the title of chief of the club — "Michael Vodopianov"27.

From the stories of their own names aircraft in Russia 1930
A P-5 "Hero of Russian Union"
From the stories of their own names aircraft in Russia 1930
The crew of the aircraft mechanics and industrial aero club, named in honor of the Chairman of the OGPU USSR Menzhinsky

Meanwhile, the country lasted share of national construction and equipping of Russian aviation modern military equipment. PBC issued the orders of the USSR (later NKO), she cut one of the aviation units.

ORDER

Revolutionary Military Council of the Union Russian Socialist Republics28

Number 114

June 17, 1933, Moscow

Arrows, command structure and political workers VOHR Ukraine, not counting already sent 15 aircraft, passed the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army built collected enough money to another 5 aircraft.

Noting the highest activity and revolutionize shown by the arrows, and the employees kompolitsostavom VOHR in strengthening the defense capability of the USSR, the command:

1. Include in the Red Army Air Force sent planes and assign them according to the will drummers VOHR names:

1) "Drummer defense"

2) "Telman"

3) "Frunze"

4) "4 5"

5) "Budennyi."

2. CA granted the petition Osoaviahima Ukraine, assign three separate aviation squadron of the Air Force, which transferred all of these aircraft, the name:

"3 separate air squadron named after Ordzhonikidze so."

People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs and Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR Voroshilov.

They did not cease from labor associations and representatives of the army and navy. Thus, the warriors of the Metropolitan Area of the military on their savings have been built aircraft "Name the 81st Infantry Division" and "Name of the military school after the All." In June 1930, the staff of this school took the initiative to build a squadron "Name XVI Congress of the CPSU (b)," and for this purpose he brought to the State Bank an initial payment of $ 5 thousand.

People's contribution to the cause of development of Russian military aircraft ever get reflected in the titles of new air units being approved in the governing documents of the highest level. In the period 1932 — 1934 years. in the Red Army Air Force appeared many registered units and parts, including: "54 separate air corps name" Oilers Transcaucasia "29, "Aviation Squadron behalf of the All-Union Congress of the ITR 5 '30, "11 military pilot school name of the proletariat of Donbass"31, "255 Aviation Brigade name of the proletariat of Kiev region"32 etc.

From the stories of their own names aircraft in Russia 1930
Single record type evaporator design GF Groshev "Komsomol" D number 2. 1933
From the stories of their own names aircraft in Russia 1930
Fighter I-5, with an inscription of the general secretary of the Central Committee of Komsomol A. Kosarev

Own significant contribution to the development of Air Force and has brought Leninsky Komsomol. January 25, 1931 XI Congress of the Young Communist League appealed to all the Russian Union of Young Communists, for the soldiers and commanders of the Red Army Air Force with the words: "We, along with the party and the working class of all countries have a responsibility to the proletariat of the world for the defense of the USSR and the need to make it central to his own work … Congress of the Young Communist League on behalf of the three million of the Red Army of the Lenin Komsomol decides to take the patronage of the Air Force of the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army. From that moment the fate of Lenin Komsomol is inextricably linked with the fate of the Air Forces of the Red Army, which assigns both more power, more militant proletarian power. "

Taking the patronage of the Air Force, the Komsomol issued the call: "Komsomolets — on the plane!". Following this call, Russian youth on Komsomol in the coming years, significantly up for the aviation branch, flight and technical military schools, flying clubs and numerous countries. Appreciate the help and support of the Central Committee of the Komsomol, the management of the Red Army officially cemented its close cooperation with the Young Communist League, having published about a number of the respective orders.

ORDER

Revolutionary Military Council of the Union Russian Socialist Republics33

Number 9

January 27, 1933, Moscow

/. Awarding Monino aviation brigade of Air Force Name of All-Union Leninist Young Communist League.

2. Awarding of the title of a noble pilot crews to the Secretary General of the Central Committee of Komsomol so Kosarev AV

Noting the work of the All-Union Leninist Young Communist League in the construction of Monino Air Force Aviation Brigade of the Red Army, the attention and concern on the part of the Komsomol Central Committee to all personnel of the aviation brigade, the active role of the Komsomol in the struggle for trouble-free and the highest levels of political and educational work of the personnel, in commemoration of the 2 anniversary of the Komsomol of patronage over the Red Army Air Force, I order:

1. Assign Monino aviation brigade of Air Force name All-Union Leninist Young Communist League.

2. The title of a noble pilot crews to the Secretary General of the Central Committee of Komsomol so Kosarev AV

People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs and Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR Voroshilov

In the coming years, many military aircraft adorned with inscriptions, clearly demonstrates the inextricable link with the Communist Youth League Russian aviation.

Continue into 1930. ultra-long flights of Russian aviators also found the text reflected in the visual arts, cultivated on planes. In order to promote the achievements of Russian aviation aircraft that took part in the specific flights, get some names. In the middle of the first plane can be called "Land of the Soviets" (ANT-6), who committed the first in the history of Russian aviation intercontinental flight. In autumn 1929 the crew consists of: SA Shestakov (commander), FE Bolotov (second pilot), DV Fufaeva (mechanic) and BV Sterligova (navigator) established the "air bridge" between the towns of Moscow and New York (USA). With all of this Russian pilots held in the air 1 37 flying hours and have been for that time period 21242 km (8000 miles of them over the water). Earlier, in 1927, the most experienced pilot Simon Shestakov, coupled with his constant mechanic Dmitry Fufaeva had already experience long-distance flight, performed by the Moscow — Tokyo — Moscow.

A flight crew made "Land of the Soviets" was of fundamental national importance. During the Russian war majestically on this route was paved air route along which a Russian alliance of the United States did so needed for the war effort South American aircraft such as: "Boston", "Cobra", etc.

From the stories of their own names aircraft in Russia 1930
ANT-6, "Land of the Soviets" in flight. 1929
From the stories of their own names aircraft in Russia 1930
ANT-25 XV Paris Air Show. 1936
From the stories of their own names aircraft in Russia 1930
ANT-37bis "Homeland" before takeoff
From the stories of their own names aircraft in Russia 1930
Participants in the long-distance flight to the ANT-37bis "Homeland" (left to right): PD Osipenko, BC and MM Grizodubova Raskova. 1938

Coming soon on board the aircraft appeared the names of prominent pilots of the country participated in the ultra-long haul flights. For example, in 1934 plane "ANT-25RD 'was decorated words" years. Gromov-owl-Spirin "dedicated to well-known in the history of Russian aviation flight by Russian pilots MM Gromov34, AI Filene's and IT Spirin35, have established the world record for distance and duration of the flight. In the Russian press since this unprecedented event in the history of Russian aviation noted: "… Recognizable Russian test pilot Mikhail Gromov and his crew — co-pilot and navigator Alexander Filin Ivan Spirin — in crediting record flight took off in the afternoon September 10, 1934 and drove the car on a triangular route Moscow — Ryazan — Tula. Despite the heavy flight asso
ciated with a tremendous risk to the life of the pilots in the morning on September 13, in connection with the termination of fuel in the fuel tanks of aircraft "ANT-25RD 'coercion did land on one of the nearby airports of Kharkov. During the flight, the crew was in the air 75 hours 2 minute. Previously, no one in the world so long did not fly. Only in a closed curve was passed 12411 km. For this feat the CEC of the USSR M. Gromov was awarded the highest title of Hero of the Russian Union. The same resolution AI Owl and IT Spirin awarded the Order of Lenin … "36.

World wide response received transarctic flight from Moscow to the Far East, received the title: "Stalin's route." Participating in it the crew of "ANT-25-2" as part of the pilots: Valery Chkalov37, ZHoru Baydukova38 and Alexander Belyakov39 was able to run over the Arctic new air route. Total brave pilots 56 hours and 20 minutes the aircraft crossed 9374 kilometers. For ultra-long flight from Moscow — Fr. Udd committed in 1936, the said pilots were awarded the highest title of Hero of the Russian Union.

Keep pace with aviators and pilots are women. By plane "Homeland" (ANT-37 bis, SB-2B) in the period 24-25 September 1938, a crew consisting of Valentina Grizodubovoy40, Polina Osipenko41 and M.Raskovoy42 flew for 26.5 hours of 5908 km from Moscow to the Far East Township Kirby. The flight took place in bad weather criteria for the fierce cold and behind the cab and ended a forced landing. For this feat brave pilots were awarded the highest title of Hero of the Russian Union.

Meanwhile, the world has begun to smell danger newest World War II, much has changed in the coming-to-date way of the country and its armed forces. To replace the world record in the airspace of harsh confrontation went for it.

REFERENCES AND FOOTNOTES:

1    Kliment Voroshilov [23.01. (4.02). 1881 — 12/02/1969] — Russian party, municipal and military leader, Marshal of the Russian Union (1935), twice Hero of the Russian Union (1956, 1968), Hero of Socialist Labor (1960). The military service from 1918 to the years of war plainclothes commander of the 1st unit of Lugansk (1918), commander of the troops Tsaritsyn (1918), Deputy Commander of the Military Council and a member of the 10th Army, the commander of the Kharkov Military Area (1919) Commander of the 14th Army (1919), a member of the Military Council of the First Cavalry Army (1919-1921). In the years 1921 -1924. Commander of the North Caucasian, then the Metropolitan military surroundings. From November 1925 to 1934, the People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs and Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR. In 1934 — 1940 years. People's Commissar of Defense of the USSR, from 1938 Chairman of the Head of the military council. As of 1940-1941. Chairman of the SNK and the Chairman of the Committee of Defense at the USSR. During the Russian war majestically member of T-bills and the Supreme Command, Commander of the North-Western (1941), commander of the Leningrad Front (1941), commander in chief of the guerrilla movement (1942). In the 1946-1953 years. Deputy Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers. From March 1953 to May 1960 the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR.

2   Alksnis (Astrov) Jacob I. [14 (26) .1.1897 g — 29/07/1937] — Russian military leader, commander of the 2nd rank (1936). The military service in 1917 graduated from the Odessa military officers' schools (1917), the Military Academy of the Red Army (1924), the Kachin Military Aviation School (1929). He served in the following positions: officer regiment commissar Orel province, the commissioner of the 55th Infantry Division. In the spring of 1920 to August 1921 Assistant Commander of the military Orlovsky neighborhood. In the period 1924 — 1926 years. Assistant Chief of the Mobilization Department, Head of the Department and the Commissioner of the unit of troops of the Red Army General Staff, the head of the Machine Head troops control of the Red Army. Since August 1926 the Deputy Chief of the Air Force, with the June 1931 Chief of Air Force and a member of the Military Council of NKO. Since January 1937 the Deputy People's Commissar of Defense of the USSR Air Force — Air Force chief of the Red Army. Did a great job of improving the organizational structure of the Air Force, equipping them with the latest weaponry. One of the initiators of the deployment of Osoaviahima for training pilots and parachutists. Unjustifiably repressed (1937). Rehabilitated in 1956 (posthumously).

3   G. Bajdukov. The commander of cruise. Moscow: IzdAT. House. "Belfry", 2002. — S. 121.

4  Information about the AS Yakovlev in the 2nd part of the article.

5  Rykov Alexei Ivanovich [1881 — 1938] — Soviet party and municipal leaders. Member of the revolution in Russia of 1905 — 1907. Member of the Presidium of the Moscow City Council (1917), a member of the Metropolitan RMC. The People's Commissar of Internal Affairs of the Russian Republic (1917 1 — 1918). In 1918 — 1920 years., 1923 — 1924 years. Chairman of the Supreme Economic Council. During the war, civilian clothes Extraordinary Plenipotentiary of the Council of Labor and Defense (100) to supply the Red Army. Gathering of 1921 vice-chairman of the CPC and 100. In February 1924 the chairman of the SNK of the USSR (until 1930) and SNK of the RSFSR (until 1929). In the years 1931 -1936. Communications of the USSR People's Commissar. Member of the Central Executive Committee and Central Executive Committee of the USSR. Unjustifiably repressed (1938).

6  Postyshev Pavel Petrovich [1887 — 1939] — Russian party leader. In 1917, Vice Chairman of the Board of Irkutsk, the chairman of the Central Bureau of Trade Unions, member of the Revolutionary Military Committee, the organizer of the Red Guards. Since 1918, the Chairman of the Revolutionary Tribunal, a member of Tsentrosibir and its representative in the Far Eastern SNK. Since July 1918 on the underground work in the Far East, ruled by guerrilla detachments Amur. In 1920, the commissioner of the Central Committee of the RCP (b) in the Khabarovsk region, head of the political group 1 (Amur) Infantry Division. In 1921 — 1922 years. Commissioner of the DRV for the Baikal region, member of the Military Council of the Amur Military Area (October — December 1921), a member of the Military Council of the Eastern Front of the DRV (December 1921 — February 1922), chairman of the executive committee of Baikal. In 1923, at the party work. Since 1927, member of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b), in 1930 — 1933. Secretary of the Central Committee in 1934 — 1938 years. alternate member of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b). Unjustifiably repressed (1939).

7 Eideman Robert P. [1895 — 1937] — Russian commander, corps commander. He graduated from military school (1916), Ensign. In 1917, the chairman of the board of Horse Soldiers' Deputies in October — deputy chairman of Tsentrosibir. In May and July 1918 as part of the West Siberian headquarters against the White Czechs, military commissar of the Omsk directions and orders commander of the 1st Siberian (guerrilla) army. In August and October — Head 2nd Ural (medium), in October and November — 3rd Infantry Division Ural, in November — the Special Division of the 3rd Army. In March — July 1919, Chief of the 16th, in October-November — 41 th, in November 1919 and April 1920 — the 46th Infantry Division. In April — May 1920, Chief of Logistics of the Southwestern Front, in June and July — the commander of the 13th Army in August — September — Right Bank of the forces of the 13th Army in the Kahovskogo bridgehead. In September 1920 the head of the Southern Front and rear right from
October commander of interior troops of the Southern and South-Western Fronts. Since January 1921 the commander of the Internal Service of Ukraine from March — the Kharkov Military neighborhood in June — the assistant commander of the armed forces of Ukraine and Crimea. In the coming command positions in the Red Army. Unjustifiably repressed (1937).

8 Ordzhonikidze Grigory (Sergo) [12 (24) .10.1886 — 18.02.1937] — Russian municipal leader, political commissar of the Red Army. Prof. revolutionary. In 1917, as part of the Municipal Committee of the RSDLP (b) and the Executive Committee of the Petrograd Soviet. Took an active role in the October armed uprising (1917) and the defeat of Kerensky — Krasnov (1917). In December 1917, the Extraordinary Commissioner of Ukraine. Since April 1918 Extraordinary Commissioner of the South of Russia, member of the CEC Don Russian republic in December 1918 Managing Defense Council of Northern Kavkdza. One of the organizers of the defense of Tsaritsyn (Volgograd) in the summer — autumn 1918 in July — September 1919, a member of the Revolutionary Military Council of the 16th Army, then the 14th Army (October 1919-January 1920) and a representative of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Southern Front in shock troops of the group. In February 1920 — May 1921, a member of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Caucasian front, once in February — April 1920, the Chairman of the Office for the restoration of Russian power in the North Caucasus, in April 1920 a member of the Caucasian Bureau of the Central Committee of the RCP (B.). In 1921 — 1926 years. Chairman of the Caucasian Bureau of the Central Committee in 1922, once the 1st Secretary of the Trans-Caucasus, North-Caucasian Regional Committee of the Party. Since 1926, the chairman of the Central Control Commission of the CPSU (b) and the People's Commissar of the Workers 'and Peasants' Inspection. In 1924 — 1927 years. a member of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR. The deputy chairman of the SNK (since 1926), chairman of the National Economy (1930), People's Commissar of heavy industry (since 1932). Member of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) in 1930 committed suicide (1937).

9 Information on SS Kamenev in the 2nd part of the article.

10  NKO Order number 157 of August 29, 1936

11  Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin [11/19/1875 — 06/03/1946] — A prominent Russian politician and municipal, Hero of Socialist Labor (1944). Prof. revolutionary. Member of the October armed uprising in Petrograd (1917), from 1919 Chairman of the Central Executive Committee. Since 1922, the chairman of the CEC of the USSR, from 1938 Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. Since 1926, member of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b).

12 Krilenko Nikolai [2 (14). O5.1885 — 29.07.1938] — Russian municipal and military leader, writer, Doctor of municipal and legal sciences (1934). He graduated from the Faculty of History and Philosophy Petersburg Institute (1909) and the Law Faculty of the Kharkov Institute (1914). Member of 3 revolutions. At 1913 left military service, received the rank of ensign. In 1914 — 1915 GG in exile. In 1916 he enlisted in the army. After the February Revolution of 1917, the chairman of the regimental, divisional and army committees of the 11th Army. An active participant in the October Revolution, a member of the Petrograd Military Revolutionary Committee. Became a member of the CPC as a member of the Committee for Military and Naval Affairs. November 9, 1917 and the Supreme People's Commissar for Military Affairs. From March 1918 to the Russian authorities Justice. In 1922-1931 gg Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the Supreme Court, the prosecutor of the RSFSR in 1931, People's Commissar of Justice of the Russian Federation, in 1936, the USSR People's Commissar of Justice. Unjustifiably repressed (1938). Rehabilitated in 1955

13  NKO Order number 01 17 on July 7, 1935

18 RVS USSR Order number 28 dated 15 February 1934

19 Mezheraup Peter Hristoforovich [1895 — 1931] — Russian commander, Air Force pilot. He graduated from flying school (1919). In 1917, a member of the executive committee of aviation units of the 12th Army, a member of the October armed uprising in Moscow (1917). During the war, plainclothes commander of the 1st Detachment of the Smolensk air group, the military commissar of aviation and aeronautics 8th Army, commander of the squadron. In 1923 — 1926 years. Air Force Chief of Turkestan front. Since 1927 Head of the Air Force military neighborhood. In 1930, the Inspector of Air Force. Catastrophically died in a plane crash (1931).

20  RVS USSR Order number 159 of September 12, 1931

21  Bitter (foot) Gorky [1868 — 1936] — Russian and Russian literary figure. The founder of Russian realism in literature. He brought a great contribution to the development of the cultural heritage of the country.

22  ANT-20 "Maxim Gorky" in 1930. the highest plane in the world. The area of its wings — 486 m2 empty weight — 28.5 tons, normal take-off — 42 tons Eight M-34 engines rated at 900 hp each allowed him to fly at speeds up to 220 km / h. Distance non-stop flight — two thousand miles. Ceiling — 4,500 m

23  Andrei Tupolev [29.10 (10.11) 1888 — 23.12.1972] — Russian aircraft, three times Hero of Socialist Labor (1945, 1957, 1972), Colonel-General Engineer (1967), Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1953), Honored Worker of Science and Technology (1939). In the Russian army in 1944 graduated from the Tver Gymnasium (1908), Capital High Technical School (1918). Together with Academician NE Zhukovsky took an active role in the organization of the Central hydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI). In the 1918-1935 years. Deputy Head of the Institute. In 1924-1925 years. did ANT and ANT-2-3 — the first Russian metal aircraft. In its aircraft found 78 global high scores, made 28 unique missions.

24 Test pilot NP Blagin had 15 years of flying experience on different types of aircraft.

25  See: D. Sobolev. Catastrophe "Maxim Gorky". Homeland, 2004. Number 8. — P.52-53.

26  Plane. Number 1, 1931. — S. 14.

27  Vodopianov Misha V. [1899 -1980] — Russian military pilot, one of the first Russian Union of Heroes (1934), Major General Aviation (1943). The military service since 1919, graduated from the Military Aviation School (1929). He took part in the rescue Chelyuskinites. In 1937, a detachment of the languid air ships under his command for the first time in the world made a draft of the North Pole, the expedition brought back (SP-1). During the Russian war majestically in the air of the army, the commander of the division.

28  Collection orders RVSR, RVS USSR and NGOs about naming parts, assemblies and institutions of the Armed Forces of the USSR. 4.1. 1918 — 1937 years. — M., 1967.-S.305.

29  RVS USSR Order number 45 dated March 17, 1932

30  RVS USSR Order number 29 dated March 3, 1933

31  RVS USSR Order number 08 dated 16 January 1934

32   RVS USSR Order number 062 of May 31, 1934

33  Collection orders RVSR, RVS USSR and NGOs about naming parts, assemblies and institutions of the Armed Forces of the USSR. 4.1. 1918 — 1937 years. — Moscow, 1967. — P.309.

34      Mikhail Mikhailovich Gromov [22 (24) .02.1899 — 22.01.1985] — Russian commander, Colonel-General (1944), Hero of the Russian Union (1934), Honored Pilot of the USSR, Doctor (1937). In the Russian Army in 1918. He graduated from the Moscow Central School of Aviation (1918). During the civilian war: a pilot on the Eastern Front. Afte
r the war, instructor pilot and test pilot science test airfield. Member of the USSR's first trip to the far (1925). Since 1930, test pilot, then commander of the Flight Test squad TsAGI. In the 1930-ies. made a series of ultra-long flights and set a world distance record at the ANT-25 in a closed curve in the distance sv.12 tys.km. During the Russian war majestically commander of the 31st Air Division, the air force commander of the Kalinin Front (1942), commander of the 3rd VA (1942-1943) and 1st VA (1943-1944). Since June 1944 Head of State Air Force combat training of the Red Army. Since 1946, the deputy commander of a distant aircraft in 1949-1955. management experience in the Ministry of Aviation Industry. From 1955 to supplies.

35 Spirin Ivan T. [1898 — 1960] — Russian military pilot, navigator, Lieutenant General, Hero of Russian Union (1937), Doctor of Geographical Sciences. He participated as a co-driver in a record number of flights to the North, to China, to Europe. In 1937, the chief of the Air Force Institute aeronautical sector, participated in the crew of MV Vodopiyanov boarding on a drifting ice floe near the North Pole of the first polar expedition, headed by I. Papanin. In the upcoming Head of the Ivanovo school navigators. Member majestically Russian war. Since 1955, retired.

36  VK Ants. Air Force Test. — Moscow: Military Publishing, 1990. — P.26-27.

37  Valery Chkalov [20.1. (2.2). 1904 — 15.12.1938] — Russian pilot, Brigadier General (1938), Hero of the Russian Union (1936). He was trained in the military Egoryevskaya theoretical Pilot School (1921-1922), graduated Borisoglebovskay Aviation School (1923), studied at the Metropolitan School of aerobatics and high school Serpukhov aerial gunnery and bombing. Since June 1924 he served in the Red Banner Fighter Squadron, became famous as a quality fighter pilot. In the 1927-1928. commander of a fighter squadron Bryansk aviation brigade. In 1928-1930. pilot-instructor of the Leningrad Society of Friends of the Air Fleet. In November 1930 a test pilot in the Scientific Testing Institute of the Air Force since 1933, test pilot aircraft factory. Experienced more than 70 different types of aircraft, including I-15, I-16, I-17. He brought a great contribution to the development of flying skills, developed and introduced a new aerobatics (ascending corkscrew and delayed barrel). Did a couple of distant non-stop flights (1936, 1937). Died when testing a new fighter.

38    Bajdukov Jora Philippovich [13 (26) 05.1907 — 28.12.1994] — Russian commander, Colonel-General (1961), Hero of the Russian Union (1936). The military service in 1926 graduated from the Leningrad military-theoretical Pilot School (1926), 1st Military Pilot School (1928), the Higher Military Academy (1951). S — 1931 test pilot. In the 1930-ies. member of several ultra-long flights. During the Soviet-Finnish War (1939-1940) commanded the air group and regiments during the war majestically Russian: air division, the Air Force and the 4th Shock Army. Since 1946, the deputy commander of the VA in 1947-1949. Deputy Head of Municipal Research and Testing Institute of Air Force flight operations, since 1949 Head of the Head Control GVF. Since 1952, the Deputy, 1st Deputy Chief of Staff of the Head of Air Defense Forces at a special technique, and in 1957-1972. head of the 4th Head Control USSR Ministry of Defense. Since 1972, the Chief Scientific Adviser, Air Defense Forces.

39    Alexander Belyakov [9 (21). 12.1897 — 28.11.1982] — Russian military co-driver, a scientist in the field of air navigation, Lieutenant General (1943), Hero of the Russian Union (1936). The military service since 1916, in the Red Army in 1919 graduated Aleksandrovskoe Military Infantry School (1917), Moscow photogrammetric School (1921), a military school pilots (1936). From 1921 he taught at the Metropolitan photogrammetric school. In the 1930-1935 years. teacher and head of the Department of BBA them. NE Zhukovsky. In the second half of the 30s did some ultra-long flights. In the 1936-1939. the-navigator connection, and then flag of Air Force navigator. Since 1940, the Deputy Chief of the Military Academy Command and Navigation of the Air Force satellites, then head of the Ryazan Higher School Air Force navigators. In his role as Acting the head of the navigator VA participated in the Berlin operation (1945). In the 1945-1960 years. BBA chief navigator faculty. After transfer to resign — Doctor of the Metropolitan Physical-Technical Institute.

40  Grizodubova Valentina S. [18 (31) January 1910 — 28.04.1993] — Russian aviator, Hero of the Russian Union (1938), Hero of Socialist Labor (1986), Colonel (1943). In the Russian army in 1936, daughter of the 1st of the first Russian aircraft designers and pilots SV Grizodubova. She graduated from Penza flying club (1929). Engaged in the sport of gliding. She worked as an instructor pilot in the Tula aviation school, then in agitation squadron them. M. sourness, was chief of the international air-lines of the Soviet Union. The crew set a ladies' world distance record for an airplane "Homeland" (1938). During the Russian war majestically commanded the 101st Aviation Regiment distant act (1942) (later — the 31-th Guards Bomber Regiment). In the 1942-1945 years. Member of the Extraordinary State Commission to identify and investigate the atrocities the Nazis. In 1946, retired. She worked in civilian aviation chief flight test station, director of the Institute.

41 Polina Osipenko Denisovna [25.9. (8.10). 1907 — 11/05/1939] — Russian military pilot, Major (1939). She graduated from the Kachin Air School (1932), served as a fighter pilot and commander aviazvena. Established five international women's records. She was killed when carrying out their obligations (1939).

42 Raskova Marina M. .15? 8 ^. (1912 — 04/01/1943] — Russian pilot, navigator, Hero of Russian Union (1938), Major (1942). In the Russian Army in 1942, graduated from the school of pilots flying club Osoaviahima Center (1935 .) participated in the first women's group flight Leningrad-Moscow (1935), also a distant non-stop flight (1937). During the war he commanded the mighty are Russian air group on the formation of women's regiments, with the January 1942 ladies bomber regiment commander. perished when the service obligation (1943).

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