Our homeland, following the example of France, at the end of the XVIII century on the path of development of air space means aircraft1. But because of the insufficient development of the textile and chemical manufacturing long years the government was forced to use foreign-built aircraft. Has not changed the situation and with the start of construction of the Russian Air Fleet. In this regard, the Defense Ministry has recognized the need to make the purchase of balloons and other property required abroad. Soon the Russian Army did just military balloons "Falcon" and "Eagle" (To 1000 m3) Acquired for this purpose in France2. Later balloon "Eagle" was rejected by the Commission on the application of aeronautics, pigeon and watchtowers to military targets3 constant because of gas leakage. Another fate was in the balloon "Falcon". In the summer of 1885 in the Volkov field4 (St. Petersburg), it conducted training rises to the role of the first persons designated by the Commission (a major general MM Boreskov5 and NP Fedorov6) Are also officers of the frame balloonists. In October of the same year balloon "Falcon"made a flight from the capital city of Novgorod. This was the beginning of free flight in Russia. On this occasion, Minister of War to the report by the inspector general of the engineering part of Lieutenant General KJ Zvereva7 of the successful flight of Russian aeronauts, was applied to the subsequent resolution:"Congratulations to the beginning and success. God grant that this is the case, we have developed and rapidly and well to the benefit of the Russian Federation, and the glory of our army and its units on aeronautics. .. "8.
Successful steps in the development of aeronautic case aroused the enthusiasm of the Russian society. Extraordinary significance began to get registered aircraft. According to the views of many military aeronautics, their names were to have only Russian origin. Already in 1886 used in military maneuvers near the town of Brest-Litovsk (Brest) balloon is named "Russian." Its creator was unchanged Commissioner Lt. Col. NA Eagles9. Patriotic passion of the Russian officer was supported by the engineering department, and in June 1887, Secretary of War approved the decision of the Commission on the application of aeronautics assigned to each balloon Russian army under the name of names of birds.
From the report of Lieutenant-General PS K.Ya.Zvereva Minister of War Vannovsky10 the assignment of names of balloons, available in the aeronautic park on May 27 (June 188711
…XI. Allow the balls to give names, available in the park12, at the same time on the ball, flying in maneuvers near Brest in the past year, to save him Lieutenant Colonel Orlov this title "Russian", others the balls to call the names of various birds, such as, for example: Eagle, Dove, Hawk, Falcon, Merlin, Vulture, Golden Eagle, Red-footed Falcon, Seagull, Swallow, Raven, etc.
Resolution of the Minister of War: "I affirm the decision of the Commission in this and the report listed, authorize and request for costs. Gen.-ad. Vannovsky
In the forthcoming than "feathered" names on the envelope is the name began to appear big cities of the Russian Empire, in what were stationed aeronautic department, for example, "C. Petersburg ", "Warsaw" etc. Such as credit worthy and outstanding military leaders who played a perceptible role in the development of the Russian military aeronautics: "General VanCondon, "" General Zabotkin "] 3 etc. At the end of the Russian-Japanese war of 1904-1905. management of the Ministry of Defense concluded that ballooning has no equal for himself according to his ability in the air a wide range of tasks, the duration of the flight and the lifted weight of the payload. This event, to a large extent, has strengthened the position of aeronautics in the military. Meanwhile, the replacement of tethered balloons and kite were driven aircraft (airships).
In 1906, Chief of the Head of Engineering Management, reporting to the Minister of War of the need to be armed airships, emphasized that
"Army, equipped with similar devices, will own a powerful tool for rekognostsirovok and can cause grave harm to the moral armies that do not have such funds"14. Despite the significant retardation of in the field of aeronautics from European countries, the Defense Ministry has allocated it in a separate area. In the coming years in service of aeronautical parts arrived airships: "Training"15, "The Swan"16, "Merlin" 17, "Dove", "hawk", "Golden Eagle" etc. How was it possible to create, in the names of the aircraft continued to prevail names of birds.
nwhile, the heavenly expanse of the country quickly conquered the aircraft heavier than air — airplanes. As with balloons at the dawn of military aeronautics, the first aircraft in the country were more zabugornyh samples. Counting on the development of aviation and the military department of the Russian Federation intensive forms the airborne troops18, hoping to equip them every army corps and frontier military fort. Initially, for the acquisition squadrons supposed to order abroad more adapted for military affairs devices such as "Farman" and "Nieuport". But against this decision was made by the majority of Russian factories that require transfer of major orders for aircraft assembly. A leading aircraft manufacturers while local enterprises were listed: Russian-Baltic Shipyard (Riga)19, plant "Dux" (Moscow), 1st friendship ballooning SS Shchetinina (St. Petersburg)20, Lomachi and K0 (St. Petersburg)21, friendship "Aviata" (Warsaw), St. Petersburg arsenal factory VA Lebedev22 etc.
Unlike the airships first planes are more used names of aircraft factories and companies carrying out their assembly, for example: "Dux"23, "Aviata" or the names of owners of airlines, for example — "YA Moeller "24. At the same time, aircraft and had their own names — the names recognizable zabugornyh aircraft designers: Farman25, Nieuport, Bleriot, Voisin and other first Russian aircraft have also followed this rule — II Sikorski26 (C-3a, -5,-6A, -16, -20) AA Anatra27 ("Anatra") AA Anatra — E. Dean (De Kamp) ("Anade") VA Lebedev("The Swan") etc.
Evenly in the aviation world was fixed practice assignment aircraft abbreviated names of their own creators. So, in 1912, in the workshops of the Moscow Society of aeronautics Italian pilot athlete Francesco Mosca and Russian aviators M. Lerche28 and G. Jankowski29 Double project was built monoplane "Lam" (Database name of the machine lay the first big bukovkoy names of its creators). Designed at the level of representations, as long aircraft came easy, stable and well made simple aerobatics. Monoplane was built so tightly that he could allow himself to withstand the slopes on a plowed field at full load. In May 1912, "Lame" one of its creators aviator GV Jankowski during the 2nd week of the Metropolitan set the Russian aviation record, rising to a height of 1775 m in the process of Aviation Week and was presented with the acronym bimonoplan "CHUR" design, NV Rebikov. The database name of the aircraft lay bukovkoy also big names of its creators: GG Chechet, MK Ushakov, NV Rebikov. During tests on Khodynka (Moscow) piloted his pilot M. Lerche in a strong wind could rise into the air and proparhat "jumps straight" the entire airfield. In the upcoming flights NV Rebikov in St. Petersburg by plane "CHUR" ended in tragedy (July 1912), then the unit is not restored30.
During this period the aircraft in Russia began to receive their own names, in no way connected with the names of their designers. One of the first such honor was awarded a twin-engine aircraft "Grandee Baltic " (II Sikorsky design), built in the spring of 1913 at the Russian-Baltic Carriage Factory (RBVZ). Because of the large private at that time, the size it was named "Grand" ("Big") with the prefix "Baltic" (At the place of assembly of aircraft — RBVZ). But this title has caused diversified assessment of Russian middle of a wide public. Many found it unacceptable for the Russian name of the airship. Because the upcoming advanced version of this type of aircraft was called "Russian Knight". The size and weight of the new aircraft is approximately two times higher than all, that there was at the time in the world of aviation technology. In the summer of 19
13 it set a world record for the length of time spent in the air. But fate was ill-disposed to it. In September of the same year at the Hull airfield during the third contest of military airplanes from aircraft ("Chalkler-2")piloted by the famous Russian aviator AM Haber-Vlynskim31, came off the engine and the plane crashed, the giant, who was standing on the ground near the hangars, the left wing box. Due to the severe damage to the airship's constructor (II Sikorsky) Polga refused to repair the car. One of the main reasons for its failure was started in August of 1913 the construction of a more perfect type of aircraft giant. Soon the latest modification "Russian Knight" became a plane "Ilya Muromets" (Named after the Russian epic hero), which was meant to capture the universal respect and worldwide fame.
With the adoption of its service in the Russian army began the creation of a distant (strategic) bombers. The name of the airship was applied bolshennymi characters (old Russian script) in the nose of the aircraft or on its fuselage. Next to it has a military identification symbol (triangle municipal flag), approved by the decision of the Military Council of the ministers of war in the summer of 1913
In parallel with the "Ilya Muromets" during the First World War, was built and other heavy Russian aircraft giant "Svjatogor" (VA Slesareva design), ahead, on the views of individual professionals, its time for a couple of years. Estimated flight weight of the aircraft was about 6,500 kg, with 50% of it was to be desired load. With a speed of over 100 km / h the unit was supposed to go for a long time — up to 30 hours and climb to an altitude of 2500 m But representatives of the state of the aviation industry have refused to fund the project, VA Slesareva, preferring to build proved its worth in practice airship "Ilya Muromets".
Certain counterbalance to the emergence of the giant aircraft in 1912 "airplane-midget" ("Duhovetsky-1") Anzani engine with an 8 HP made by a group of students of the Metropolitan Technical College (MTU), headed by the inventor of the AV Duhovetskim Its dimensions are significantly smaller than the other planes and represented one unit of the first Russian avietok. It committed small flies. Followed by air has become "Duhovetsky-2" named "Small Muromets" for unusual for small aircraft scheme with an enclosed cabin in the fuselage with glazed sides and in the ceiling, but without a review forward. Its construction was completed in the summer of 191432
Has been developed and the tradition of assigning aircraft to the names of people who played a significant role in the development of Russian aviation. So, on March 23 (April 5) in 1911 at the next meeting of the Aero Club of the Committee for the collection of donations for the establishment of the Navy decided to purchase three aircraft available resources and identifying them with the respective names. The first of them (of the "Farman") received the name "People named Matsievicha33" other aircraft systems ("Bleriot") — "People Number 2" 3rd (of Pishofa) — "People's number 3"34.
So Makar, the aircraft type "Farman" immortalized on his own board name of the famous Russian aviator LM Matsievich catastrophically died on September 24 (October 7) in 1910 when the demonstrative flight in one of the capital's airports. He opened his own death a sad list of deceased catastrophic Russian aviators.
July 19 (August 1) in 1912 with the Commandant airport (St. Petersburg) took off the nominal plane of the "Bleriot" (piloted by AE Raevskii35), Dedicated to the famous Russian pilot BV Matyevichu-Matsievich36, the spring of 1911 plane crash victim , in the district of Balaklava. The unit was built with funds raised by the Imperial All-Russian aero club (Iwaki) on voluntary donations37.
This tradition has found a continued and during the First World War. In memory of the deceased friend — an outstanding Russian military pilot Lieutenant-Capt
ain PN Nesterov38 Lieutenant CM. Brodovich39 arranged on board the aircraft of its own inscription "Memory Nesterov." With this step, he immortalized the name of the person who committed the first in the world of air ram enemy aircraft. Unfortunately, in the following years in aviation PN Nesterov is larger than that of honor no one honored.
Recently the war in our country was born cancel another tradition — assigning aircraft titles municipal and private institutions and organizations who built their own funds. This tradition has become an integral part of the ensuing broader movement to create the Air Fleet on folk remedies. Thus, in September 1912 Iwaki entered into an agreement with the management of the North-Western railways on the construction of aircraft systems ("Farman") for the needs of the flying school aero club with a unique name "North-Western road." To buy the railroad gave the chairman of Iwaki about 6 thousand rubles collected by the assistant chief of traffic engineer Berhe on voluntary donations to the railroad employees40.
Such initiative enveloped not only Russia, and many European countries. Thus, in the pages of repetitive publication of the military department of the newspaper "Russian Invalid", 8 (21) in November 1912, and it was noted: "Just as it was in France, Romania, the town begin to bring the gift of airplanes in the military department. First example did Iasi, brought the airplane, named by his name. "
Not remain on the sidelines and Russian military aircraft. Since the beginning of the creation of the army and navy of the first aviation units became necessary to consolidate their staff. In this regard, on the fuselage of the aircraft began to appear with the numbering of labels or other aviation units. For example, the place of deployment of aircraft 1st Aviation Company can be found on the existing inscriptions: "1st gameinsulating squad, Art. Petersburg ". In most cases, it is reduced to a few letters. An example is the Brest-Litovsk fortress air corps, who uses only two of the large letters "B.-L." (Table number 1).
Throughout the war, befitting the abbreviation got all the squadrons of the Russian army.
Individual military aviators in order to increase attention to himself on the fuselage of aircraft possessed their own names. Among them was a pilot and 5 th Fighter Detachment Warrant Officer OP Pankratov (North Front). Acknowledged master of aerial combat as a proper business card for friends and opponents used the subsequent inscription: "The military pilot Ensign Pankratov." In September 1916 in Dvinskikh position it with the pilot and an observer of French life by Henri Laurent entered into an unequal battle with the enemy's squadron, during which they were able to shoot down enemy aircraft. In this air combat fighter pilot Pankratov was fatally wounded.
From time to time, the Russian pilots were decorated aircraft based exotic names, such as: "Bob", "Kitty" etc. It seems that with a sense of humor in the Knights of the ocean air was all right.
In the conditions of an acute shortage of Russian aircraft is one of the pioneers of the Russian aircraft VA Lebedev spoke to the management of the military department with a proposal to convert the captured enemy aircraft for the Russian army. He organized in 1914 in Petrograd factory began intensively to solve this puzzle. Coming soon on the basis of the captured at different times on the front of German and Austrian aircraft was built a new type of spy plane "The Swan". In the coming into service of the Russian army did its different modifications —"The Swan-XI», «Swan-XII", "Swan XVIi", "Swan-XVII», «Swan Marine-1" (LM-1) etc.
Turnkey air units42 (1914 — 1916 gg.)
* Introduced as the formation of the period 1915 — 1916 years.
** Order of the War Department June 25 (July 1916 g Number 332.
Following increase the fleet and the emergence of new avi
ation units (institutions) require updates ciphers in aviation, which was fixed in the order to the military authorities in the autumn of 1917 (see Table number 2).
Samples were made to create a vehicle of the same type of large size. They became the twin-engine biplane "The Swan-XIV» («SwanGrandee") which, despite the insignificance of the bomb load (of 900 kg) and a top speed of 140 km / h and had a good defensive weapon that allowed to be virtually impervious to air combat.
But even conducted successful flight tests of this type of aircraft is not due to the nature of enthusiasm for the military and naval authorities of the Russian Federation. At its batch creation in the country normally do not have the means.
To illumine 1917 Our home was on the verge of huge social upheaval that will soon completely changed the look of the country and its armed forces. It could not ignore the aircraft, converted by the end of the First World War in a separate branch of the Land Forces and significantly influence the course of hostilities.
REFERENCES AND FOOTNOTES:
1 In November, 1783, in St. Petersburg, a small balloon is launched, then the public display of the balloon ascent in Russia took place in March 1784 in Moscow. Demin. Hodynka: runway Russian aviation. — Moscow: Rusava, 2002. — P.5.
2 Balloon "Eagle" was made of Chinese silk, "Falcon" — percale.
3 The Commission created in accordance with the decision of the Military Council of the Minister of War of 22 December 1884, the (3 January 1885) at the Main Engineering Directorate, chaired by the head of the galvanic part of Major General MM Boreskova.
4 Wolf on the field in 1885 was placed first in Russia HR team of balloonists.
5 Boreskov Misha Matveevich [1829 — 1898] — Russian commander, Lieutenant-General (1887). Assistant Head of Technical plated institution. Since 1884, the Chairman of the Commission on the application of aeronautics, pigeon and watchtowers to military purposes, and in 1887 was appointed head of Galvanic part, which was renamed in 1891 in the electrical part of the Head of Engineering Management and a member of the Russian Technical Society, and in 1887 — 1895 . Chairman VII (Aeronautical) department of this company.
6 Fedorov Nikolay Pavlovich [1835 — 1900] — Russian commander, Lieutenant-General (1888). Head of the Laboratory Mikhailovsky Artillery Academy. Since 1891, member of the Academy of the conference, and in 1869 was appointed a member of the Commission on the application of aeronautics for military purposes, and in the following years worked on aeronautics. In 1884 — 1886 years. VII was elected chairman of the department of the Russian Technical Society. From 1887 he lived in Paris is constantly performing different orders of the War Ministry.
7 Konstantin Zverev, Y. [1821 — 1890] — Russian commander, engineer-general (1887). From 1872 he was a member of the Engineering Committee and Managing Director of Head Control, in 1882, he was appointed a companion (deputy) of the Inspector-General of the engineering part.
8 RGVIA. F.808, op.1, 9, l.65.
9 Nikolai Orlov [1855 -?] — Russian commander, Lieutenant-General (1906). Since 1888 a member of the VII Division of the Russian Technical Society. Since 1889, the Office of Clerk of the Military Staff of the scientific committee of the Head, a member of the Commission on the application of aeronautics, pigeon and watchtowers for military purposes since 1892, Dr. Nicholas Academy of Engineering. In 1904 — 1905 years. at the disposal of the Manchurian army commander in chief, and in 1906 — 1907 years. Head of 3rd Infantry Division.
10 Vannovsky Peter S. [24.11. (6.12). 1822 — 17 (30) .02.1904] Russian military and political leader, General of Infantry (1883). He graduated from Capital Cadet Corps (1840), he served in the Finland of the Life Guards regiment. In the Crimean War (1853-1 856) participated in the siege of the fortress of Silistra. In the 1855-1856 years. battalion commander. Since 1857, the Chief of Infantry Officers School, since 1861 director of the Pavlovsk Military School (since 1863 Military School). Since 1868 head of the 12th Army Corps. In the Russian-Turkish war (1877-1878) Chief of Staff, then the commander of the detachment Ruschukskogo (1878-1879). In 1880 enrolled in the General Staff without ending Nicholas Academy. In May and December 1881 Deputy Minister of War, in the years 1882-1898. Secretary of War. From 1898 he was a member of the Municipal Council. In the 1901-1902 years. Minister of Education.
11 RGVIA. F.808, op.1, 23, l.36.
12 Training personnel aeronautic park at the Head of the galvanic Engineering Management.
13 Zabotkin Dmitry Stepanovich [1837 — 1894] — Russian commander, Lieutenant-General (1893). In 1872 — 1887 years. a member of the Engineering Committee of the Head of Engineering Management, in 1887 — 1890 years. Managing the affairs of the committee, with the 1890 and. on fellow inspector general of the engineering part, and since 1891, ID Head Chief of Engineers, and in 1893 approved a post.
14 Airships in the war. -M.Minskaya: Harvest Ast, 2000. — S.373.
15 Airship "Training" (1908), the design of Captain Alexander Shabo, is considered the first Russian mobile balloon construction.
16 Semi-rigid airship "The Swan" in 1909, was acquired by Russia in France at the "Lebodi."
17 Semi-rigid airship "Merlin", previously had the title of "commission", built in Russia in July 1909
18 November 27, 1911 in the city of Chita in 4th Siberian aeronautic company of was formed first in the Russian army air corps, reincarnated in the upcoming 23rd Squadron cabinet.
19 Russian-Baltic Carriage Factory (RBVZ) — the largest company in Russia, to build a railway wagons, cars and airplanes. The main designer of the aviation department of the factory was a professional aircraft II Sikorski. The creation of aircraft operated VF Savelyev, then — NN Polikarpov (future large Russian aircraft designer). As test pilots were well-known Russian aviators: GV Alekhnovich and GV Jankowski. In the walls of the plants were collected: aircraft giant "Grand Baltic", "Russian Knight" (1913) and "Ilya Muromets" (1913-1914), fighter planes RBVZ C-16, C-20, etc.
20 Airplane factory SS Shchetinina founded in St. Petersburg in 1909, originally called as "the first al
l-Russian friendship Aeronautics" (founders: the athlete, lawyer SS Schetinin, merchant MA Shcherbakov and designer Erdelyi). The chief designer of the plant — a recognizable Russian designer flying boats DP Grigorovich. The main specialization of the plant — naval aviation.
21 Petersburg friendship Aviation Authority (PTA) "Lomachi and Kabout"Created at the turn of 1909/10's. PTA Founders: Brothers VA and AA Lebedev aircraft SA Ulyanina and Petersburg businessman Lomachi.
22 Aircraft Manufacturing Plant Joint Stock Company "VA Lebedev's "first created the 1910s. near St. Petersburg (Bimbo Village). Founders AO: athlete, lawyer, VA Lebedev and his brother — Dr. AA Lebedev. The plant built as airplanes zabugornyh samples (Farman, Nieuports, morality, Voisin, etc.), and Russian: "CHUR", "PTA", etc. Since 1915, the plant began to specialize on alteration of captured aircraft in Russia: "The Swan-11", "Swan 12", as the production of propellers for aircraft. The main designer of the plant was Shkulnik engineer, his deputy — aircraft NV Rebikov.
23 Established in 1893 bicycle factory "Dux" to the beginning of the 1910s. started the construction of aircraft. In June 1909 the plant was built by the type of airplane the Wright brothers with certain changes in control. Demin. Hodynka: runway Russian aviation. — Moscow: Rusava, 2002. — P.39.
54 YA Moeller (Brezhnev) — Director of Joint Stock Company "Dux". The company officially called by the JSC "Dux YA Muller, "but that title has not caught on. Already at first 1910s. rear handlebars aircraft "Dux" wrote "AO" Dux "YA Moeller ", then you only JSC" Dux ". Demin. Hodynka: runway Russian aviation. M. Rusava, 2002. — P.58.
25 Henry (Henry) Farman [1874 -1958] — French aviator and aircraft designer. In 1908 he made his aviation company, in 1909, organized the flight school where I studied, and the first Russian aviators. In 1912, Henri Farman joined under the title "Farman" two airframe office — and his brother Maurice [1877-1964].
26 Igor I. Sikorsky [1889 — 1972] — recognizable Russian-American aircraft. During the period of its activities in Russia made the first aircraft in the world giants: "Grand Baltic", "Russian Knight", "Ilya Muromets" attack aircraft C-19. In October of 1914 on the basis of the British spy plane "Tabloid" he has developed the first Russian fighter P-16 RBVZ. As in 1912-1917. worked for the Russian-Baltic Carriage Factory as Managing and head designer Aeronautical Department. Since 1918, emigration (first in France, then in the U.S.). Founder of the helicopter and larger aircraft in the United States. Altogether, they were constructed 42 type aircraft and 20 types of helicopters.
27 Anatra plant in Odessa recently and during the First World War was the largest aircraft manufacturing enterprises southern Russia. Design Bureau headed by GM plant Makeev. The factory produced the majority of the assembly of aircraft zabugornyh samples, and model their own Russian aircraft, "VI", "Anatra", "Anade", "Anasol" etc.
28 Lerche Max Germanovich [1889 -?] — One of the first Russian pilots, aircraft, brother member of the State Duma. He graduated from the school of pilots society "Aviata" (1911). In 1912, he took part in the construction of the Russian plane "Lam". During the 1st World War, in the 1 6th Squadron of the body (up to August 1915 has made 54 sorties). In March 1916, he headed one of the first fighter squadrons in the Russian army (the 12th, the Northern Front). During the war he served plain clothes as part of the Slavic-British Air Corps, Lieutenant Royal Air Force. After the war in exile.
29 Jankowski Jora V. [1888 -?] — One of the first Russian pilots, aircraft. He graduated from the school of pilots society "Aviata", "Bleriot" (1911). B1 in 1912 took part in the construction of the Russian plane "Lam". During the 1st World War, the 16th Squadron of the body, recognized as one of the best pilots of the scouts. Prior to June 1915 made 66 sorties. For courage and bravery won 5 awards. From 1915 he served in the squadron of airplanes, "Ilya Muromets". During the war he served in civilian clothes aviation Admiral Kolchak. After the war, in exile and then in the Air Force in Croatia. Took part in the 2nd World War on the side of Nazi Germany against the Soviet Union. Do not come back from combat flight.
30 Demin. Hodynka: runway Russian aviation. — Moscow: Rusava, 2002. — P.96.
31 Haber-Vlynsky Adam Myacheslavovich [1883 — 06/21/1921] — one of the first Russian aviators, master air maneuvers. He was trained in the art of flight schools Bleriot and Farman in France. In 1910 he began practice flights in Russia. In the winter of 1912-1913. 6 All-Russia set records, and on the basis of the third week of aviation (1913) was voted the best sports pilots of. Came in the first Russian "five-looped" (were making stunts). Test pilot joint-stock company "Dux". A member of the Metropolitan Committee on Aviation and the assistant commander of the Moscow Military District of Aviation (1918). In the coming emigrated to Poland. Test pilot and instructor pilot in the Graduate School of Lublin. He died in a plane crash (1921).
32 Demin. Hodynka: runway Russian aviation. — Moscow: Rusava, 2002. — P.97.
33 Matsievich Leo Makarovich [1877 — 24.9 (10.7). 1910] — one of the first Russian pilots, Captain Corps of Naval Architects. He graduated from the Nicholas Naval Academy (1906), Course of Training Unit diving (1907), school pilots in France (1910). Since December) in 1907 as part of the officers snorkeling and watching the construction of the Russian submarine in the Baltic Shipyard. Since May 1908 Assistant Chief Design Office Naval Technical Committee. Developer projects submarines (14), projects of mine obstacles (2) seaplane project. One of the world's first aircraft carrier proposed projects and catapult take-off aircraft. From 1910 he was a member of the Division of Air Fleet. Among the first group of Russian officers received his aviator. One of the developers of the theory of the introduction of naval aviation in the war. Catastrophically died in the first plane crash in Russia (1910).
34 Russian invalid, March 29 (April 11) 1911. Number 69. — C.2.
35 Raevskii Alexander E. [1887 — 07/10/1937] — a Russian military pilot, one of the leading Russian artists of aerobatics. He graduated from the School of Pilots (1911) and courses of aerobatics (1914) in France. Aerobatics instructor in the aviation schools in the upcoming military flying school instructor Sevastopol (1914-1915, 1916-1917). From June 1915 to early 1916 as part of the 32nd Squadron of the army. In July 1917 a pilot, later — the commander of the 10th Fighter group. In December 1917, the head of the Head aerostantsiey Uvoflota airfield. During the war, civilian clothes in the teaching profession in various flying schools Reddish Air Force. In May 1920 as part of the flight department Glavozduhoflota. Creator of a number of scientific papers on the history of aviation. In 1924 -1930 years. the publisher of the magazine "Airplane". Unjustifiably repressed (1937). Rehabilitated in 1968
36 Matyevich-Matsievich Bronislaw Kalinc Vitoldovich [2 (12) .10.1882 -21.4. (4.05.) .1911] — A Russian military pilot, Captain. He graduated from pilot school in France (1910). Instructor Sevastopol aviation school. Catastrophically died in a plane crash (1912).
invalid, July 21 (August 3), 1912, № 160. — C.1.
38 Pyotr Nesterov [15 (27) .02.1887 — 26.08. (8.09.), 1914] — Russian military pilot, Captain (1914, posthumously). He graduated from the Mikhailovsky Artillery School (1906), the Officers School of Aeronautic (OVSh) (1912). In the years 1912-1913. assigned to the aviation department OVSh. In 1913, in the squadron at the 7th aeronautic company. Deputy chief, then chief of the corps of the 11th Squadron 3rd Aviation Company. 09.09.1913 was the first time in the world did an airplane closed curve "loop the loop". Member of a number of long air travel and one of the developers of the "Russian air combat." 08.09.1914 was the first time in the world did air ram enemy aircraft, during which he died.
39 Brodovich Sergei Mikhailovich [9 (21). 10.1885 — before 1923] — Russian recognizable aviator, Captain (1917). He graduated from Tiflis Cadet Corps, Nikolaev Engineering College (on the 1st level), Officers Training class aeronautic park (1910), the course of the training division of the school Nieuport air combat and air shooting in France (1915). He served in the 3rd aeronautic company. In 1911 he received the title of "military pilot." In the upcoming instructor, Art. Instructor Department of Aviation Officer aeronautic school mentor of the famous Russian pilot PN Nesterov. In 1914, the commander of an aircraft, "Ilya Muromets number 3." In autumn 1915 — spring 1917 trip abroad in France. Since April 1917 the commander of the 2nd Squadron of the body. This coming emigration (Yugoslavia).
40 Russian invalid. 8 (21) September 1912 number 198. — C.2.
41 Ibid. 8 (21) November 1912 number 245. — C.4.
42 A. Kimbovsky. Badges of Russian military aviation in 1913 -1917. Storeroom (5). — P.34.
Russian aircraft during the stateliness of War