Goldfish

Goldfish

The K-162 ("Upas Tree," to systematize NATO — PAPA) was founded December 28, 1963 in Severodvinsk, and commissioned on 31 December 1969 his second title of the "Goldfish" boat was due to the highest prices and exceptional combat abilities. Ha submarine speed was set at 44.7 knots (80 km / h), which to this day is the absolute world record for submarines.

August 28, 1958 was made the party-government resolution "On the development of modern high-speed submarine with new types of power plants and the development of research, development and design work for submarines." The priority tasks were set speed underwater speed and depth in comparison with the submarine 1st generation and a half — twice. The plan was the creation of the power plant reduced dimensions with decreasing proportion of the total reactor and turbine in the 1.5 — 2 times, a new compact anti-ship missile complex with underwater launch, dalnohodnyh two-plane high-speed torpedoes, capable of being used as a diving depth is twice huge than in boats existing projects. Anticipated introduction of new structural materials that allow in combination with other measures to reduce displacement and size of the Premier League. All of this was to provide high-quality Russian submarines an advantage over promising South American submarines. As part of this decision in CCH-16 of the Municipal Committee on Shipbuilding (now — SPMBM "Malachite") began development of a pilot high-speed nuclear submarine of project 661 (code "Upas Tree"). The works on this subject were considered controlled the shipbuilding industry as a priority. The creators of the ship put forward a very unusual request — to abandon the introduction of previously mastered technical solutions, materials and equipment. All — only a new, more promising! The works on the project 661 took an active role CRI number 45 (now — the Central Research Institute. Krylov). Institute investigated both actually "ship" issues related to the establishment of new nuclear-powered and high combat effectiveness issues Underwater boats. We considered three other main structural material for the production of a sound body — steel, aluminum or titanium. In the end, it was decided to elect titanium. This allowed us to drastically reduce the weight of the body (as well as it should and the displacement of the ship). So makarom significantly reduced one of the most important telltale signs of the boat — its magnetic field. As a result, in 1959 the government issued a decree on the development of titanium alloys for the production of sheet metal, stampings, forgings, pipes, etc.
After reviewing the 2-type reactors — more than usual and earned pressurized water and promising liquid metal (primary coolant — an alloy of lead and bismuth) — was elected first as a more realistic time-bound creation, though owning the worst specific parameters.

It was worked out the top 14 and 6 additional options predeskizny project. We considered other options submarine weapons: cruise missiles from underwater launch "Amethyst", produced under the control of General Designer Chelomei, with the CD surface-launch (chief designer of GM Beriev) or new torpedoes over-capacity, were at that time work in progress. Selection of the main armament claimed comparative evaluation of options submarines. As a result of research conducted by CRI-45, was preferred embodiment of the missiles 'Amethyst'. The government's decision to develop the world's first cruise missile with underwater launch published April 1, 1959, and April 9 of the same year, the project was approved predeskizny submarine. Technical project SSGN 661-year project ended in December 1960 Powerful nuclear power, coupled with the new hull lines provide high-speed submarine unique properties. In accordance with the draft ship had to develop ma ¬ proximal underwater speed of more than 37 — 38 knots, which exceeded the rate of at least some of the warship of the U.S. Navy. Designing SSGN was conducted under the head designer N.N.Isanina (later succeeded by NF Shulzhenko). The principal of the Navy were watching Yu G.Ilinsky, and then — VN Markov. In works on the program there were involved in the overall difficulty of more than 400 organizations and companies.

Experimental submarine was designed to evaluate the main tactical and technical characteristics, the test of practice effectiveness of new weapons and equipment, and development of submarine hull construction of a titanium alloy. Battle purpose was to fight with the ship's aircraft carriers and high-speed escort ships. During the design and construction of the boat was worked to develop welding of hull structures of high-strength titanium alloys, and Load from their castings, forgings, fittings and other products. To work with titanium at Sevmash required the creation of special shops and other premises. For static and dynamic tests were made of semi-natural bays SMT60 DMT60-1 and-2 (first tested in the docking compartment, and the second — on the sea polygon).

In 1962, the North began the manufacture of machinery and Load first frames and shells strong hull 661-year project. But the first tests of parts of the hull structures of the titanium alloy is unsuccessful, it took extra work. As a result, official laying of the submarine 661-year project was carried out in Severodvinsk only December 28, 1963

The highest degree of novelty and difficulty of the project identified the long period of its implementation. Work on the creation of the ship lasted for a total of more than 11 years of difficulties. On the delay in the construction of impact and the slow pace of delivery scanty titanium, in which badly needed as rocket science and aeronautics. As a result, the submarine received a tactical number K-162, was launched only December 21, 1968 December 13, 1969 she went to the factory running tests. During the tests at 92% power power plant at a relatively shallow test site (water depth — 200 m depth range — 100 m) was obtained by the largest underwater speed of 42 knots, which significantly exceeded the design characteristics (38 knots). So Makar, set a world speed record for submarines, ships previously held 671-year project (33.5 knots). Faster South American APL developed only 30 knots. In the upcoming power plant at an output at full capacity and the deep landfill received more highest results — 44.7 knots (in crossing the short term the power plant could exceed 45 knots). It is to this day is an absolute world record speed for submarines.

SSGN 661-year project had a double-hulled architecture. Strong body made of titanium alloy, was divided into nine sections:
— 1st (top) and 2 (bottom) sections having a cross-sectional shape of G formed with 2 overlapping circles of a diameter of 5.9 m each (located in their torpedo tubes with a spare ammunition and frisky device charging);
— 3rd — accommodation, catering department, mess, battery;
— 4th — CPU, fasting energy management, residential block;
— 5th — reactor;
— 6th — Turbine;
— 7th — turbine generator;
— 8th — section of assistive devices (refrigerators, compressor machine, desalination plant);
— 9th — control drives and bilge post.

Aft end of the boat was made in the form of a bifurcated 2-axially
symmetric conical shaft fairing with the distance between them is about 5 m (in common parlance such a decision has been called "trousers"). The hydrodynamic shape optimization aft end was reached due to its extension with small angles of descent of the water line to the center line and the introduction of elongated propeller shafts with fairings, allow the installation of the propeller diameter for a given sound speed.
Power plant capacity of 80,000 liters. s. included two autonomous groups (left and right sides). Any group has joined the nuclear steam supply system voedinyzhdy B-5P turbozubchaty unit GTZA-618 turbo and standalone three-phase alternating current UC-3, power 2h3000 kW. Nominal thermal power 2-nuclear pressurized water reactor type was 2h177, 4 mW, and the steam foam during normal reactor power — 2×250 tons of steam per hour.

Reactors designed for boats 661-year project had a number of unique features. Namely, the pumping of the primary coolant was carried out on a "pipe in pipe", which provides a compact nuclear power with maximum thermal stress. With all of this reactor operates not only on thermal neutrons, and the role of nuclear fission "fuel" of rapid neutrons. To supply the main consumers of electronic energy was adopted three-phase alternating current voltage of 380 V and a frequency of 50 Hz. A significant innovation was the refusal of the use of diesel generators: as an emergency power source to use a powerful battery, consisting of 2-groups of silver-zinc BATTERY 424 type-III by any element 152. On board the ship had vseshirotny navigation system "Sigma-661", which provides underwater and under-ice diving.

Automatic control of the ship have been building management system at the rate and depth, "Spar", the system trims prevent accidents and failures "Tourmaline", as the control system general ship systems, devices, and outboard holes "Signal-661."

Sonar system MGK-300 "Ruby" noisy provide detection purposes, while the automatic accompaniment 2-of them with the issue of data management systems missile and torpedo weapon. Provides radial detection signals fade away the enemy operating in active mode, and their identification with the definition of range and bearing. For the detection of the ship moored mines had to fade away "Radian-1." To monitor air and surface situation submarine was armed with anti-aircraft-aperture periscope PNŢ-9 with optical coordinate calculator. Lifting device allowed to raise the periscope from a depth of 30 m at a speed of up to 10 knots and waves up to 5 points. There were radar PAK-101 and ICC-10, for the determination system of state ownership "Nichrome". For oboestoronney ultrafast secret radio coastal command Fri, other ships and communicating with the submarine aircraft had a modern (by the standards of the 1960s.) Radio communication equipment. Ship was equipped SIGINT system, providing search, detection and direction finding radio stations operating opponent. The main armament was presented antiship missile system "Amethyst" with 10 cruise missiles placed in tilted containers dis ¬ pobortno laid out a strong case. Most firing range was 70 km. The launch was carried out from a submerged position from a depth of 30 m for the previously flooded suction water container. Immediately after coming out of the container breakdowns start the engine and opens wings, and on the surface cut one marching solid engine. The composition missile system came also launch check of equipment, instruments onboard control system of missile firing related to sonar system, a complex torpedo fire control, navigation system, and the stabilizer control rate and depth. Launcher provides storage, transportation, remote prelaunch preparation and launch cruise missiles without access to the container. KR taken on board in a completely equipped for the start condition. Ensured their safe storage and start-up for a three month stay in the sea. The entire missile ammunition could be released in 2-volleys, the interval between which was three minutes (According to experts, this was a great tactical shortcoming of the project, makes it difficult for the effective application of SSGN main objectives — aircraft carriers). In the bow of the submarine was located four 533-mm torpedo tubes (total ammunition — 12 torpedoes), providing bespuzyrnuyu shooting from a depth of 200 m torpedo fire control system automatically produces the means "Ladoga-P-661." In tests of K-162 showed the highest manoeuvrable properties in both vertical and horizontal planes. Owning a unique high-speed and maneuverability characteristics, combined with a massive sonar system, owning a large detection range, SSGN 661 st project to fulfill the deployment of frisky in the area of fighting, to elect a profitable position for the production of weapons and attack again, which significantly expanded its military capabilities in comparison with other nuclear-powered vessel projects. The boat was a kind of laboratory where the criteria was carried out in situ testing of new models of guns and weapons. Almost all of what was intended for this prototype submarine, was used in the upcoming new vehicles on other projects. Trial operation of the ship began in 1970 and ended in December 1971 In September 1971 the K-162 entered the first military service, during which the spacecraft passed from the Greenland Sea to the Brazil Basin, near the equator, performing a number of tasks with other submarines and surface ships. There has been tracking aircraft carrier "Saratoga". With all of this South American ship not once tried to break away from the submarine, a top speed over 30 knots, but to achieve the desired result he failed. Moreover, the submarine maneuvers taking place from time to time ahead of the South American ship. For two and a half months spent in the campaign, boat floated to the surface only once.

After the end of the trial operation of the K-162 was renovated in Severodvinsk in 1974 again returned to battle fleet.

In the West, the boat 661-year project has received the title of Papa («Dad"). We in the Navy called it "Goldfish" (a little earlier this is a very prestigious nickname wore SSBN 645-year project).

Initially it was assumed that after the construction of the head (experienced) submarine of Project 661, followed by laying another 10 series of ships of this type. But in the coming SSGN serial number was reduced to five, then to 3, as adopted in 1964 a brand new five-year plan in general have limited the construction of the 1st nuclear-powered 661-year project. To a large extent, this is explained shortage in the country, titanium and technological difficulties, significantly tightens the construction period so unique ship. In 1970, the newly open a discussion on the issue of laying an improved series SSGN project — 661M. It was worked out three options for the submarine, different displacement (from 5197 to 6208 m) Underwater speeds (39 — 42 knots), GEM (43 000 — 55 000 hp) and other parameters. But by this time it was deployed serial construction not have such high-speed features of the highest, but much more a cheap and low-noise submarines of Project 670, commensurate with punching power. In addition, it was required to pay substantial configuration in the control system of missile firing SSGN 661-year project: for the firing of 10 cruise missiles in one salvo was to constructively revise the system of obsession submarine on the starting depth, and it was drawn for the introduction of a severe configurations project and, consequently, causes the growth of displacement.

Did not meet the fleet and the highest underwater noise of the ship. Overestimated the level of natural acoustic noise obst
ructed the work of sonar system. These criteria of serial construction of nuclear submarines on the basis of 661-year project, it was decided to abandon. Have not been developed and proposals for the modernization of K-162, including the installation of missile system S-120 with the following substitution on complex "Garnet". K-162 was in the ranks of the Northern Fleet until 1988, when it was put into the reserve, and in the next — was transferred for disposal.

The only titanium submarines sent for scrap
25.07.2008 11:00
On the "Sevmash" July 23 was carried out on recycling nuclear submarine K-162 project, the correspondent of IA "Rosbalt-North."
Disposing of boats, descended at the time the stocks of "Sevmash", will engage experts at the dockyard "asterisk". As the general director of "Sevmash" Nikolai Kalistratov record boat "Goldfish" so far not been broken, including the Yankees, who have tried to do similar projects.
The K-162 ("Upas Tree," to systematize NATO — PAPA) was founded December 28, 1963 in Severodvinsk, and commissioned on 31 December 1969 his second title of the "Golden Fish" boat got over the fact that her body was made from a unique titanium alloy, which had a golden color. Ha submarine speed was set at 44.7 knots (80 km / h), which to this day is the absolute world record for submarines.
In March 1989, the "Golden Fish" was taken out of service with the Navy and of the time idle at the dock SMP with nuclear core.

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