From the stories of their own naming aircraft of, 1918 — the end of 1920

The political crisis in the country and the subsequent long fratricidal war imposed plainclothes own stamp on the decoration of combat vehicles aviation units of the opposing sides. Despite a certain apolitical Reds aviators (at this time on airplanes more prevalent various emblems), individual units are sometimes transformed into true flying propaganda posters. In the Red Army could be met planes with inscriptions, for example, "Red Falcons of all States to fly" or"May Day labor". At the same time in a snow-white aircraft such artistry actually used. There were only a few cases when the pilots were placed on aircraft fuselages own ladies' names. So, on the northern front naval aviator Lieutenant Yakovitsky flew with the inscription «Nellj».Later this aircraft was a trophy Reds parts.

With the end of the war propaganda plainclothes orientation in the Air Force RRKA not lost its relevance, and only mutated and began to reflect the pressing challenges of the current day or. For the promotion of physical culture in the country, for example, on one of the planes of the "U-1" was placed a large poster of address: "Physical education of the proletariat — a means of recreation and education for the interests of his fighters …" [Photo provided by the aircraft end of the text is missing]. As can be seen, the management of the Air Force has paid great attention to the physical training Russian pilots, sometimes resorting to such an extraordinary campaign.

Aircraft-poster "red winner"
The plane "Bristol F.2V" with a dead head IW Pavlov. 1918
IU plane Pavlova "Fokker D.HIII" with the words "For V.K.P. (b)"

As in the First World War some reddish pilots possessed by military vehicles fuselages personal slogans. Against this background, particularly stood out recognizable aviator IU Pavlov1, award for the years plainclothes War 3 orders of Red Banner. Expressing their loyalty to the Party of Bolsheviks, he placed his own plane inscription: "For V.K.P. (b)." Previously, the board of his car emblem decorate another direction, presented in the form of a death's head with the blade of a dagger between his teeth, the image of which complement the harsh words: "Death the vanquished. "

During the war, IU Pavlov also had to fly on an airplane, the holder of which referred to him «Vieux ami» (French lang., "Old Friend"). This is the inscription was saved reddish pilot life when he was in the camp of the enemy.

At unsuccessful firing of white armored plane IU Pavlov was shot down. During the landing strip near the railway crossing White Cossack found it. Posing as a snow-white pilot is flying in an airplane reddish trophy, he was able to assure the reliability of the Cossacks in their own words. Naive Cossacks assist IU Pavlov start the engine. When the plane took off, the pilot fired reddish own saviors of the gun …2

In the 1920-ies. rapid development of Russian aviation. Aircraft began to appear with different exotic names like: "The Humpbacked Horse" (Structure Basil Hyon, 1923) "Thunderbird" C-4 (Vyacheslav design Nevdachina, 1927) "Three Friends" (SN design Gorelov, AA Semenov and LI Sutugina, 1926), etc.

Thus, the plane "The Humpbacked Horse" as a representative of light biplanes, developed in-flight speed of 120 km / h and reaches a height of 3200 m not bad in the air stability and maneuverability properties were given the opportunity to use it in the economy. There were built 30 such type of devices that have opened in the Soviet era agricultural aviation.

Aircraft-poster U-1

Along with aircraft have been actively developing Russian Gliding. A huge help lovers gliding exerted control Glavozduhoflota, has taken the decision in November 1921 to do with the scientific edition of the journal "Journal of Air Force," a special circle of glider pilots, received the title of "soaring". Thanks to the great big enthusiasm for the sport in the coming years, the country appeared non-powered aircraft with different names and unique designs.

In 1923, in the walls of the plant "aviation workers' aeronaut ND Anoschenko constructed its own balancing glider "Macaca." Its construction took the role of 17-year-old Alexander Yakovlev3, further distinguished Russian aircraft. With 2 years later students of the Academy of the Air Fleet BC Vakhmistrov and MK Tikhonravov make a record single glider with a great name "The Dragon." Unfortunately, it is the first mission ended in disaster. Piloting a glider pilot AA Gills was languid spinal injury.

Found a trend of its development and perpetuation of recognizable names in the country of people on the aircraft fuselage. In the middle the first time in Russian such honor was awarded a pioneer of Russian aviation and gliding BI Russian4. So, in 1921, on the wings of the aircraft type "Moran G» there was an inscription: "Grandpa Russian." This title ("grandfather"5), The words of the aviator, he received personally from the VI Lenin, who was present May 1, 1918 on the ground of the Russian Federation in the Russian air prazdnichkom held in the Ice Palace. Fascinated by flight BA Russian, chairman of the Council of People's Commissars appreciated the superior piloting skill of the pilot and the latter has given "honorary title." Later, with a similar inscription in the late 1920s. flying plane "ANT-3." So Makar, B. Russian was one of the first in the Russian practice, a pilot, had the honor to during the life of such highest honor. But first, 1920. this was the exception to the rule. Overall management of Air Force sought to adhere to the principle — to dedicate aircraft names already deceased airmen or representatives of other branches of service. For example, in the military aviation have come out reconnaissance plane of the "P-1" "A Red Oak Ivan " and a number of gliders are named after their own constructors: "Morlet Klement'ev" (APS-11) "Krasvoenlet Denisov" (APS-9), disastrously killed in plane crashes.

The aircraft "Humpbacked Horse". 1923
Glider "Macaca" design ND Anos
chenko. 1923
A P-1 "Red Guard Ivan Oak." 1926
"Grandpa Russian." "Moran G». 1921

In October of 1927, the Air Force chief of military Metropolitan Area IU Pavlov filed a petition before the Red Army Air Force controlled the assignment of the two planes of the 8th reconnaissance squadron "Red Moscow" names airmen 1st Russian fighter air group (AI Efimov6 and GS Sapozhnikov7) Who died during the war, civilian clothes. Chief of Air Force PI Rams8 supported this initiative and, in turn, reported to a report on the merits, the deputy chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR IS Unschlicht9.

REPORT

Deputy Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR from 12.07.1927, "On the assignment of the two parts of the aircraft to the Air Force of the Metropolitan Area of military items:

"Name and the name of voenleta Efimova voenleta Sapozhnikov"10

1st Russian Fighter Group that Pavlov for the most languid days of fighting the 8th and the 13th Army in 1919-1920. lost 2-own best pilots vols. Efimova and Sapozhnikov, who own selfless bravery and devotion to the Workers 'and Peasants' countries have entered the best page in the history of Russian aviation.

For the cause of the workers and farmers vols. Efimov and Shoemakers in the languid days are given everything, right up to his life.

Wanting to keep the memory of these fighters mufti days of the war in the hearts of present-day composition of the Red Army Air Force, the application for leave to call the two planes of the 8th Air Intelligence Squadron "Red Moscow" names valiantly fallen comrades.

Chief of Air Force / Rams /

Glider "The Dragon" in flight. 1925

Agreeing with the Air Force Rezonit management, IS Unshlikht gave a corresponding order of the chief control device and service management of the Head of the Red Army troops about the design of the order naming the pilots who died heroically certain aircraft reconnaissance aircraft in the special orders to RVS USSR11. Later registered aircraft are included in the Air Squadron "Red Moscow".

Meanwhile, the Air Force established practice by assigning the name of a noble air unit put it on aircraft that were part of a designated aviaformirovaniya. For example, because the pilots received a single aviation unit for testing Marine Aircraft Research Institute of Air Force, placing his own car name of the deceased comrade MA Korovkina.

ORDER

Revolutionary Military Council of the Union Russian Socialist Republics

Number 119

July 25, 1931, Moscow

Awarding of the Special Aviation Unit for Testing Marine Aircraft Research and Testing Institute of Air Force names: "Private aviation detachment for testing Marine Aircraft engineer pilot Korovkina"

To perpetuate the memory of the military engineer-mechanic fleet naval aviator Korovkina Metrophanes A., who was killed in the performance of a special service job, assign a Special Aviation Unit for Testing Marine Aircraft Research and Testing Institute of Air Force name:

"Private aviation detachment for testing Marine Aircraft engineer named Korovkina pilot."

Deputy People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs of the USSR Chairman of the PBC

Tukhachevskiy13

With the end of war in civilian clothes USSR increased attention has been paid to the construction of the Air Fleet, which, according to the views of military and political control of the country played an important role in strengthening the defense capability of the country's Russian. Verbovaniya attention to Russian people, especially young people, to the dilemmas of the development of aviation in March, "were established in 1923 the Society of Friends of Air Fleet (ODVF) and the Russian Society Volunteer Air Force (Dobrolet.) With their extensive role held various campaign activities, including the Week Air Fleet. So, at the call of ODVF and Dobrolet only 10 months of 1923 were collected 3 million gold rubles for the construction of aircraft, airfields, aircraft factories.'s own contribution, and brought it Ulyanov family. Only in the construction of aircraft "Truth" VI Lenin and NK Krupskaya personally brought 60 gold rubles.

Keep pace with the public institutions of the military and educational institutions of the Red Army. Thus, forces students and teachers of the school Serpukhov aerial gunnery and bombing was a wide-ranging propaganda work in the enterprises of the town to support the strengthening of the Air Fleet. This allowed for little time to collect funds for the construction of an aircraft "Serpukhov working" Later, he entered the Air Force Red Army.

In winter 1924 was completed the formation of a separate intelligence unit "Ultimatum" (Commander — BC Rutkowski14). Taking into consideration the request of workers who have contributed to the construction of 9 planes, each combat vehicle was depicted a typical symbol of identity in the form of a strong working hand in a fist. Troop joined the Air Force of the Metropolitan Area of the military.

After the death of the first Russian country manager Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR issued a special order (№ 367 of March 9, 1924), in which to perpetuate the memory of VI Lenin's one of the best units of the Air Force appropriated his name.

ORDER

Revolutionary Military Council of the Union Russian Socialist Republics15

Number 367

March 9, 1924, Moscow

Awarding 1 reconnaissance aviation squadron named after Vladimir Ilyich Lenin

The first reconnaissance aviation squadron assigned the name "Vladimir Ilyich Lenin", why this squadron continue to call:

"The first reconnaissance aviation squadron of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin."

Deputy Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council

E. Sklyansky16

In order to re-squadron to the latest aviation technology throughout the country began to raise funds for its construction. In the short time were built first of 19 aircraft, which are already 1 June 1924 party congress delegates XIII Squadron pilots were awarded the Central airport (Hodynka, Moscow). Each unit had its own title, for which it was possible to conclude that the provision of aeronautical engineering squadron named after VI Lenin was a nation-wide concern.

The names of aircraft entered service 1st reconnaissance aviation squadron: "Countryman Ilyich", "Samarets — Ilyich "," Komsomolets Siberia "," N
izhny Novgorod worker "," Moscow Kommunalnik "," Dzerzhinsky "," Terrible "," Red severokavkazets "," Karaterin "," Comrade name. Semashko " 
[From the Commissariat] "Red Voronezh — Ilyich "," Siberian worker "," Siberian red "," Red Sormovich "," Prodrabotnik "," Red Black Sea "," Don worker "," Red vladimirovets "," Kizlov Bukhara. "

On this occasion, in those days the newspaper "Pravda" wrote: "From now on in the Air Force has aircraft majestic monument to the leader and teacher of workers and farmers in their struggle against the landlords and capitalists — Vladimir Ilyich Lenin".

Due to the fact that in the process of collecting funds for the aircraft to the 1st Squadron combat vehicles had been built more than foreseen by its staff, a decision to establish a 2nd Squadron of Lenin. Such honor awarded 1st Russian Fighter Squadron (Leningrad), which came into service 18 new aircraft. Immediately 6 more planes, built on traditional remedies, were included in the Aviation Unit "Ilyich" (Kharkiv).

In March 1925 the 6th separate reconnaissance squadron renamed Aviation Detachment "Red Moscow".

ORDER

Revolutionary Military Council of the Union Russian Socialist Republics17 Number 288

March 14, 1925, Moscow

Awarding 6 fin. Reconnaissance Squadron names:

6th Div. Reconnaissance Squadron "Red Moscow"

6 separate reconnaissance squadron assigned the name "Red Moscow" to continue this squadron call:

"6 separate reconnaissance squadron reddish Moscow"

Deputy Chairman of the PBC

Unshlikht

Adopted a separate squadron arrived registered aircraft: "Red Sokolniki", "L. Krasin "," Narkomvoenmor " (In memory of Mikhail Frunze18"Comrade Nette" later — "George Sapozhnikov" and "Alexander Efimov."

ORDER

Revolutionary Military Council of the Union Russian Socialist Republics19

Number 698

June 26, 1925, Moscow

Awarding of three separate reconnaissance aviation squadron name: "3 separate intelligence named Frunze aviation squadron"

3 separate reconnaissance aviation squadron assigned the name "name Frunze" continue this squadron call:

"3 separate intelligence named Frunze air squadron."

Vreede Vice-President of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR

Bubnov20

Part of the crew Squadron "Red Moscow" in the same year took part in the fighting in Turkestan.

In 1920. has been developed patronage work, which has also involved the Air Force. Many labor groups took patronage over the air units, giving them every assistance, including the supply of modern military technology. Thus, representatives of railway transport and aqua Capital node to the beginning of the Ill-Second Congress of Soviets of the USSR (May 17, 1925) gave his own sponsored the 2nd Fighter Squadron 11 aircraft, built collected enough money. Soon the order of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR № 719 of July 3, 1925 the squadron was named after F. Dzerzhinsky21, who was at that time the People's Commissar of Railways.

Author plane Junkers Ju-21
P-1 Squadron "Our answer to Chamberlain." 1927
Glider "Morlet Klement'ev"
A P-1 "Red Voronezh — Ilyich." 1924
Reconnaissance plane P-3 (ANT-3) "proletarian." 1925

ORDER

Revolutionary Military Council of the Union Russian Socialist Republics22 Number 719

July 3, 1925 Moscow

Awarding two separate Fighter Squadron name: "2 separate fighter named so Dzerzhinsky aviation squadron"

2 separate Fighter Squadron assigned the name "name that Dzerzhinsky" continue this squadron call:

"Fighter 2 separate name that Dzerzhinsky air squadron."

For the Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR Bubnov

July 9, 1929 the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR issued an order number 179 has officially secured the 18th Red Army Air Force aviation detachment of the venerable name: "18 Squadron Communal employee. " Such, the squadron was awarded the honor due to patronage over it by the Central Committee of the Workers Union Utilities, built and delivered in the plane thereof squad named "Communal worker "23.

The signing between the USSR and Germany Rapallo contract made legal framework for economic cooperation, including in the aviation industry. The German side proposed to allocate significant resources to the development of aircraft (including the motor industry) in the Russian Union with the condition of the temporary use of a number of Russian aircraft factories in the interests of the Reichswehr. Despite the fact that this proposal is in fact violated the prohibition of Versailles Pact (1919), restricted the activities of the military-industrial complex in Germany, the management of the USSR agreed with him. In accordance with the signed November 26, 1922 between the German company "Junkers" and the Russian government contract number 1, "Junkers" were limited to the creation of the Soviet Union aircraft and engines, including and for parts of the Red Army24.

Author plane S-13 "Sibrevkom"

In the middle of the 1920s. adopted Russian aviation units began to arrive German planes of the "Junkers" various modifications: «Ju 20" (spies), «Ju 21», «Ju 21s" (fighters), "South-1" (bombers), etc. According to the established tradition, while many of them will soon become registered. Some "Junkers" took part in a speci
ally organized at the initiative made by the Commission on huge flights of Russian led by the Chief of Staff of the Red Army, SS Kamenev25 ultra-long haul flights to the Far East. The idea that of the Euro-Asian "air bridge" was introduced the other day of the First World War to bring together Europe and Asia by means of air services. It was envisaged to perform the flight from the city of Beijing to Paris route: Beijing-Urga — Irkutsk — Omsk — Kazan — Moscow — Warsaw-Vienna — Trieste — Genoa — Avignon — Dijon — Paris, with stops in designated camps. Launch scheduled for September 1, 1912 with the Beijing airport and end on November 1 of the same year in the French capital. During this time, the participants had to overcome the flight distance of 13 thousand kilometers26.

First flight to the Far East was held on June 10th 1925, in which the group took the role of different types of aircraft structures, "P-1" (pilot Gromov, EV Rodzevich), "P-1" ( MA Volkovoynov pilot, flight engineer V. Kuznetsov), "P-2" (ECAT AN pilot, flight engineer Malikov FP), "U-13""Truth" (Pilot, Ivan Polyakov, flight engineer Vladimir Osipov), "AC-1" "Latvian shooter" (A. Tomaszewski pilot, flight engineer VP cane). 52-hour flight was passed a route length of 6476 km Moscow — Beijing. Later, two crews "P-1" from the city of Beijing headed for Tokyo and 2 September 1925 which made the landing in the Land of the Rising Sun. So Makarov, for the first time in the history of world aviation Sea of Japan was overcome land aircraft types. For this feat all the pilots and mechanics, flight members, were awarded the Red Banner Order, and pilots also awarded a noble title of "Honored Pilot"27.

A P-1 "Atheist"
Author plane DOBROLET society "the central heating CPSU (B) "The Truth." 1923
The plane of the German production "Fokker» F.lll RR1 "Latvian shooter" who participated in the flight on the route Moscow — Beijing. / 99.5 g

Yet, in the midst Russian pilots German cars do not get very popular. To a certain extent this is consistent with the intentions of Russian management to accelerate the transition to create a Russian aircraft. There was a wide-ranging campaign — the Red Army Air Force to equip only Russian weapons. For this purpose, the general public has been involved with its communist fervor.

Thus, formed around the end of May 1925 the 3rd Squadron of the body (Ivanovo-Voznesensky), whose fleet consisted only of German cars «Ju 21", as early as next year, a movement of complete retooling his Russian aircraft.

Ivanovo regional newspaper "working edge" in those days wrote: "The members of the Union of Education Workers, the combined number of village committees Myshkinskaya 1, give to build its own aircraft-day earnings of the February salary." This initiative was supported by many businesses and institutions of the region, as other town of the country, is making its own contribution to the construction of the aircraft.

A year later, the squadron began receiving new fighting machine, built by traditional means. With all this name on planes read as for themselves: "Ivanovo paramedic", "Stormbreaker", "Arseny", "chemist" (The last three aircraft of type "P-1" worn names in the memory of the Ivanovo-Bolshevik underground) "For Leninism", "Dzerzhinets", "Ivanovo weaver", "Ivanovo textile worker" etc.

After a while parked squad car came on board which was written: "Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR awarded the 3rd Squadron individual name" Name the Ivanovo-workers. "

A similar trend occurred and the city of Moscow, where the 20th Aviation Detachment in summer 1927, the transfer was accomplished festive aircraft "Moskovsky builder " and "Moscow metalhead" built on working capital funds raised.

In the days of celebration of the 10th anniversary of the October Revolution and the All Osoaviahima representatives of Air Force presented a good gift — airplanes, built on the fund's

consumer co-operatives under the motto "Our response to Chamberlain." Elected slogan was a reflection of the political situation prevailing in connection with a break at the initiative of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of O. Chamberlain of England diplomatically Russian relations with the Union. In the middle of the first such title was the ANT-3, carrying out flight on the route Moscow — Tokyo.

Later, a special order of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR registered aircraft were concentrated in the 11th Aviation Brigade.

ORDER

Revolutionary Military Council of the Union Russian Socialist Republics28 Number 144

June 7, 1929, Moscow

0 11 aviation brigade assigned the name "Consumer's 11 Brigade."

In connection with the concentration in the 11th Aviation Brigade of all military aircraft, built to fund consumer cooperatives "Our response to Chamberlain," assign the aforesaid team name:

"Consumer's 11 Brigade."

People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs and Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR Voroshilov

Do not stand aside and various public organizations. Thus, in June 1929 at the airport named after MV Frunze in the festive atmosphere of the representatives of the Air Force were given two aircraft: "Atheist(P-1) and "Cooperate craftsman " from the Union of Societies of atheists (atheists), and the cell Osoaviahima Vsekopromsoyuza.

At the same time, Russian glider pilots continued to amaze and astound with their new developments. In 1928, the tribunal countless fans of non-powered aircraft have been presented single glider record type "Desperado" (AN Sharapova design and Verzilova VN) and a double glider training "Kudeyar " (AN Sharapova design), built in Simferopol.

The following decade was the present period of active development of Russian aviation and the new global record in the development of air space by bringing the Soviet Union into the category of global aviation powers.

Gliders "Desperado" and "Kudeyar." 1928
Registered aircraft plainclothes War

REFERENCES AND FOOTNOTES:

1   Ivan Pavlov Ulyanovich [26/11/1891 (according to other sources — 1893) — 11/04/1936] — Russian commander. He graduated from the higher academic courses. The military service from 1914 served in the 1 st Combat Aviation Group (1917). In 1918 he created the 1st Soviet military aviation group. After the war, Deputy Inspector, Chief Inspector of Air Force. In the 1924-1930 years. Air Force Chief of CVM.

2 DV Mityurin. Reddish "Aviadarm". / World Avionics, 2003. Number 2. — P.65.

3   Alexander Yakovlev [19.3 (1.4) .1906 — 1989] — Russian aircraft, twice Hero of Socialist Labor (1940, 1957), Colonel-General Engineer (1946), Academician of the Academy of the USSR (1976). As of the Red Army in 1924. Since 1927, the listener of Air Force Engineering Academy. NE Zhukovsky. In 1931, an engineer at an aircraft factory, where he formed KB light aircraft. Since 1935, the main, and in the years 1956-1984. — Chief Designer. In the 1940-1946 years. immediately Deputy Commissar of the aviation industry. Under his direction, made more than 100 types of production aircraft and their modifications.

4 Russian Boris Iliodorovich [1884-1977] — 1st Capital aviator and one of the first Russian aviaplaneristov.

5  During this period, BI Russia was only 34 years old.

6   Alexander Efimov [? — 28/06/1919] — reddish military pilot. During the war waged war civilian clothes in the 1st Russian fighter air group. Suffered a tragedy when boarding a black time (1919).

7  Sapozhnikov Jora S. [? -6.09.1920] — Reddish military flying ace. He graduated from a technical school Samara, Sevastopol Pilot School (1915). The Military air fleet since 1914 During the 1st World War, participated in 37 air battles, shot down two enemy aircraft. He served in the 1 6th corps Squadron (1915-1916), then — the 9th Squadron (1916-1918). During the war waged war civilian clothes in the 1st Russian fighter air group. One of the most effective military pilots Reddish Air Force. Catastrophically died during takeoff from an airfield (1920).

8 Peter Ionovich sheep [10 (22) .09.1892 — 09.05.1933] — Russian commander. The military service in 1915 graduated Chernyaevsky general education courses in St. Petersburg. For anti-government agitation in the middle of a fighter convicted in 1916-martial tribunal to 8 years of hard labor. Released during the February Revolution (1917). In December 1917, he became Chairman of the Revolutionary Committee of the Romanian front. In April 1918, the commander of the army of Donetsk. In the period 1919 — 1920 years. served in the following positions: member of the Revolutionary Military Council of the 8th Army, Army Group South of the Eastern Front, the Turkestan Front, 1st and 14th armies. Perceive a particular role in the suppression of the Kronstadt rebellion (1921). In 1921 — 1922 years. -Member of the PBC Turkestan Front and Acting Commander of the Fergana region, in 1923 the chief commissioner and armored forces of the Red Army. Since August 1923 Assistant Chief of the Air Fleet Control Head for political affairs, with the October 1924 Deputy Head, and from March 1925 Chief of Air Force. He actively participated in the ongoing restructuring in accordance with the Air Force military reform in 1924-1925., Implemented solutions on the mobilization of the Air Force command staff of other armies. In January 1932, the Deputy Commissar of heavy industry and the Chief of the Head Department of Aviation industry. He died in a plane crash (1933).

9   Unshlikht Joseph S. [19 (31) .12.1879 — 07.29.1937] — Russian city, party and military leader. Since 1900, he began his revolutionary activities. During the October days of 1917, a member of the Petrograd Military Revolutionary Committee. After the October Revolution, a member of the Board of the NKVD. In 1919, the People's Commissar for Military Affairs of the Lithuanian-Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic. In April — December 1919, a member of the Military Council of the 16th Army (up to 09.06.1919, the — the Belarusian-Lithuanian Army), from December 1919 to April 1921 — the Western Front. In 1921 — 1923 years. Deputy Chairman of the Cheka (GPU). In 1923 — 1925 years. a member of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR and the Red Army Chief of supply. In 1925 — 1930 years. — Deputy Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR and the deputy. People's Commissar, right from 1927 deputy. Osoaviahima chairman of the USSR. In 1930 — 1933 years. Deputy. Chairman of the Supreme Economic Council, in 1933 — 1935 years. Head Head plainclothes fleet management. Arrested in 1937

10  State Military Archive. F.29, op.7, d.277, LZ

11 Ibid. L.4.

12  Collection orders RVSR, RVS USSR and NGOs about naming parts, assemblies and institutions of the Armed Forces of the USSR. 4.1. 1918 — 1937 years. — M., 1967. — S.296.

13  Tukhachevsky Mikhail Nikolayevich [4 (16) .2.1893 — 1 06/01/1937] — Russian commander, Marshal of the Russian Union (1935). He graduated from military school Alexandrov (1914), took an active part in the 1st World War. In the period 1915 -1917 years. was in captivity. During the war, civilian clothes: the representative of the Military Division of the Central Executive Committee, the Commissioner of the Metropolitan District of Defense, the commander of the 1st Army of the Eastern Front, the assistant commander of the southern front, the army commander of the Southern Front commander of the Caucasus, then the Western Front. Managed Operations for the oppression of Kronstadt and Tambov rebellion in 1921 In 1921, he headed the Military Academy of the Red Army, from July 1924 — Deputy Chief of Staff of the Red Army, November 1925 to May 1928 — the Chief of Staff of the Red Army, took an active role in military reform 1924 — 1925 years. Since May 1928 he commanded the troops of the Leningrad Military neighborhood. Since 1931, the Deputy Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council and the People's Commissar of the USSR, the chief weapons of the Red Army, from 1934 — Deputy People's Commissar of Defense, since 1936 Deputy Commissar of Defense and the Chief of Combat Training. In 1937, the commander of the Volga Military neighborhood. In the same year, the wrong alleged was illegally arrested. Rehabilitated (posthumously) in 1956

14  Rutkowski VS [? -?] — Russian and Russian commander. During the 1st World War, the WWF of the army, Lieutenant-Colonel (1917). Alternately held the positions of: pilot 8th corps squadron, commander of the 18th Aviation Unit, commander of the 10th aviadiviziona. Chief of Air Force military Metropolitan Area (1918 — 1919). In 1924, the commander of a separate intelligence unit "Ultimatum."

15  Collection orders RVSR, RVS USSR and NGOs about naming parts, assemblies and institutions of the Armed Forces of the USSR. 4.1. 1918 — 1937 years. — M "1967. — S. 172.

16  Sklyansky Ephraim Markovich [1892 -1925] — Russian municipal and military leader. Member of the 1st World War. As of the Red Army from 1918 member of the Petrograd RVC, the commissioner of the Head of Staff and Betting HS. Member of the Board and Deputy People's Commissar, a member of the Supreme Military Council. Deputy Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic (1918 — 1924), a member of the Council of Labor and Defense (1920 — 1921). From 1924 he worked in the SEC. He died in a foreign business trip (1925).

Later converted to a squadron of the same title.

17  Collection orders RVSR, RVS USSR and NGOs about naming parts, assemblies and institutions of the Armed Forces of the USSR. 4.1. 1918 — 1937 years. — M., 1967. — P.212.

18    Mikhail Vasilyevich Frunze [21.1 (2.2). 1885 — 31/10/1925] — Russian municipal and
military leader, military theorist. The military service since 1916 Since 1904 he studied at the St. Petersburg Polytechnic Institute, expelled for revolutionary activities. From 1905 to 1917. Prof. revolutionary, not once was arrested and exiled. In 1917, the head of the militia in Minsk, a committee member of the Western Front, a member of the "Minsk executive committee of the Council. During the October armed uprising in Petrograd Military Revolutionary Committee, the Chairman of Shui. Spring and summer of 1918, once head of the Commissariat of Ivanovo-Voznesensky province, then commissar of Yaroslavl Military neighborhood. From January 1919 the commander of the 4th Army, in May — June — Turkestan Army from July — the troops of the East, and from August — Turkestan fronts. In September 1920, the Commander of the Southern Front. in 1922 — 1924 . Commissioner of the Republic of PBC in the Ukraine, the commander of armed forces of Ukraine and Crimea (1920 — 1922), once in November 1921 — January 1922, headed the Ukrainian delegation to Turkey diplomatically when a contract of friendship between them. On February 1922 Deputy Chairman CPC and deputy chairman of the Economic Council of Ukraine. Since March 1924, the deputy chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR and the People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs, in April once the Red Army Chief of Staff and Chief of the Military Academy of the Red Army. Since January 1925 Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR and the People's Commissar for Military and Maritime Affairs, in February as a member of the Council of Labor and Defense of the USSR.

19  Collection orders RVSR, RVS USSR and NGOs about naming parts, assemblies and institutions of the Armed Forces of the USSR. 4.1. 1918 — 1937 years. — M., 1967. — P.226.

20      Bubnov Andrei Sergeyevich [22.3 (3.4). 1884 — 1/8/1938] — Russian municipal and military leader, military commissar of the 1st rank (1924). The military service in 1918 — 1929 years. He studied at the Metropolitan Institute of Agriculture, was expelled for revolutionary activities. In 1907 — 1917 years. by Prof. revolutionary work. In October 1917, a member of the Political Bureau of the RSDLP (B), and the Military Revolutionary Party center to manage the armed insurrection in Petrograd. In December 1917 a member of the board of the People's Commissariat, the commissioner of the railroad in the South. In March — April 1918, the Secretary of the People (People's Commissar) of economic affairs of the USSR, in April-July, a member of the Bureau of rebel fighting in the rear of the enemy, July — September, the chairman of the All-Ukrainian Center RVC. In March — April 1919, the chairman of the executive committee of Kiev. Member of the PBC Ukrainian Front (April — June 1919), the 14th Army (June — October), Kozlovsky Strike Group (October — November), head of the political forces of the Left Bank (November — December). In August 1919 and September 1920 a member of the Defense Council of Ukraine. Took an active role in leading the troops at the front plainclothes War in Russia (1917-1922). Since 1921 a member of the South-East Bureau of the Central Committee of the RCP (b), 1921 — 1922 years. Member of the PBC and the North Caucasus Military District 1st Cavalry. In 1922 — 1923 years. Head of agitation industry of the RCP (B.). From January 1924 to September 1929 Head of the Political Administration of the Red Army, a member of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR, the chairman of the commission for the introduction of unity of command in the Red Army and the Navy. In 1929 — 1937 years. People's Commissar of Education of the RSFSR. Unjustifiably repressed (1938). Rehabilitated (posthumously) in 1956

21   Felix Dzerzhinsky [30.8 (1 1.9). 1877 — 20/07/1926] — Russian municipal and military leader. Prof. revolutionary. In October 1917, a member of the Military Revolutionary Party center to manage the armed insurrection in Petrograd and the Petrograd Military Revolutionary Committee. Since December 1917 the chairman of the Cheka for Combating Counterrevolution and Sabotage. Since August 1918 the chairman of the department of the Cheka Especial designed to prevent subversive activities of the Red Army. Directing the Cheka, and since 1919, the People's Commissariat of Internal Affairs, responsible tasks once done at the front. Since September 1919, the committee of defense of Moscow from May to September 1920 Chief of Logistics of the Southwest, then a member of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Western Front. In 1920 — 1921 years. led by different municipal commission. Since April 1921 the People's Commissar of Railways, once chairman of the Cheka and the People's Commissar of Internal Affairs. In July 1923 a member of the Council of Labor and Defense of the USSR. Since September 1923 the chairman of the municipal board of the Joint Political Department at the USSR (GPU), and from February 1924 — and chairman of the Supreme Economic Council (SEC).

22  Collection orders RVSR, RVS USSR and NGOs about naming parts, assemblies and institutions of the Armed Forces of the USSR. 4.1. 1918 — 1937 years. — M "1967. — P.227.

23  Ibid. S.276.

24  DA Sobolev. DB Khazanov. German mark in the Russian aviation. — Moscow: Rusava, 2000. — P.56.

25     Sergey Kamenev [4 (16) .4.1881 — 08/25/1936] — Russian commander, commander of the 1st rank (1935). He graduated from military school Alexandrov (1900) and the Academy of the General Staff (1907). Member of the 1st World War senior aide Operations Division of the 1st Army, commander of Infantry Regiment Infantry Corps Chief of Staff, Colonel. During the war, plain clothes chief of staff of the 15th Infantry Corps, then — 3rd A military Nevel district manager of the western section Curtains (1918), commander of the Eastern Front (1918 — 1919, with a break in May 1919). Chief of the Armed Forces of the Republic and a member of RVSR (1919 — 1924). In March 1925, Chief of Staff of the Red Army from November — Chief Inspector, then chief of the Head of the Red Army control. Since May 1927 the Deputy Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs and the Deputy Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the USSR. Since June 1934 the Red Army Chief of Defense. He died in 1936

26 Russian invalid, May 19 (June 1) 1912. Number 108. — SZ

27  VK Ants. Air Force Test. Moscow: Military Publishing, 1990. — P.73.

28  Collection orders RVSR, RVS USSR and NGOs about naming parts, assemblies and institutions of the Armed Forces of the USSR. 4.1. 1918 — 1937 years. — M "1967. — P.275.

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